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Diatoms are fundamental carbon sources in a wide range of aquatic food webs and have the potential for wide application in addressing environmental change. Understanding the evolution of topics in diatom research will provide a clear and needed guide to strengthen research on diatoms. However, such an overview remains unavailable. In this study, we used Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), a generative model, to identify topics and determine their trends (i.e., cold and hot topics) by analyzingdoi:10.3390/microorganisms7080213 pmid:31344825 pmcid:PMC6722707 fatcat:gir6ox2jpfae3m26sfdqlmywma
more »... e abstracts of 19,000 publications from the Web of Science that were related to diatoms during 1991–2018. A total of 116 topics were identified from a Bayesian model selection. The hot topics (diversity, environmental indicator, climate change, land use, and water quality) that were identified by LDA indicated that diatoms are increasingly used as indicators to assess water quality and identify modern climate change impacts due to intensive anthropogenic activities. In terms of cold topics (growth rate, culture growth, cell life history, copepod feeding, grazing by microzooplankton, zooplankton predation, and primary productivity) and hot topics (spatial-temporal distribution, morphology, molecular identification, gene expression, and review), we determined that basic studies on diatoms have decreased and that studies tend to be more comprehensive. This study notes that future directions in diatom research will be closely associated with the application of diatoms in environmental management and climate change to cope with environmental challenges, and more comprehensive issues related to diatoms should be considered.
Congming Ding, Yanling Xi, Zhongchang Chen -IMPACTS OF PRICE FLUCTUATION ON RESOURCE ALLOCATION EFFICIENCY Congming Ding, Yanling Xi, Zhongchang Chen -IMPACTS OF PRICE FLUCTUATION ON RESOURCE ALLOCATION ... EFFICIENCY Congming Ding, Yanling Xi, Zhongchang Chen -IMPACTS OF PRICE FLUCTUATION ON RESOURCE ALLOCATION EFFICIENCY ...doi:10.1080/1331677x.2012.11517525 fatcat:viwuuk5ubzbpnezj2dylwhg5ce
Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally. Millions of persons die due to cancer each year. In the last two decades, the anticancer effects of natural flavonoids have become a hot topic in many laboratories. Meanwhile, flavonoids, of which over 8000 molecules are known to date, are potential candidates for the discovery of anticancer drugs. The current review summarizes the major flavonoid classes of anticancer efficacy and discusses the potential anti-cancer mechanisms throughdoi:10.3390/molecules25235628 pmid:33265939 fatcat:g7n7gq7pz5g3hfyj4xsxeafide
more »... mation and oxidative stress action, which were based on database and clinical studies within the past years. The results showed that flavonoids could regulate the inflammatory response and oxidative stress of tumor through some anti-inflammatory mechanisms such as NF-κB, so as to realize the anti-tumor effect.
Additional file 2. Heat map of the differential expression of mRNAs between 377 cancer samples and 50 adjacent normal tissues.doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.10310285.v1 fatcat:rcnru5xfcnedfofg5qifr7ooq4
This paper presents a study of the effects of wind-induced airflow through the urban built layout pattern using statistical analysis. This study investigates the association between typically enclosed office building layout patterns and the wind environment. First of all, this study establishes an ideal site model of 200 m × 200 m and obtains four typical multi-story enclosed office building group layouts, namely the multi-yard parallel opening, the multi-yard returning shape opening, thedoi:10.3390/en13020406 fatcat:7o4lub47yvhbjmmc5koi2zsv74
more »... l courtyard parallel opening, and the overall courtyard returning shape opening. Then, the natural ventilation performance of different building morphologies is further evaluated via the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software Phoenics. This study compares wind speed distribution at an outdoor pedestrian height (1.5 m). Finally, the natural ventilation performance corresponding to the four layout forms is obtained, which showed that the outdoor wind environment of the multi-yard type is more comfortable than the overall courtyard type, and the degree of enclosure of the building group is related to the advantages and disadvantages of the outdoor wind environment. The quantitative relevance between building layout and wind environment is examined, according to which the results of an ameliorated layout proposal are presented and assessed by Phoenics. This research could provide a method to create a livable urban wind environment.
E65, o2652 [https://doi.org/10.1107/S160053680903997X] 2,2′-[Pyridine-2,6-diylbis(carbonylhydrazono)]dipropanoic acid N,N-dimethylformamide disolvate Yanling Qiao, Jichun Cui, Longhua Ding and Handong ...doi:10.1107/s160053680903997x pmid:21578266 pmcid:PMC2971078 fatcat:t64a7zdizbauja3nhzmlauskfe
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious threat to public health due to its poor prognosis. The current study aimed to develop and validate a prognostic nomogram to predict the overall survival of HCC patients. The model cohort consisted of 24,991 mRNA expression data points from 348 HCC patients. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method (LASSO) Cox regression model was used to evaluate the prognostic mRNA biomarkers for the overall survival of HCC patients. Usingdoi:10.1186/s12935-019-1002-z pmid:31754347 pmcid:PMC6854692 fatcat:mymvvvmevvdf7kchmqqgd4d6qi
more »... te Cox proportional regression analyses, a prognostic nomogram (named Eight-mRNA prognostic nomogram) was constructed based on the expression data of N4BP3, -ADRA2B, E2F8, MAPT, PZP, HOXD9, COL15A1, and -NDST3. The C-index of the Eight-mRNA prognostic nomogram was 0.765 (95% CI 0.724-0.806) for the overall survival in the model cohort. The Harrell's concordance-index of the Eight-mRNA prognostic nomogram was 0.715 (95% CI 0.658-0.772) in the validation cohort. The survival curves demonstrated that the HCC patients in the high risk group had a significantly poorer overall survival than the patients in the low risk group. In the current study, we have developed two convenient and efficient predictive precision medicine tools for hepatocellular carcinoma. These two predictive precision medicine tools are helpful for predicting the individual mortality risk probability and improving the personalized comprehensive treatments for HCC patients. The Smart Cancer Predictive System can be used by clicking the following URL: https://zhangzhiqiao2.shinyapps.io/Smart_cancer_predictive_system_HCC_2/. The Gene Survival Analysis Screen System is available at the following URL: https://zhangzhiqiao5.shinyapps.io/Gene_Survival_Analysis_A1001/.
Objective: Ovarian carcinoma is a malignant tumor with the highest mortality of any cancer occurring in female reproductive system. Cytoreductive surgery is the main treatment for ovarian cancer and has markedly improved. Mechanism: This article discusses the evolution and development of ovarian cancer cytoreductive surgery (CRS), including classical standard tumor cell reduction, visceralperitoneal debulking (VPD) and ultra-radical cytoreduction (URC). Findings in Brief: we reviewed CRS indoi:10.31083/j.ceog4907166 fatcat:rfika2h7abdivcmzycyr2h7fbe
more »... ination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy for ovarian cancer (OC). Finally, we discussed the opportunity and challenges of ROC therapeutic. Conclusions: This study reveals that CRS and combination therapy can help clinicians to find the optimum treatment for ovarian cancer (OC).
The increasing frequency of fires inhibits the estimation of carbon reserves in boreal forest ecosystems because fires release significant amounts of carbon into the atmosphere through combustion. However, less is known regarding the effects of vegetation succession processes on ecosystem C-flux that follow fires. This paper describes intra-and inter-annual vegetation restoration trajectories via MODIS time-series and Landsat data. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the naturaldoi:10.3390/rs10071000 fatcat:ew3ccrvsrjcelewef3xrus5gjq
more »... on were analyzed from 2000 to 2016. Finally, we regressed post-fire MODIS EVI, LST and LSWI values onto GPP and NPP values to identify the main limiting factors during post-fire carbon exchange. The results show immediate variations after the fire event, with EVI and LSWI decreasing by 0.21 and 0.31, respectively, and the LST increasing to 6.89 • C. After this initial variation, subsequent fire-induced variations were significantly smaller; instead, seasonality began governing the change characteristics. The greatest differences in EVI, LST and LSWI were observed in August and September compared to those in other months (0.29, 6.9 and 0.35, respectively), including July, which was the second month after the fire. We estimated the mean EVI recovery periods under different fire intensities (approximately 10, 12 and 16 years): the LST recovery time is one year earlier than that of the EVI. GPP and NPP decreased after the fire by 22-45 g C·m −2 ·month −1 (30-80%) and 0.13-0.35 kg C·m −2 ·year −1 (20-60%), respectively. Excluding the winter period, when no photosynthesis occurred, the correlation between the EVI and GPP was the strongest, and the correlation coefficient varied with the burn intensity. When changes in EVI, LST and LSWI after the fire in the boreal forest were more significant, the severity of the fire determined the magnitude of the changes, and the seasonality aggravated these changes. On the other hand, the seasonality is another important factor that affects vegetation restoration and land-surface energy fluxes in boreal forests. The strong correlations between EVI and GPP/NPP reveal that the C-flux can be simply and directly estimated on a per-pixel basis from EVI data, which can be used to accurately estimate land-surface energy fluxes during vegetation restoration and reduce uncertainties in the estimation of forests' carbon reserves. that the area of boreal forest fires occupies approximately 35% of the national burn area; thus, the forest-fire frequency in Chinese boreal forests will increase by 100-200% over the next 100 years [5, 6] . Currently, it has been confirmed that fires release significant amounts of carbon into the atmosphere through combustion; however, less is known regarding the effects of vegetation succession following fires on the ecosystem carbon flux (C-flux), which has potential feedback effects that may lengthen adjustments to regional and global ecosystem carbon cycles and further influence climate change. Boreal forests landscape is shaped by fire disturbances and the site's environment to some extent, which affect the forests' composition, structure, spatial distribution and carbon reserves [7, 8] . First, fire disturbances drive landscape changes through causing damage to large areas of vegetation. Second, hydrothermal environments primarily control where and which types of tree species grow in post-fire forest areas. The short growing seasons at high latitudes limits annual tree growth and severe winters control the cycle of forest succession. Thus, fires drive the occurrence of succession. The succession process can, in turn, adjust the essential ecosystem capacity and services that are provided by post-fire boreal forests, which are controlled by diverse patches that vary with age, species composition and productivity. However, few studies have assessed the interaction between seasonality and fire-provoked disturbances [9,10]. Such effects might be particularly prevalent given the four distinct seasons in Chinese boreal forest areas. For example, extended periods of snow cover heavily influences both vegetation activity and recovery time; ultimately, such changes modify the energy fluxes. Therefore, a detailed record of post-fire boreal forest recovery and hydrothermal environments is crucial to understanding the disturbances in ecosystem services and succession processes. Although post-fire forest recovery has been demonstrated through field surveys in ecological studies    , the time and space limitations of field-investigation methods have limited their extent, especially under the context of climate change. Remote sensing offers considerable potential for the inversion of the regeneration trajectory of post-fire forests via time-series data or remote sensing indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) [14,15], the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) , and the normalized difference shortwave infrared index (NDSWIR) , alongside the albedo , land-surface temperature (LST) , net primary productivity (NPP) , fractional vegetation coverage (FVC)  and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR)  . A common indicator such as the NDVI, whose recovery trajectory equates to vegetation restoration, may not be ideal as a realistic and unbiased representative index. Kasischke used time-series AVHRR-NDVI data to study forest successions after a fire in Alaska and found that the NDVI increased and reached its maximum after 20-50 years  . Goetz used the GIMMS-NDVI to investigate the recovery of vegetation after fires in the boreal forests of Canada and found that the recovery time was five years, consistently shorter than results from previous studies  . To avoid dependency on a single index, Thuan proposed a synergistic approach that used time series of the forest recovery index (FRI) and FVC to determine different stages of post-fire forest successions in a Siberian boreal larch forest  . However, the observations of these indices yielded inconsistent results, even within the same region  . Consequently, current data are specific to sites and substantially vary depending on the remote sensing indices that are adopted. Therefore, the selection of remote sensing indices to study forest-vegetation succession processes must be relevant and have a clear ecological significance. To date, however, very few studies have attempted to tie post-fire ground variables to a remotely sensed data index with different metrics and spatial and temporal scales in boreal forests  . Several works have summarized the effects of fire disturbances on land-surface energy fluxes    . Amiro observed that latent heat flux decreased over several years following fire disturbances in boreal forests  . However, not all results have shown a decreasing trend, depending on the burn severity, vegetation type and succession process. Important changes in the energy, temperature and water balance after burning were observed via eddy covariance measurements  . In addition, land cover changes affect the energy exchange and evapotranspiration  . As shown above, the majority of the literature that discussed the effects of fires on surface energy fluxes was based on ground measurements, while in situ measurements of surface energy fluxes were highly localized.
The fluorographane realizes a phase transition and perfect spin filtering controller by changing the edge C magnetization direction. The perfect spin current switching was attributed to the synergistic effect between the sp2 and sp3 hybridization.doi:10.1039/d1ra07161k pmid:35492789 pmcid:PMC9043250 fatcat:zkobwiffrbgalnxbcr747c2pom
S1. Comment Recently, we have reported some organotin(IV) complexes with pyruvic acid isonicotinyl hydrazone (Yin et al., 2005). As a part of our ongoing investigations in this field, we have synthesized the title compound and present its crystal structure here. The title compound ( Fig. 1 ) forms an extended one-dimensional chain structure arising from Sn-O bridges formed by the 2-(2-picolinoylhydrazono)propanoate ligand. The Sn IV atom assumes a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal coordinationdoi:10.1107/s1600536809039981 pmid:21578076 pmcid:PMC2971240 fatcat:ahhxfmoadvcrpdkuencf3mlgny
more »... etry, with atoms O3 and O2 i in the axial positions [O3-Sn1-O2 i = 175.65 (13)°, symmetry code: (i) x+1, y, z] and the atoms C10, C16 and C22 in the equatorial positions. One of the two Sn-O bond lengths is shorter and the other is longer ( Table 1 ). The complex involves an intramolecular N-H···O hydrogen bond (Table 2) . S2. Experimental The reaction was carried out under nitrogen atmosphere. 2-(2-Picolinoylhydrazono)propanoic acid (1 mmol) and sodium ethoxide (1.2 mmol) were added to a solution of benzene (30 ml) in a Schlenk flask and stirred for 0.5 h. Triphenyltin chloride (1 mmol) was then added to the reactor and the reaction mixture was stirred for 4 h at 313 K. The resulting clear solution was evaporated under vacuum. The product was crystallized from a mixture of dichloromethane/methanol (v/v 1:1) to yield colorless block crystals of the title compound (yield 78%). S3. Refinement H atoms were positioned geometrically and refined as riding atoms, with C-H = 0.93 (aromatic) and 0.96 (methyl) Å, and N-H = 0.86 Å and with U iso (H) = 1.2(1.5 for methyl)U eq (C,N). supporting information sup-2
A one-step lithography method based on a superlens is proposed to fabricate diffraction-unlimited metallic patterns. By controlling the material parameters and the distribution of the impinging energy, various phenomena, such as periodic nanonetworks, ultrathin nanowires (sub-50-nm feature size), and variable-sized nanoparticles (ranging from sub-10 nm to several hundreds of nanometers), are fabricated using a 1,064-nm nanosecond laser. The evolution pathway of such phenomena is explained bydoi:10.7567/apex.11.125201 fatcat:xcqlb4luzncajl4zja434fw7ba
more »... dewetting process of metallic films. The direct-writing performance of a transparent material with a superlens is studied, and the maximum etching depth of Si gratings can reach 2 µm under a single laser pulse, with fine profiles.
The prevalence and risk factors for persistent candidemia among very low birth weight infants are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of persistent candidemia over a 4-year period in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Liuzhou, China. We retrospectively extracted demographic data, risk factors, microbiological results and outcomes of very low birth weight infants with candidemia in our hospital between January 2012 and November 2015. Persistent candidemiadoi:10.1186/s12879-018-3487-9 pmid:30419841 pmcid:PMC6233606 fatcat:2rh3fg2u45g6ll3xtuw7yr6wve
more »... defined as a positive blood culture for > 5 days. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with persistent candidemia. Of 48 neonates with candidemia, 28 had persistent candidemia. Both mechanical ventilation and intubation were significantly associated with increased rates of persistent candidemia (P = 0.044 and 0.004, respectively). The case fatality rate for the persistent candidemia group was 14.3%. The rate of persistent candidemia was high among very low birth weight neonates. Mechanical ventilation and intubation were the major factors associated with the development of persistent candidemia. This study highlights the importance of intensive prevention and effective treatment among neonates with persistent candidemia.
Shock and Vibration
Ding et al.  derived an analytical solution of low strain dynamic response of finite-length solid piles. With regard to the circular pipe piles, Ding et al. ... Ding et al.  investigated the mechanism of velocity wave propagation for a concrete filled steel tubular column through the threedimensional finite element method. ...doi:10.1155/2020/7574654 fatcat:62nylj5w6fg75clh5q3mrsj2ay
The inefficient tumor penetration of therapeutic antibodies has hampered their effective use in treating solid tumors. Here we report the identification of a fully human single-domain antibody (UdAb), designated as n501, targeting the oncofetal antigen 5T4. The high-resolution crystal structure indicates that n501 adopts a compact structure very similar to that of camelid nanobodies, and binds tightly to all the eight leucine-rich repeats of 5T4. Furthermore, the UdAb n501 exhibitsdoi:10.1016/j.ymthe.2022.04.013 pmid:35462042 pmcid:PMC9372316 fatcat:n4nf6m7fenh6zdhnwjebn2pnri
more »... high stability, with no apparent activity changes over 4 weeks of storage at various temperatures. Importantly, UdAb-based antibody-drug conjugate (n501-SN38) showed much deeper tumor penetration, significantly higher tumor uptake and faster accumulation at tumor sites than conventional IgG1-based antibody-drug conjugate (m603-SN38), resulting in improved tumor inhibition. These results highlight the potential of UdAb-based antibody-drug conjugates as a potential class of antitumor therapeutics with characteristics of high stability and strong tumor penetration for the effective treatment of solid tumors.
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