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Authors' Contributions Liansheng Gao, Yucong Peng, and Weilin Xu have equally contributed to this work as co-first authors. 2. 2 . 2 MSCs. ...doi:10.1155/2020/2853650 pmid:33204276 pmcid:PMC7661146 fatcat:tr4bf4a2zjg55i7d3zx6yipipy
., 2014) ; and the frequency of plant speciation and extinction from 1980 (adopted after Gao et al., 2020) . disturbance. ... Previous researches illuminated that plant and animal community diversity decline more than increase, and plant extinction excels plant speciation under climatic warming (e.g., Dirzo et al., 2014; Gao ...doi:10.1016/j.regsus.2021.03.001 fatcat:5w7lnxd7efe2rnqlp6wst5cj2u
NO-nucleoside hybrids Novel NO-releasing 5-FU hybrid (compound 1a, Figure 1 ) was designed by Cai TB et al. with an aim to reduce the toxicity of nucleoside agents. This hybrid showed stronger cytotoxicity on tumor cells and less toxicity Summary Nitric oxide (NO) plays important roles in cardiovascular regulation, nerve transmission delivery and immune responses. In the last semicenturry, it has been proved that though low concentration of NO is tumor-promoting, high concentration of NO coulddoi:10.5582/ddt.2016.01067 pmid:27990006 fatcat:y3uipgdj3vd3pozz27wr6xf7yq
more »... xhibit multiple antitumor effects, which led to the research and development of kinds of NO donors and NO donor hybrid compounds as antitumor agents. Herein, the recent development of NO donor hybrid compounds is briefly reviewed.
Copyright © 2021 Jin, Gao, Wang, Qian, Yang, Yang, Xu, Xu and Dong. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). ...doi:10.3389/fgene.2021.686993 doaj:57545a5a3d9940ec895c1bf86d2e81c8 fatcat:gdhm6jwt7jfutb2cqvjnprlk7a
Bone self-healing is limited and generally requires external intervention to augment bone repair and regeneration. While traditional methods for repairing bone defects such as autografts, allografts, and xenografts have been widely used, they all have corresponding disadvantages, thus limiting their clinical use. Despite the development of a variety of biomaterials, including metal implants, calcium phosphate cements (CPC), hydroxyapatite, etc., the desired therapeutic effect is not fullydoi:10.1016/j.bioactmat.2018.05.006 pmid:30003179 pmcid:PMC6038268 fatcat:f53fluk5tnd3lomy2k2yb4z3ye
more »... ed. Currently, polymeric scaffolds, particularly hydrogels, are of interest and their unique configurations and tunable physicochemical properties have been extensively studied. This review will focus on the applications of various cutting-edge bioactive hydrogels systems in bone regeneration, as well as their advantages and limitations. We will examine the composition and defects of the bone, discuss the current biomaterials for bone regeneration, and classify recently developed polymeric materials for hydrogel synthesis. We will also elaborate on the properties of desirable hydrogels as well as the fabrication techniques and different delivery strategies. Finally, the existing challenges, considerations, and the future prospective of hydrogels in bone regeneration will be outlined.
In this paper, a time-space fractional advection diffusion equation is considered for the natural extension of the convection diffusion equation. An explicit difference scheme and an implicit difference scheme are presented. The stability and convergence of the two difference schemes are discussed. It is shown that the explicit difference scheme is conditionally stable and convergent, and the implicit difference scheme is unconditionally stable and convergent. The convergence order of the two methods is O(τ + h).doi:10.1186/s13661-019-1120-5 fatcat:inihbciy45fkbjyav2gx5yj5am
To overcome product homogenisation issues, an increasing number of supply chain members have been binding their competitive advantages to services which extend supply chain competition to a new dimension. This paper proposes a product service supply chain (PSSC) network competition model with multiple competing manufacturers and retailers offering demand-enhancing and costly services. In order to obtain the decision-making results in a non-cooperative game context, equilibrium conditions aredoi:10.6084/m9.figshare.19572917.v1 fatcat:y7vf26tfbbdtrb24ubhxrs45ju
more »... ablished using variational inequality, and the qualitative properties are discussed. We compare the two competition scenarios, price competition only and simultaneous price and service competition, to discover the impact of service-offering on supply chain members. After introducing the service competition, both manufacturers and retailers realise higher profits and marginal profits with the same service costs. In contrast, the manufacturers' marginal profits achieve higher growth rates. We also find that (a) the increase of the demand sensitivities to the service levels of retailers would contribute more to the revenue growth of the whole PSSC network and (b) when service costs are different for manufacturers and retailers, the optimal decision-making on service levels are not only affected by the service costs of the members in the same tier but also correlated with those in other tiers.
One of the daunting features of the brain is its physiology complexity, which arises from the interaction of numerous neuronal circuits that operate over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, enabling the brain to adapt to the constantly changing environment and to perform various cognitive functions. As a reflection of the complexity of brain physiology, the complexity of brain blood-oxygen signal has been frequently studied in recent years. This paper reviews previous literaturedoi:10.3390/brainsci11111415 pmid:34827414 pmcid:PMC8615802 fatcat:qympseyrrbgp7kueta5crie3bq
more »... ng the following three aspects: (1) whether the complexity of the brain blood-oxygen signal can serve as a reliable biomarker for distinguishing different patient populations; (2) which is the best algorithm for complexity measure? And (3) how to select the optimal parameters for complexity measures. We then discuss future directions for blood-oxygen signal complexity analysis, including improving complexity measurement based on the characteristics of both spatial patterns of brain blood-oxygen signal and latency of complexity itself. In conclusion, the current review helps to better understand complexity analysis in brain blood-oxygen signal analysis and provide useful information for future studies.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Empirical optimizers like ATLAS have been very effective in optimizing computational kernels in libraries. The best choice of parameters such as tile size and degree of loop unrolling is determined by executing different versions of the computation. In contrast, optimizing compilers use a model-driven approach to program transformation. While the model-driven approach of optimizing compilers is generally orders of magnitude faster than ATLAS-like library generators, its effectiveness can bedoi:10.1007/11532378_7 fatcat:rsnop6hjx5fltjrj2ivbfx2mdi
more »... ted by the accuracy of the performance models used. In this paper, we describe an approach where a class of computations is modeled in terms of constituent operations that are empirically measured, thereby allowing modeling of the overall execution time. The performance model with empirically determined cost components is used to perform data layout optimization in the context of the Tensor Contraction Engine, a compiler for a high-level domainspecific language for expressing computational models in quantum chemistry. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through experimental measurements on some representative computations from quantum chemistry.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
VM-based software obfuscation has emerged as an effective technique for program obfuscation. Despite various attempts in improving its effectiveness and security, existing VM-based software obfuscators use potentially multiple but static secret mappings between virtual and native opcodes to hide the underlying instructions. In this paper, we present an attack using frequency analysis to effectively recover the secret mapping to compromise the protection, and then propose a novel VM-baseddoi:10.1007/978-3-030-21568-2_8 fatcat:yxazb4u3ebbuzgn2hhprnzmmoy
more »... tor in which each basic block uses a dynamic and control-flow-aware mapping between the virtual and native instructions. We show that our proposed VM-based obfuscator not only renders the frequency analysis attack ineffective, but dictates the execution and program analysis to follow the original control flow of the program, making state-of-the-art backward tainting and slicing ineffective. We implement a prototype of our VM-based obfuscator and show its effectiveness with experiments on SPEC benchmarking and other real-world applications.
In this paper, an L-shaped tunneling field effect transistor (LTFET) with ferroelectric gate oxide layer (Si: HfO2) is proposed. The electric characteristic of NC-LTFET is analyzed using Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD. Compared with the conventional LTFET, a steeper subthreshold swing (SS = 18.4 mV/dec) of NC-LTFET is obtained by the mechanism of line tunneling at low gate voltage instead of diagonal tunneling, which is caused by the non-uniform voltage across the gate oxide layer. In addition, wedoi:10.3390/mi13030344 pmid:35334636 pmcid:PMC8955958 fatcat:4ngt5og43nck5k4xg5hz3sntru
more »... rt the polarization gradient effect in a negative capacitance TFET for the first time. It is noted that the polarization gradient effect should not be ignored in TFET. When the polarization gradient parameter g grows larger, the dominant tunneling mechanism that affects the SS is the diagonal tunneling. The on-state current (Ion) and SS of NC-LTFET become worse.
Error bars represent standard deviation Gao et al. ... The data are presented as the mean ± SD (n = 5). ** indicates p < 0.01. *** indicates p < 0.001 Gao et al. ...doi:10.1186/s12951-020-00626-1 pmid:32404183 fatcat:6vjpcud4hngiddqlvdckhqynsy
Phase-separated films of water-insoluble ethyl cellulose (EC) and water-soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) can be utilized to tailor drug release from coated pellets. In the present study, the effects of HPC levels and the pH, type, ionic strength and osmolarity of the media on the release profiles of soluble metoprolol succinates from the EC/HPC-coated pellets were investigated, and the differences in drug-release kinetics in multiple media were further elucidated through the HPC leachingdoi:10.3390/pharmaceutics11020080 pmid:30769846 pmcid:PMC6410001 fatcat:sqz4imavajajhbvbbw6crphjsu
more »... d swelling kinetics of the pellets, morphology (SEM) and water uptake of the free films and the interaction between the coating polymers and the media compositions. Interestingly, the drug release rate from the pellets in different media was not in agreement with the drug solubility which have a positive correlation with the drug dissolution rate based on Noyes–Whitney equation law. In particular, the drug release rate in acetate buffer at pH 4.5 was faster than that in other media despite the solubility of drug was relatively lower, regardless of the HPC levels. It may be attributed to the mutual effect between the EC and acetate buffer, which improved the permeability of the film. In contrast, the release of drug in HCl solution was dependent on the HPC levels. Increasing the levels of HPC increased the effects of hydrogen ions on the polymer of HPC, which resulted in a lower viscosity and strength of the gel, forming the larger size of pores in polymer films, thus increasing the drug diffused from the coating film. Further findings in phosphate buffer showed a reduction in the drug release compared to that in other media, which was only sensitive to the osmolarity rather than the HPC level and pH of the buffer. Additionally, a mathematical theory was used to better explain and understand the experimentally measured different drug release patterns. In summary, the study revealed that the effects of the media overcompensated that of the drug solubility to some extent for controlled-release of the coating polymers, and the drug release mechanism in multiple media depend on EC and HPC rather than on HPC alone, which may have a potential to facilitate the optimization of ideally film-coated formulations.
Xiaoyang Wang participated in the structural elucidation. Ning Ma conducted the MTT colorimetric assay and helped interpreting the results. ... Yunyang Lu, Kai Gao and Wei Zhang carried out the extraction and isolation. Yunyang Lu also collected the stem bark of Daphniphyllum macropodum, participated in the structural elucidation. ...doi:10.3390/molecules19033055 pmid:24619303 fatcat:zg3xbootnfebjntafr4sdkflqy
A key step in pre-mRNA splicing is the recognition of 3' splicing sites by the U2AF large and small subunits, a process regulated by numerous trans-acting splicing factors. How these trans-acting factors interact with U2AF in vivo is unclear. From a screen for suppressors of the temperature-sensitive (ts) lethality of the C. elegans U2AF large subunit gene uaf-1(n4588) mutants, we identified mutations in the RNA binding motif gene rbm-5, a homolog of the tumor suppressor RBM5. rbm-5 mutationsdoi:10.1101/355388 fatcat:6vhtddfiaje6nls2va4ypprg2a
more »... n suppress uaf-1(n4588) ts-lethality by loss of function and neuronal expression of rbm-5 was sufficient to rescue the suppression. Transcriptome analyses indicate that uaf-1(n4588) affected the expression of numerous genes and rbm-5 mutations can partially reverse the abnormal gene expression to levels similar to that of wild type. Though rbm-5 mutations did not obviously affect alternative splicing per se, they can suppress or enhance, in a gene-specific manner, the altered splicing of genes in uaf-1(n4588) mutants. Specifically, the recognition of a weak 3' splice site was more susceptible to the effect of rbm-5. Our findings provide novel in vivo evidence that RBM-5 can modulate UAF-1-dependent RNA splicing and suggest that RBM5 might interact with U2AF large subunit to affect tumor formation.
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