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Although LRU replacement policy has been commonly used in the buffer cache management, it is well known for its inability to cope with access patterns with weak locality. Previous work, such as LRU-K and 2Q, attempts to enhance LRU capacity by making use of additional history information of previous block references other than only the recency information used in LRU. These algorithms greatly increase complexity and/or can not consistently provide performance improvement. Many recently proposeddoi:10.1145/511399.511340 fatcat:zfatpnxburcwnihmm26gx3xczm
more »... policies, such as UBM and SEQ, improve replacement performance by exploiting access regularities in references. They only address LRU problems on certain specific and well-defined cases such as access patterns like sequences and loops. Motivated by the limits of previous studies, we propose an efficient buffer cache replacement policy, called Low Interreference Recency Set (LIRS). LIRS effectively addresses the limits of LRU by using recency to evaluate Inter-Reference Recency (IRR) for making a replacement decision. This is in contrast to what LRU does: directly using recency to predict next reference timing. At the same time, LIRS almost retains the same simple assumption of LRU to predict future access behavior of blocks. Our objectives are to effectively address the limits of LRU for a general purpose, to retain the low overhead merit of LRU, and to outperform those replacement policies relying on the access regularity detections. Conducting simulations with a variety of traces and a wide range of cache sizes, we show that LIRS significantly outperforms LRU, and outperforms other existing replacement algorithms in most cases. Furthermore, we show that the additional cost for implementing LIRS is trivial in comparison with LRU.
Reconstruction of human clothing is an important task and often relies on intrinsic image decomposition. With a lack of domain-specific data and coarse evaluation metrics, existing models failed to produce satisfying results for graphics applications. In this paper, we focus on intrinsic image decomposition for clothing images and have comprehensive improvements. We collected CloIntrinsics, a clothing intrinsic image dataset, including a synthetic training set and a real-world testing set. AarXiv:2111.08521v1 fatcat:a6oyo53odvg4hlsisfo57spjdq
more »... e interpretable edge-aware metric and an annotation scheme is designed for the testing set, which allows diagnostic evaluation for intrinsic models. Finally, we propose ClothInNet model with carefully designed loss terms and an adversarial module. It utilizes easy-to-acquire labels to learn from real-world shading, significantly improves performance with only minor additional annotation effort. We show that our proposed model significantly reduce texture-copying artifacts while retaining surprisingly tiny details, outperforming existing state-of-the-art methods.
Learning program representations has been the core prerequisite of code intelligent tasks such as code search and code clone detection. The state-of-the-art pre-trained models such as CodeBERT require the availability of large-scale code corpora. However, gathering training samples can be costly and infeasible for domain-specific languages such as Solidity for smart contracts. In this paper, we propose Zecoler, a zero-shot learning approach for code representations. Zecoler is built upon aarXiv:2204.08360v1 fatcat:fy24wasbm5a4zdiimebthvx4ja
more »... rained programming language model. In order to elicit knowledge from the pre-trained models efficiently, Zecoler casts the downstream tasks to the same form of pre-training tasks by inserting trainable prompts into the original input. Then, it employs the prompt learning technique which optimizes the pre-trained model by merely adjusting the original input. This enables the representation model to efficiently fit the scarce task-oriented data while reusing pre-trained knowledge. We evaluate Zecoler in three code intelligent tasks in two program languages that have no training samples, namely, Solidity and Go, with model trained in corpora of common languages such as Java. Experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms baseline models in both zero-shot and few-shot settings.
, Xiaodong Liu. ... SGK1.1 could be an integrator of different signal transduction pathways controlling M-channels and therefore neuronal excitability. 1379-Pos Board B271 Mechanistic Determinants of M-Resonance Peng Jiang ...doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2012.11.1506 fatcat:uonksa6t7zetjflxkizad4sehi
Discussion of new capabilities of the PHENIX detector in the area of spin physics, after the addition of the MPC-EX upgrade.doi:10.5281/zenodo.3886882 fatcat:6t7tculwkzfo5ph3xhnoizen5u
 Copyright 2020, Springer Nature. www.advancedsciencenews.com www.advintellsyst.com Xiaodong Chen is the president's chair professor of materials science and engineering, professor of chemistry ...doi:10.1002/aisy.202100071 fatcat:fgsbpaxotfcdfmsmht3xqdvgoq
Journal of Chemistry
Self-cleaning surfaces may have wide applications such as microfluidic devices, lab-on-a-chip, sensors, microreactors, air purification, and antimicrobial fields. In this article, by using a combination of femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation and fluorination technique, self-cleaning stainless steel surfaces with unique antifouling property were obtained. New insight is developed through a detailed analysis of the antifouling behavior of the self-cleaning surfaces. The surface free energy and itsdoi:10.1155/2020/9072432 fatcat:d4c3zajjlzb6xjwsqvldn2j2ry
more »... polar and disperse components were calculated by using the Owens–Wendt-–Rabel–Kaelble (OWRK) method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to analyse the surface elemental compositions and functional groups. The antifouling property of the surface was recorded by using a high speed camera. Water sliding angles (SAs) were reduced by fluorination treatment, resulting in low adhesive superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning property. The influences of micro/nanostructures, fluorination, and their combination on the surface free energy were investigated. The interaction process between water droplets and pollutants (inorganic and organic particles) on the treated surface was explored. The antifouling property of an optimized specimen (CA = 162° and SA = 1°) was tested and compared with the untreated sample.
For positive integers s and t, the Ramsey number R ( s , t ) is the smallest positive integer n such that every graph of order n contains either a clique of order s or an independent set of order t. The triangle-free process begins with an empty graph of order n, and iteratively adds edges chosen uniformly at random subject to the constraint that no triangle is formed. It has been an important tool in studying the asymptotic lower bound for R ( 3 , t ) . Cyclic graphs are vertex-transitive. Thedoi:10.3390/sym11080955 fatcat:2wms5olhhzenzk2kddb7zhnvtu
more »... symmetry of cyclic graphs makes it easier to compute their independent numbers than related general graphs. In this paper, the cyclic triangle-free process is studied. The sizes of the parameter sets and the independence numbers of the graphs obtained by the cyclic triangle-free process are studied. Lower bounds on R ( 3 , t ) for small t's are computed, and R ( 3 , 35 ) ≥ 237 , R ( 3 , 36 ) ≥ 244 , R ( 3 , 37 ) ≥ 255 , R ( 3 , 38 ) ≥ 267 , etc. are obtained based on the graphs obtained by the cyclic triangle-free process. Finally, some problems on the cyclic triangle-free process and R ( 3 , t ) are proposed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank members of Xiaodong Wang's laboratory for helpful comments and suggestions and Elie Traer for critical reading. ... The Ced-4 homolog is 90 JIANG y WANG Apaf-1, and the Ced-3 homolog is caspase-9. ... The protein responsible for the enhancement was purified and found to be, again, 92 JIANG y WANG a mitochondrial protein. ...doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.73.011303.073706 pmid:15189137 fatcat:unoictzlknfkblu5lywgtbuq4a
. * Electronic address: email@example.com † FIG. 2 . 2 The time-of-flight spectrum in Kinematics-B. The 2.0 ns beam structure is clearly visible in the accidental events. ...doi:10.1142/9789812701855_0018 fatcat:guzq2fdvmbcyhjplqeablncmxe
Jiang et al.: Preference Cognitive Diagnosis for Student Performance Prediction VOLUME 4, 2016 VOLUME 4, 2016 https://pypi.org/project/jieba/ VOLUME 4, 2016 VOLUME 4, ... XIAODONG WANG received the Ph.D. degree in educational technology from the East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. ...doi:10.1109/access.2020.3042775 fatcat:34whkuc5ozgspkjvmanfilcvf4
To analyze the hyperspectral reflectance characteristics of rice canopies under changes in diffuse radiation fraction, experiments using different cover materials were performed in Nanjing, China, during 2016 and 2017. Each year, two treatments with different reduction ratios of diffuse radiation fraction but with similar shading rates were set in the field experiment: In T1, total solar radiation shading rate was 14.10%, and diffuse radiation fraction was 31.09%; in T2, total solar radiationdoi:10.3390/rs14020285 fatcat:hq5sslqkerbh5gksw74zkank6a
more »... ading rate was 14.42%, and diffuse radiation fraction was 39.98%, respectively. A non-shading treatment was included as a control (CK). Canopy hyperspectral reflectance, soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD), and leaf area index (LAI) were measured under shading treatments on different days after heading. The red-edge parameters (position, λ0; maximum amplitude, Dλ; area, α0; width, σ) were calculated, as well as the area, depth, and width of three absorption bands. The location of the first absorption band appeared in the range of 553–788 nm, and the second and third absorption bands appeared in the range of 874–1257 nm. The results show that the shading treatment had a significant effect on the rice canopy's hyperspectral reflectance. Compared with CK, the canopy reflectance of T1 (the diffuse radiation fraction was 31.09%) and T2 (the diffuse radiation fraction was 39.98%) decreased in the visible light range (350–760 nm) and increased in the near-infrared range (800–1350 nm), while the red-edge parameters (λ0, Dλ, α0), SPAD, and LAI increased. On the other hand, under shading treatment, the increase in diffuse radiation fraction also had a significant impact on the hyperspectral spectra of the rice canopy, especially at 14 days after heading. Compared with T1, the green peak (550 nm) of T2 reduced by 16.12%, and the average reflectance at 800–900 nm increased by 10%. Based on correlation analysis, it was found that these hyperspectral reflectance characteristics were mainly due to the increase in SPAD (2.31%) and LAI (7.62%), which also led to the increase in Dλ (8.70%) and α0 (13.89%). Then, the second and third absorption features of T2 were significantly different from that of T1, which suggests that the change in diffuse radiation fraction could affect the process of water vapor absorption by rice.
• Xiaodong Jiang is with the Department of Statistics and the Department of Computer Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602. ...arXiv:2010.13242v1 fatcat:a4hrwguabzbcblu4zo5gx7rrhq
M any worry that existing privacy problems will only worsen in context-aware pervasive computing environments. 1,2 Ubiquitous sensing and the invisible form factor of embedded computing devices have made it easier than ever to collect and use information about individuals without their knowledge. Sensitive private information might live indefinitely and appear anywhere at anytime. Moreover, the ability of context-aware systems to infer revealing information from loosely related personal datadoi:10.1109/mprv.2002.1037723 fatcat:hnbtqhgptzezppsst52cl6p7um
more »... even more troubling implications for individual privacy. The risks are high: even a few privacy violations could lead to user distrust and abandonment of context-aware systems and to lost opportunities for great enhancements. In this article, we describe a theoretical model for privacy control in contextaware systems based on a core abstraction of information spaces. We have previously focused on deriving socially based privacy objectives in pervasive computing environments. 3 Building on Ravi Sandhu's four-layer OM-AM (objectives, models, architectures, and mechanisms) idea, 4 we aim to use information spaces to construct a model for privacy control that supports our socially based privacy objectives. 3 We also discuss how we can introduce decentralization, a desirable property for many pervasive computing systems, into our information space model, using unified privacy tagging. An example We use a hypothetical example to illustrate how you can use decentralized information spaces to model privacy control in a smart office environment. Imagine that Bob, a sales representative from company A, visits Carol, company B's senior manager, at B's headquarters to discuss a potential deal. Bob brings his own laptop, on which a trusted privacy runtime system has been preinstalled. On entering the building, Bob was given a visitor badge and an ID tag for his laptop, both enabled by radio frequency technologies, so that RF readers in the building constantly track his laptop's location. Bob first meets Carol in her office. As part of the discussion, Carol sends Bob's laptop some internal documents to review and specifies that these documents should only persist for the period of their meeting. The trusted privacy runtime system on Bob's laptop can enforce Carol's preference over data persistence if all documents were properly tagged. Although these documents reside on Bob's laptop, these "privacy tags" dictate that Carol controls them. In effect, such tags define an information space that Carol owns. After the meeting, Bob and Carol head toward a meeting where employees in Carol's department will discuss the deal with Bob's company. Bob almost forgets to take his laptop when a voice alert sounds a reminder before he leaves Carol's office. The alert is triggered because the privacy runtime system detects a possible unwanted boundary crossing-that is, information stored on Bob's machine is left unat-Significant complexity issues challenge designers of context-aware systems with privacy control. Information spaces provide a way to organize information, resources, and services around important privacyrelevant contextual factors.
Operating system designers attempt to keep high CPU utilization by maintaining an optimal multiprogramming level (MPL). Although running more processes makes it less likely to leave the CPU idle, too many processes adversely incur serious memory competition, and even introduce thrashing, which eventually lowers CPU utilization. A common practice to address the problem is to lower the MPL with the aid of process swapping out/in operations. This approach is expensive and is only used when thedoi:10.1002/spe.437 fatcat:wkvgapu36raotp6rjcdii4etlu
more »... em begins serious thrashing. The objective of our study is to provide highly responsive and cost-effective thrashing protection by adaptively conducting priority page replacement in a timely manner. We have designed a dynamic system Thrashing Protection Facility (TPF) in the system kernel. Once TPF detects system thrashing, one of the active processes will be identified for protection. The identified process will have a short period of privilege in which it does not contribute its least recently used (LRU) pages for removal so that the process can quickly establish its working set, improving the CPU utilization. With the support of TPF, thrashing can be eliminated in its early stage by adaptive page replacement, so that process swapping will be avoided or delayed until it is truly necessary. We have implemented TPF in a current and representative Linux kernel running on an Intel Pentium machine. Compared with the original Linux page replacement, we show that TPF consistently and significantly reduces page faults and the execution time of each individual job in several groups of interacting SPEC CPU2000 programs. We also show that TPF introduces little additional overhead to program executions, and its implementation in Linux (or Unix) systems is straightforward.
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