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Digitonin extracts of spinach thylakoid membranes obtained as 100000 x g supematant have been shown to retain part of the oxygen-evolving activity if the extraction is carried out at acidic pH. The photosystem II reaction center complex with a uniform particle size of 300-500 kDa was purified from the extracts by ion-exchange/gel-permeation chromatography performed at pH 6.0 using DEAE-Toyopearl-650. The puritied materials contained only two polypeptides of about 22 (not 24) and 33 kDa, indoi:10.1016/0014-5793(85)80191-5 fatcat:rheo4ndlejdbhbjm6rg3nt5ahq
more »... ion to those of the reaction center core complex, i.e., 47, 43, 30 and 10 kDa. The purified complex was fairly active in the photochemical oxygen evolution supported by phenyl-p-benzoquinone (N 150 pmol oxygen evolved. mg chl-l. h-) and DCIP photor~uction with water. From these results it is concluded that the principal site of water oxidation is associated rather with the photosystem II core complex than with the water soluble peripheral complex consisting of 1824 and 33 kDa polypeptides and that the thylakoid membrane structure is not essential for manifestation of oxygen-evolving activity. Photosystem ZZ Reaction center 0, evolution Digitonin extraction Polypeptide composition Photosynthesis
Electrochemical Sensors Technology
Author details Ju Tang Figure 1 . 1 Classification chart of gas sensors. Figure 2 . 2 Structure sketch of CNTs: (a) single-wall nanotubes, (b) multi-wall nanotubes. ... Xiao 1 and Yingang Gui 2 *Address all correspondence to: email@example.com 1 School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China 2 College of Engineering and Technology, Southwest University ...doi:10.5772/intechopen.68590 fatcat:2ojirpk4xndxbitdxooxkyz3de
Motivation: Recovering the gene structures is one of the important goals of genome assembly. In low-quality assemblies, and even some high-quality assemblies, certain gene regions are still incomplete; thus, novel scaffolding approaches are required to complete gene regions. Results: We developed an efficient and fast genome scaffolding method called PEP_scaffolder, using proteins to scaffold genomes. The pipeline aims to recover protein-coding gene structures. We tested the method on humandoi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btw378 pmid:27334475 pmcid:PMC5048069 fatcat:woodmztiefewfhw4qgqrbxlhmy
more »... igs; using human UniProt proteins as guides, the improvement on N50 size was 17% increase with an accuracy of 97%. PEP_scaffolder improved the proportion of fully covered proteins among all proteins, which was close to the proportion in the finished genome. The method provided a high accuracy of 91% using orthologs of distant species. Tested on simulated fly contigs, PEP_scaffolder outperformed other scaffolders, with the shortest running time and the highest accuracy.
Experimental Block copolymer synthesis: Polystyrene-b-poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide), PS 365 -PDMA 125 (the subscripts denote the repeating unit numbers of the corresponding blocks), was synthesized via sequence reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations. The molecular weight of the polymer is 54,800 g/mol and the polydispersity is 1.16. Preparation of micelle solutions: 5.0 mg of PS 365 -PDMA 125 was dissolved in 0.5 ml of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and then the solutiondoi:10.1039/c0cc01235a pmid:20559595 fatcat:b2xspsuigbe6viahzuxm3dvfke
more »... was quickly injected via a syringe into 9.5 mL of isopropanol alcohol (IPA) to form micelles, or the polymers were directly mixed with IPA at 50 o C for 0.5 hour before cooling to room temperature. Sonication (10 min each time for 2-5 times) was also used to assist the dispersion of the copolymer. The hydrophobic PS chains collapsed to form micellar cores and the hydrophilic PDMA chains stretched into IPA to form micellar coronas.
Walkthrough Collision Detection Based on Object-oriented Octree Goming Wang; Xinyu Guo; 9 Virtual maize model plant morphological constructing based on organ biomass accumulation Youhong Song ... 10 Three-dimensional visualization of maize based on growth models Xinyu Guo; Chunjiang Zhao 22;4 11 Virtual maize model biomass partitioning based o plant topological structure Youhong Song ...doi:10.4236/ijis.2012.21003 fatcat:etjgiouzp5db5cvxlv6gimvo7e
Xiao Chai Hu Tang (XCHT), a traditional herbal formula, is widely administered as a cancer treatment. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effects are not fully understood. ... XCHT, Xiao Chai Hu Tang. Figure 3 . 3 Xiao Chai Hu Tang compound-compound association network. The numbers indicate the index numbers of the compounds. ... II Mean, SD, minimum and maximum of the key molecular descriptors of compounds in Xiao Chai Hu Tang. ...doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1660 pmid:24926384 pmcid:PMC4043560 fatcat:27rpb4g7nraihkxqxd2qci52ga
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is characterized by relatively rapid response to systemic treatments yet inevitable resistance and predisposed to distant metastasis. We thus aimed at performing sequencing analysis to determine genomic events and underlying mechanisms concerning drug resistance in NSCLC. We performed targeted sequencing of 40 medication-relevant genes on plasma samples from 98 NSCLC patients and analyzed impact of genetic alterations on clinical presentation as well asdoi:10.1093/bib/bbab187 pmid:34013324 pmcid:PMC8574960 fatcat:lr5w4vyupvgxhizzhq2onw3klm
more »... e to systemic treatments. Profiling of multi-omics data from 1024 NSCLC tissues in public datasets was carried out for comparison and validation of identified molecular events implicated in resistance. A genetic association of CYP2D6 deletion with drug resistance was identified through circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profiling and response assessment. FCGR3A amplification was potentially involved in resistance to EGFR inhibitors. We further verified our findings in tissue samples and focused on potential resistance mechanisms, which uncovered that depleted CYP2D6 affected a set of genes involved in EMT, oncogenic signaling as well as inflammatory pathways. Tumor microenvironment analysis revealed that NSCLC with CYP2D6 loss manifested increased levels of immunomodulatory gene expressions, PD-L1 expression, relatively high mutational burden and lymphocyte infiltration. DNA methylation alterations were also found to be correlated with mRNA expressions and copy numbers of CYP2D6. Finally, MEK inhibitors were identified by CMap as the prospective therapeutic drugs for CYP2D6 deletion. These analyses identified novel resistance mechanisms to systemic NSCLC treatments and had significant implications for the development of new treatment strategies.
We cast a suite of information extraction tasks into a text-to-triple translation framework. Instead of solving each task relying on task-specific datasets and models, we formalize the task as a translation between task-specific input text and output triples. By taking the task-specific input, we enable a task-agnostic translation by leveraging the latent knowledge that a pre-trained language model has about the task. We further demonstrate that a simple pre-training task of predicting whicharXiv:2109.11171v1 fatcat:ps2fsvuhnngtfmw4zlyn56wlgi
more »... ational information corresponds to which input text is an effective way to produce task-specific outputs. This enables the zero-shot transfer of our framework to downstream tasks. We study the zero-shot performance of this framework on open information extraction (OIE2016, NYT, WEB, PENN), relation classification (FewRel and TACRED), and factual probe (Google-RE and T-REx). The model transfers non-trivially to most tasks and is often competitive with a fully supervised method without the need for any task-specific training. For instance, we significantly outperform the F1 score of the supervised open information extraction without needing to use its training set.
Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-driedPaeoniae Radix Albaand ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigatedPaeoniae ... Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. ... Si Wu Tang (SWT), which comprises four herbs, Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, and Paeoniae Radix Alba, is a classic formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM ...doi:10.1155/2016/8358609 pmid:27034892 pmcid:PMC4807064 fatcat:bst6mjik2zgudpzt6yob7zoifu
Study design: Lin Song, Jian-wen Xiao, Huan-huan Ji and Yun-tao Jia. Sampling: Ting-ting Tang, Huan-huan Ji. Record review: Huan-huan Ji, Yu-xia Guo, Ping Wei. ... Analysis and interpretation of data: Huan-huan Ji, Xue-wen Tang, Xiao-jiang Tian and Yun-tao Jia. All the authors took part in the discussions of the results and contributed to the manuscript. ...doi:10.1038/s41598-018-20868-2 pmid:29416072 pmcid:PMC5803257 fatcat:lxisz7njqnfdxpkimnx7uwufvq
Melanoma is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy, illuminating the exact mechanisms and finding novel therapeutic targets are urgently needed. In this study, we identified KMT2A as a potential target, which promoted the growth of human melanoma cells. KMT2A knockdown significantly inhibited cell viability and cell migration and induced apoptosis, whereas KMT2A overexpression effectively promoted cell proliferation in various melanoma cell lines. Further study showed that KMT2A regulated melanomadoi:10.1038/cddis.2017.285 pmid:28726783 pmcid:PMC5550845 fatcat:mjfd6dzzwvhfxkota5k3lzkchm
more »... ell growth by targeting the hTERT-dependent signal pathway. Knockdown of KMT2A markedly inhibited the promoter activity and expression of hTERT, and hTERT overexpression rescued the viability inhibition caused by KMT2A knockdown. Moreover, KMT2A knockdown suppressed tumorsphere formation and the expression of cancer stem cell markers, which was also reversed by hTERT overexpression. In addition, the results from a xenograft mouse model confirmed that KMT2A promoted melanoma growth via hTERT signaling. Finally, analyses of clinical samples demonstrated that the expression of KMT2A and hTERT were positively correlated in melanoma tumor tissues, and KMT2A high expression predicted poor prognosis in melanoma patients. Collectively, our results indicate that KMT2A promotes melanoma growth by activating the hTERT signaling, suggesting that the KMT2A/hTERT signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for melanoma.
The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify different marker compounds from Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (XCHT, a Chinese traditional herbal) in biological samples and apply ... Introduction Xiao Chai Hu Tang (XCHT), a well-known Chinese Traditional Medicine, is made from seven herbals including Bupleurum falcatum, Panax ginseng, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Zingiber officinale, Scutellaria ...doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2015.09.004 pmid:26397748 pmcid:PMC4608253 fatcat:qhazfxju7za5demhcoycfn5ffe
For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other withoutdoi:10.1038/srep03569 pmid:24356577 fatcat:j2dz6ll7gvh6jp5ugkyfiycypi
more »... satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on. I n the normal case, two or more separated electromagnetic waves can be interfered with each other in free space, when all of them have the same frequency, vibration component and the constant initial phase 1,2 . Taking two separated in-phase point sources for example, the corresponding total intensity at somewhere in the free space can be written as I total~( I 1 zI 2 )(1z 2 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi I 1 I 2 p I 1 zI 2 cos d) with d 5 k ? D (k is the wave vector, and g is the optical path difference of these two point sources. I 1 and I 2 are the corresponding intensity of each point source, respectively.). For two separated identical in-phase point sources, the total intensity at free space can be expressed as I total~4 I 0 cos 2 ( d 2 ) (Here, I 1 5 I 2 5 I 0 ). Obviously, only when D 5 ml, the total intensity of these two separated identical point sources is 4I 0 . In this case (D 5 ml), it can be considered that both of the point sources are overlapped with each other, resulting in the perfect coherent effects. One may ask is it possible to realize such a kind of perfect coherent without matching the condition of D 5 ml and thus breaking the normal traditional perfect coherent condition? The answer is yes based on the transformation optics method. In the past few years, transformation optics is a new way to manipulate transmission path of electromagnetic waves. Many novel phenomena/devices such as invisible cloaks, field rotators, wave concentrators, beam splitter, and artificial wormholes/blackholes, and so on, have been designed and realized 3-17 . Furthermore, by using transformation optics method, complementary media has been applied to design the anti-mirror effect where two separated objects with different shapes were overlapped with each other and appeared as only one, resulting in the overlapped optics effect 18 . Later, shifting media has been proposed in our previous work to realize the overlapped effect in which two separated objects with the same shape were overlapped with each other 19 . Recently, H. Y. Chen et al., have proposed a new conformal lens to realize the overlapped optics effect, and it can transform multiple in-phase sources into one 20 . Comparing with the above two kinds of overlapped optics devices, such a conformal lens can not only make multiple in-phase sources appear as only one but also make one active source appear as many in-phase sources. In a word, based on the complementary media, shifting media and conformal lens, two separated identical point sources can be effective overlapped together with each other in principle. Therefore, by these approaches, the amplitude of the two point in-phase sources can be increased by a factor of 2, and the total intensity by a factor of 4. However, all of these results are just shown in pure numerical simulations, lacking the corresponding experimental demonstration and theoretical explanation. Here, in this paper, we experimentally design the shifting illusion media by using the inductor-capacitor (L-C) transmission line network 21 . The corresponding shifting illusion media parameters are mimicked by controlling the parameters of the L-C unit cells, and the perfect coherent effects of two separated
Recently, the advent of generative adversarial networks (GANs) in synthesizing identitypreserving faces has aroused the considerable interest of many scholars. However, face attribute representation learning, which is explicitly disentangled from identity feature and synthesizes identity-preserving face images with high diversity and quality in other datasets, still remains challenging. To cope with that, this paper proposes multi-process training GAN, or MP-GAN for short, which significantlydoi:10.1109/access.2019.2930203 fatcat:43lvjuz4sjgg3ltryr4dhq4ety
more »... proves the disentangled representation, diversity, and quality. Unlike other existing single-process models that map noise to a final output resolution image in a single training process, MP-GAN divides training into multiple processes. The main idea is to first generate lower resolution images that contain lower frequency feature information through competition and then extract their disentangled facial features to generate a higher resolution image. Furthermore, an identity-preserving image with real identity feature and disentangled facial feature could be generated at the final output resolution training process. The distinct benefits are not only getting diverse facial feature generation but also achieving disentangled representation from the lower resolution training processes and rendering a photo-realistic image that contains high diversity but preserves identity at the final output resolution training process. The high performance of this method is highlighted by quantitative and qualitative comparisons. We conclude that MP-GAN can generate face images featuring high diversity and quality while efficiently preserving identity, thereby significantly outperforming most modern advanced methods. INDEX TERMS Multi-process training, disentangled representation, diversity and quality, identity-preserving. VOLUME 7, 2019 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
AbstractThis article investigates the zone strong coupling two-channel totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs). The study is based on Pronina and Kolomeisky's work [J. Phys. A-Math. Gen. 37, 9907 (2004)], in which the coupling exists within two whole parallel channels. Zone strong coupling two-channel TASEPs focuses on the behavior and the effect of a particular segment rather than the whole channel. The study shows that there are five possible stationary phases; LD/LD, HD/HD,doi:10.2478/s11534-011-0008-5 fatcat:etartcl3gbegnfpuu4xzux5fmq
more »... LD, LD/HD, and MC/HD. The phase diagrams and the density profiles are investigated using computer Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field approximation. The outcomes of the simulations match agreeably with the analytical predictions.
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