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Triple intersection numbers for the Paley graphs [article]

Andries E. Brouwer, William J. Martin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We give a tight bound for the triple intersection numbers of Paley graphs. In particular, we show that any three vertices have a common neighbor in Paley graphs of order larger than 25.
arXiv:2109.03654v1 fatcat:7a6ttjrxkbhb5au4alpgk45ova

Seizures Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Monique E Brouwer, William J McMeniman
2016 The journal of extra-corporeal technology  
The heart required defibrillation with a single 10 J shock to return to sinus rhythm. The patient was slowly rewarmed to 36.5°C nasopharyngeal before bypass was discontinued.  ...  There are several factors at play including the presence of significant atheromatous change in the aorta, periods of low cerebral perfusion, an open-chamber J Extra Corpor Technol. 2016;48:137-140  ... 
pmid:27729707 pmcid:PMC5056684 fatcat:rurnuxlphzdj7ooeagwovx7com

An Investigation of Machine Learning Methods Applied to Structure Prediction in Condensed Matter [article]

William J. Brouwer, James D. Kubicki, Jorge O. Sofo, C. Lee Giles
2014 arXiv   pre-print
In this technique, the following Lagrangian expression is minimized: L P (W, b) = 1 2 M j=1 ||w j 2 || + C n i=1 L(u i ) (7) where C is a constant analogous to the soft margin parameter, W,b are now multi-dimensional  ... 
arXiv:1405.3564v1 fatcat:ekzp6fpkhrg3npqltvg2mm2qwa

Inhibition of Human Hepatic Bile Acid Transporters by Tolvaptan and Metabolites: Contributing Factors to Drug-Induced Liver Injury?

Jason R. Slizgi, Yang Lu, Kenneth R. Brouwer, Robert L. St. Claire, Kimberly M. Freeman, Maxwell Pan, William J. Brock, Kim L. R. Brouwer
2015 Toxicological Sciences  
Brouwer, Ms. K.M. Freeman, and Dr. R.L. St. Claire are employed by Qualyst Transporter Solutions, LLC. Dr. K.L.R.  ...  Brouwer is a co-inventor of the sandwich-cultured hepatocyte technology for quantification of biliary excretion (B-CLEAR V R ) and related technologies, which have been licensed exclusively to Qualyst  ... 
doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfv231 pmid:26507107 fatcat:znw7bppobrb5zdrizvzwjwj4qa

Photophysics of perylene monoimide-labelled organocatalysts

Dongdong Zheng, Mina Raeisolsadati Oskouei, Hans J. Sanders, Junhong Qian, René M. Williams, Albert M. Brouwer
2019 Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences  
A fluorophore-tagged organocatalyst undergoes electron transfer in polar solvents allowing to sense the presence of its free quinuclidine catalytic site.
doi:10.1039/c8pp00462e pmid:30566162 fatcat:6lbanaf76fbtlf2xsr6e2wuy4u

Mental Health Treatment Patterns in Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth and Controls

M. Chernoff, S. Nachman, P. Williams, P. Brouwers, J. Heston, J. Hodge, V. Di Poalo, N. S. Deygoo, K. D. Gadow
2009 Pediatrics  
BACKGROUND-Youths perinatally infected with HIV often receive psychotropic medication and behavioral treatment for emotional and behavioral symptoms. We describe patterns of intervention for HIV-positive youth and youth in a control group in the United States.
doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2441 pmid:19596734 pmcid:PMC2764487 fatcat:7uevaey5u5hkvby25rdpauir4i

Horizontal gene transfer converts non-toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains into toxin producers

Michael S.M. Brouwer, Adam P. Roberts, Haitham Hussain, Rachel J. Williams, Elaine Allan, Peter Mullany
2013 Nature Communications  
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen and the main causative agent of antibioticassociated diarrhoea. The organism produces two potent toxins, A and B, which are its major virulence factors. These are chromosomally encoded on a region termed the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc), which also contains regulatory genes, and is absent in non-toxigenic strains. Here we show that the PaLoc can be transferred from the toxin-producing strain, 630Derm, to three non-toxigenic strains of
more » ... ribotypes. One of the transconjugants is shown by cytotoxicity assay to produce toxin B at a similar level to the donor strain, demonstrating that a toxigenic C. difficile strain is capable of converting a non-toxigenic strain to a toxin producer by horizontal gene transfer. This has implications for the treatment of C. difficile infections, as non-toxigenic strains are being tested as treatments in clinical trials.
doi:10.1038/ncomms3601 pmid:24131955 pmcid:PMC3826655 fatcat:sixggq5evvdjnnuziq7bwmajji

A novel method for the determination of biliary clearance in humans

Giulia Ghibellini, Brendan M. Johnson, Richard J. Kowalsky, William D. Heizer, Kim L. R. Brouwer
2004 AAPS Journal  
Biliary excretion is an important route of elimination and the biliary tract is a potential site of toxicity for many drugs and xenobiotics. Quantification of biliary excretion in healthy human volunteers is logistically challenging and is rarely defined during drug development. The current study uses a novel oroenteric tube coupled with a specialized clinical protocol to examine the pharmacokinetics of 99m Technetium (Tc-99m) mebrofenin, a compound that undergoes rapid hepatic uptake and
more » ... ive biliary excretion. A custommade multilumen oroenteric tube was positioned in the duodenum of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were positioned under a gamma camera and 2.5 mCi of Tc-99m mebrofenin was administered intravenously. Duodenal aspirates, blood samples, and urine were collected periodically for 3 hours. Two hours after Tc-99m mebrofenin administration, the gallbladder was contracted with an intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin-8. Gamma scintigraphy was used to determine the gallbladder ejection fraction in each subject. Total systemic clearance of Tc-99m mebrofenin approximated liver blood flow (Cl total 17.3 ± 1.7 mL/min/kg), and 35% to 84% of the Tc-99m mebrofenin dose was recovered in bile. However, when the data were corrected for the gallbladder ejection fraction, 71% to 92% of the excreted Tc-99m mebrofenin dose was recovered. This novel oroenteric tube and clinical protocol provide a useful method to quantify biliary excretion of xenobiotics in healthy human volunteers.
doi:10.1208/aapsj060433 pmid:15760098 pmcid:PMC2751229 fatcat:ovi3rrjxybfnbcxeulxgylc2za

Altered Expression and Function of Hepatic Transporters in a Rodent Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease

Jacqueline Bezencon, James J Beaudoin, Katsuaki Ito, Dong Fu, Sharin E Roth, William J Brock, Kim LR Brouwer
2019 Drug Metabolism And Disposition  
We acknowledge the support provided by the Biomarkers Mass Spectrometry sub-core supported in part by NIEHS grant P30ES010126 (J. Swenberg). We thank Dr.  ...  Performed data analysis: Bezençon, Beaudoin, Ito, Fu, Roth, Brock, and Brouwer. Wrote or contributed to the writing of the manuscript: Bezençon, Beaudoin, and Brouwer.  ...  WT and PCK rat livers were perfused as described previously (Brouwer and Thurman, 1996; Chandra et al., 2005a) .  ... 
doi:10.1124/dmd.119.086785 pmid:31160314 pmcid:PMC6657211 fatcat:mudstpr7ebcnhmkygumr545vuq

Lipids are the preferred substrate of the protist Naegleria gruberi, relative of a human brain pathogen [article]

Michiel Bexkens, Verena Zimorski, Maarten J. Sarink, Hans Wienk, Jos F. Brouwers, Johan F. De Jonckheere, William F. Martin, Fred R. Opperdoes, Jaap J. van Hellemond, Aloysius G.M. Tielens
2018 bioRxiv   pre-print
Naegleria gruberi is a free-living non-pathogenic amoeboflagellate and relative of Naegleria fowleri, a deadly pathogen causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). A genomic analysis of N. gruberi exists, but physiological evidence for its core energy metabolism or in vivo growth substrates is lacking. Here we show that N. gruberi trophozoites need oxygen for normal functioning and growth and that they furthermore shun both glucose and amino acids as growth substrates. Trophozoite growth
more » ... depends mainly upon lipid oxidation via a mitochondrial branched respiratory chain, both ends of which require oxygen as final electron acceptor. Growing N. gruberi trophozoites thus have a strictly aerobic energy metabolism with a marked substrate preference for the oxidation of fatty acids. Analyses of N. fowleri genome data and comparison with those of N. gruberi indicate that N. fowleri has the same type of metabolism. Specialization to oxygen-dependent lipid breakdown represents a hitherto unprecedented metabolic strategy in protists.
doi:10.1101/370890 fatcat:6xfajixesfcq5kdzzabmg76hzm

Automated analysis of images in documents for intelligent document search

Xiaonan Lu, Saurabh Kataria, William J. Brouwer, James Z. Wang, Prasenjit Mitra, C. Lee Giles
2009 International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition  
: ( j); 14 v_ticket ( j) = v_ticket ( j) − 1; 15 if hasU nvisited RightConnection( j) then 16 j = Select_Right_Connection( j); The curve construction algorithm.  ...  Let X h i , X l i , Y h i , Y l i represent C j i.e. C x i j = X l i − X h j .  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10032-009-0081-0 fatcat:myywoqxytnhfhhw44zkprz73cm

Conformational rearrangements of RIG-I receptor on formation of a multiprotein:dsRNA assembly

Simone A. Beckham, Jason Brouwer, Anna Roth, Die Wang, Anthony J. Sadler, Matthias John, Kerstin Jahn-Hofmann, Bryan R. G. Williams, Jacqueline A. Wilce, Matthew C. J. Wilce
2013 Nucleic Acids Research  
The retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like family of receptors is positioned at the front line of our innate cellular defence system. RIG-I detects and binds to foreign duplex RNA in the cytoplasm of both immune and non-immune cells, and initiates the induction of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanism of RIG-I activation by doublestranded RNA (dsRNA) involves a molecular rearrangement proposed to expose the N-terminal pair of caspase activation recruitment
more » ... , enabling an interaction with interferon-beta promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) and thereby initiating downstream signalling. dsRNA is particularly stimulatory when longer than 20 bp, potentially through allowing binding of more than one RIG-I molecule. Here, we characterize full-length RIG-I and RIG-I subdomains combined with a stimulatory 29mer dsRNA using multi-angle light scattering and size-exclusion chromatography-coupled small-angle X-ray scattering, to build up a molecular model of RIG-I before and after the formation of a 2:1 protein:dsRNA assembly. We report the small-angle X-ray scattering-derived solution structure of the human apo-RIG-I and observe that on binding of RIG-I to dsRNA in a 2:1 ratio, the complex becomes highly extended and flexible. Hence, here we present the first model of the fully activated oligomeric RIG-I.
doi:10.1093/nar/gks1477 pmid:23325848 pmcid:PMC3597671 fatcat:ionqmf7z2rabzi3zwsjuckdfea

Altered Hepatobiliary Disposition of Tolvaptan and Selected Tolvaptan Metabolites in a Rodent Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease

James J. Beaudoin, Jacqueline Bezençon, Yanguang Cao, Katsuhiko Mizuno, Sharin E. Roth, William J. Brock, Kim L. R. Brouwer
2018 Drug Metabolism And Disposition  
Performed data analysis: Beaudoin, Bezençon, Cao, Roth, Brock, Mizuno, Brouwer. Wrote or contributed to the writing of the manuscript: Beaudoin, Bezençon, Brouwer.  ...  Authorship Contributions Participated in research design: Beaudoin, Roth, Brock, Brouwer. Conducted experiments: Beaudoin, Mizuno.  ...  The isolated perfused liver (IPL) is a physiologically relevant ex situ model used to assess hepatobiliary drug clearance (Brouwer and Thurman, 1996) , and evaluate the hepatic transport and metabolic  ... 
doi:10.1124/dmd.118.083907 pmid:30504136 pmcid:PMC6338823 fatcat:ohirknetprcrrkos2v6xh5sizu

Effects of counseling techniques on patients' weight-related attitudes and behaviors in a primary care clinic

Mary E. Cox, William S. Yancy, Cynthia J. Coffman, Truls Østbye, James A. Tulsky, Stewart C. Alexander, Rebecca J. Namenek Brouwer, Rowena J. Dolor, Kathryn I. Pollak
2011 Patient Education and Counseling  
Objective-Examine primary care physicians' use of counseling techniques when treating overweight and obese patients and the association with mediators of behavior change as well as change in nutrition, exercise, and weight loss attempts. Methods-We audio recorded office encounters between 40 physicians and 461 patients. Encounters were coded for physician use of selected counseling techniques using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) scale. Patient motivation and confidence
more » ... as well as Fat and Fiber Diet score (1 to 4), Framingham Physical Activity Questionnaire (MET-minutes), and weight loss attempts (yes/no) were assessed by surveys. Generalized linear models were fit, including physician, patient, and visit level covariates. Results-Patients whose physicians were rated higher in empathy improved their Fat and Fiber intake 0.18 units (95% CI 0, 0.4). When physicians used "MI consistent" techniques, patients reported higher confidence to improve nutrition (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.2, 5.7). Conclusion-When physicians used counseling techniques consistent with MI principles, some of their patients' weight-related attitudes and behaviors improved. Practice Implications-Physicians may not be able to employ formal MI during a clinic visit. However, use of counseling techniques consistent with MI principles, such as expression of empathy, may improve patients' weight-related attitudes and behaviors.
doi:10.1016/j.pec.2011.01.024 pmid:21316897 pmcid:PMC3368547 fatcat:opyt5e3urzh47nskvf6lbkv624

Meditation and Yoga Practices as Potential Adjunctive Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19: A Brief Overview of Key Subjects

William Bushell, Ryan Castle, Michelle A. Williams, Kimberly C. Brouwer, Rudolph E. Tanzi, Deepak Chopra, Paul J. Mills
2020 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine  
Editor's Note: As an acute condition quickly associated with multiple chronic susceptibilities, COVID-19 has rekindled interest in, and controversy about, the potential role of the host in disease processes. While hundreds of millions of research dollars have been funneled into drug and vaccine solutions that target the external agent, integrative practitioners tuned to enhancing immunity faced a familiar mostly unfunded task. First, go to school on the virus. Then draw from the global array of
more » ... natural therapies and practices with host-enhancing or anti-viral capabilities to suggest integrative treatment strategies. The near null-set of conventional treatment options propels this investigation. In this paper, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California-San Diego, Chopra Library for Integrative Studies, and Harvard University share one such exploration. Their conclusion, that "certain meditation, yoga asana (postures), and pranayama (breathing) practices may possibly be effective adjunctive means of treating and/or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection" underscores the importance of this rekindling. At JACM, we are pleased to have the opportunity to publish this work. We hope that it might help diminish in medicine and health the polarization that, like so much in the broader culture, seems to be an obstacle to healing.
doi:10.1089/acm.2020.0177 pmid:32579021 fatcat:vwundcifvfbvfhxfldmwglptw4
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