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In recent years, significant research has been devoted to the development of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) able to detect anomalous computer network traffic indicative of malicious activity. While signaturebased IDS have proven effective in discovering known attacks, anomaly-based IDS hold the even greater promise of being able to automatically detect previously undocumented threats. Traditional IDS are generally trained in batch mode, and therefore cannot adapt to evolving network datadoi:10.4236/jis.2011.24016 fatcat:htiwpnswwfcallgx4d7exz3s4q
more »... ams in real time. To resolve this limitation, data stream mining techniques can be utilized to create a new type of IDS able to dynamically model a stream of network traffic. In this paper, we present two methods for anomalous network packet detection based on the data stream mining paradigm. The first of these is an adapted version of the DenStream algorithm for stream clustering specifically tailored to evaluate network traffic. In this algorithm, individual packets are treated as points and are flagged as normal or abnormal based on their belonging to either normal or outlier clusters. The second algorithm utilizes a histogram to create a model of the evolving network traffic to which incoming traffic can be compared using Pearson correlation. Both of these algorithms were tested using the first week of data from the DARPA'99 dataset with Generic HTTP, Shell-code and Polymorphic attacks inserted. We were able to achieve reasonably high detection rates with moderately low false positive percentages for different types of attacks, though detection rates varied between the two algorithms. Overall, the histogram-based detection algorithm achieved slightly superior results, but required more parameters than the clustering-based algorithm. As a result of its fewer parameter requirements, the clustering approach can be more easily generalized to different types of network traffic streams.
The increasing popularity of social media in recent years has created new opportunities to study the interactions of different groups of people. Never before have so many data about such a large number of individuals been readily available for analysis. Two popular topics in the study of social networks are community detection and sentiment analysis. Community detection seeks to find groups of associated individuals within networks, and sentiment analysis attempts to determine how individualsdoi:10.4236/cn.2013.53022 fatcat:j6t5co6ogbesdcrvoggcllro7u
more »... e feeling. While these are generally treated as separate issues, this study takes an integrative approach and uses community detection output to enable community-level sentiment analysis. Community detection is performed using the Walktrap algorithm on a network of Twitter users associated with Microsoft Corporation's @technet account. This Twitter account is one of several used by Microsoft Corporation primarily for communicating with information technology professionals. Once community detection is finished, sentiment in the tweets produced by each of the communities detected in this network is analyzed based on word sentiment scores from the well-known Sen-tiWordNet lexicon. The combination of sentiment analysis with community detection permits multilevel exploration of sentiment information within the @technet network, and demonstrates the power of combining these two techniques.
HARDWARE General system description The ACCESS hardware is comprised of eight 200 megabyte moving head, removable disk pack disk drives. There are two microcomputers, a disk drive controller, two auxiliary memory banks, three sound data channels and a two channel independent high speed memory bus (DMA) which interconnects all of the preceding devices. There are various peripheral controllers for interfacing and controlling external equipment such as video tape record/playback units, magneticdoi:10.1145/1500518.1500532 dblp:conf/afips/Deitrick80 fatcat:ouz66exgfrcdffkok4nsnzjq5m
more »... e recorder/players, sound amplifiers, level monitors, and SMPTE code conversion units. The CRT terminal (with keyboard), a 300 line per minute printer, video monitor, speakers, and the operations console which contains, switches, indicators, and sound modification controls are all located in the operations room which is about 60 feet from the computer room where all the other equipment is located. The computer electronics hardware is mechanized on two sided printed circuit cards (PCB) approximately 5 x 8 inches, with wire-wrapped integrated circuit sockets, and interface, connectors on both ends. The PCBs plug into standard 7 inch high, 19 inch wide card cages with combination wirewrapped and printed circuit backplanes. Ribbon cables on the back edge of the PCBs interface between card cages and to external peripheral equipment. The card cages, disk drive controller, and power supplies are mounted in a standard cabinet 84 in H x 19 in W x 24 in D. Major component description The master computer (MACPU) contain a microprocessor, CRT terminal interface, 36 kilobytes (KB) of memory, disk controller (DCU) interface, arithmetic/logic unit, interrupt logic, printer interface, a direct control interface to the monitor computer (MOCPU), and the master DMA control logic. The MACPU performs most of the data processing load, handles interrupts, issues control tables and checks status of the DCU and DMA. As the name implies the MACPU is the master of the system and essentially controls 83 the entire system. The CRT terminal and the printer interface directly to the MACPU. The DMA consists of two independent 8 bit data channels that allow simultaneous data transfers between any two pairs of devices on the DMA. Data transfer rates vary with the fastest rate being memory to memory transfers, 2 megabytes (MB) per second, and the slowest when the DCU is one of the devices, 806 KB/sec. There are six major devices interconnected on the DMA-MACPU, MOCPU, DCU, two auxiliary memory banks (AUX1, AUX2), and the sound channel DMA controller (SCHDMA) which coordinates data transfers to two sound data output channels (SCHl, SCH2) and one sound data input channel (SCH3). The MOCPU is almost identical to the MACPU except for the resident peripheral controllers. It handles all SMPTE code operations for synchronization purposes and has a floppy disk controller interface. It interfaces to all three sound channels via an independent 8 bit bidirectional data bus which is used to send/receive sound modification data, issue mode controls, monitor sound data memory balance counts, and is also used to control and monitor status of the external video tape ~quipment and audio tape equipment. The AUXl, AUX2 memory banks contain 28 KB each and are used primarily as butler storage areas. The DCU is the most sophisticated device in the system. It can control up to 8 disk drives, each capable of storing 200 MB on a removable disk pack. Each pack can hold 40 minutes of digitized sound data so 4 hours and 40 minutes of sound effects (7 packs) can be on line and instantlyavailable to the system. One drive is used as the system software drive and is also used to hold sound modification data, master library index, system maintenance and test routines, etc .. Normally only a few seconds of a sound effect are required to be stored in the library. That basic piece of sound can be modified in an infinite number of ways and then only the mod data need be saved which requires virtually no storage space by comparison. The DCU requires a minimum of intervention from the MACPU which initiates operations and monitors status. The DCU accesses its command tables and transfers data under DMA control to/from any device on the DMA except the SCHDMA. Command tables can be linked or chained which allows a series of operations to be performed automatically. The DCU will select a drive, move From the collection of the Computer History Museum (www.computerhistory.org)
With the rapid growth of web-based social networking technologies in recent years, author identification and analysis have proven increasingly useful. Authorship analysis provides information about a document's author, often including the author's gender. Men and women are known to write in distinctly different ways, and these differences can be successfully used to make a gender prediction. Making use of these distinctions between male and female authors, this study demonstrates the use of adoi:10.4236/cn.2012.43023 fatcat:p3jzluzuvjekpkmdo4njqkafui
more »... mple stream-based neural network to automatically discriminate gender on manually labeled tweets from the Twitter social network. This neural network, the Modified Balanced Winnow, was employed in two ways; the effectiveness of data stream mining was initially examined with an extensive list of n-gram features. Feature selection techniques were then evaluated by drastically reducing the feature list using WEKA's attribute selection algorithms. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the stream mining approach, achieving an accuracy of 82.48%, a 20.81% increase above the baseline prediction. Using feature selection methods improved the results by an additional 16.03%, to an accuracy of 98.51%. for tweets means that users must fit whatever they want to say into a smaller space. This has the effect of concentrating the user's writing style, increasing the necessity of using the characteristic text styles prevalent in social
The paper concentrates on post-processing of data necessary for pressure measurements using Pressure Sensitive Paints (PSP). The purpose of the study was to develop and test procedures for extraction of the surface pressure distribution from the images captured during PSP tests. The core issues addressed were reduction of the influence of model movement and deformation during wind tunnel run and synchronization between conventional pressure tap measurements and PSP data, necessary for in-situdoi:10.2478/tar-2018-0031 fatcat:dhxube37tfbpva3y2ciawgidja
more »... libration. In the course of the studies, two approaches on image registration were proposed: the first based on geometric transformation of control points pairs with cross-correlation tuning and the second based on similarity finding and estimation of geometric transformation of the images. Performance of the developed algorithm was tested with use of experimental set-up allowing for controlled movement of the imagined target with micrometer resolution. Both of the proposed approaches to PSP image resection proved to perform well. After testing of the software, the PSP system was used for determination of the pressure field on flat plate exposed to impinging jet. The presented procedures and results can be useful for research groups developing in-house PSP measurements systems for wind tunnel tests and internal flow investigations.
The burgeoning use of Web 2.0-powered social media in recent years has inspired numerous studies on the content and composition of online social networks (OSNs). Many methods of harvesting useful information from social networks' immense amounts of user-generated data have been successfully applied to such real-world topics as politics and marketing, to name just a few. This study presents a novel twist on two popular techniques for studying OSNs: community detection and sentiment analysis.doi:10.4236/jdaip.2013.13004 fatcat:xe5avoshuvhenfnp3oavd27zte
more »... g sentiment classification to enhance community detection and community partitions to permit more in-depth analysis of sentiment data, these two techniques are brought together to analyze four networks from the Twitter OSN. The Twitter networks used for this study are extracted from four accounts related to Microsoft Corporation, and together encompass more than 60,000 users and 2 million tweets collected over a period of 32 days. By combining community detection and sentiment analysis, modularity values were increased for the community partitions detected in three of the four networks studied. Furthermore, data collected during the community detection process enabled more granular, community-level sentiment analysis on a specific topic referenced by users in the dataset.
Neonatal hypertension is defined as persistent systolic and/or diastolic blood pressures above the 95th percentile compared to other infants of similar gestational age and size. Neonatal hypertension is a rare condition, occurring in only 0.2-3.0% of neonates. The most common etiology of neonatal hypertension is renal vascular or parenchymal disease, and it is usually detected on routine examination in an asymptomatic child. However, it may present in a variety of manners, including acute heartdoi:10.1186/s40885-019-0115-y pmid:31061719 pmcid:PMC6492330 fatcat:kub7xc6bmvdqxnz7ibpfcpr4wq
more »... failure, renal dysfunction, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, tachypnea, apnea, lethargy, irritability, or seizures. A term female was born via repeat caesarean section with vacuum extraction. On day of life (DOL) 3, the baby presented to the emergency department with poor feeding and lethargy. Initial laboratory tests indicated severe metabolic acidosis and the patient was transferred to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). During the hospital stay, the patient had intermittently high blood pressures. An echocardiogram was ordered, which demonstrated a severely decreased ejection fraction of 33%, but no signs of coarctation of the aorta. The low ejection fraction and constellation of symptoms were consistent with the diagnosis of acute heart failure, so treatment with milrinone was initiated. Further labs demonstrated elevated renin and aldosterone, and a computed tomography scan showed right kidney hypoplasia with reduced perfusion. This suggested a renovascular etiology of hypertension causing the initial presentation of acute heart failure. The patient was started on enalapril and clonidine for blood pressure control and was discharged with a home blood pressure monitoring system. At 5 months of life, this patient was still on enalapril and amlodipine as well as home blood pressure monitoring. Acute heart failure is a rare presentation of neonatal hypertension, and prompt recognition and treatment for the underlying systemic hypertension is necessary to provide the best possible outcomes for patients. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence, treatment of hypertension in newborns is often anecdotal in nature. Further awareness of neonatal hypertension and research determining ideal methods of diagnosis and treatment would benefit physicians and their affected patients.
Tegmen tympani defects resulting in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage into the middle ear can lead to hearing impairment, seizures, and meningitis. While these defects can be acquired in a variety of ways, they all require prompt surgical intervention. The majority are fixed utilizing a craniotomy through the middle cranial fossa (MCF). We present a case of a tegmen tympani defect successfully repaired by a transmastoid approach utilizing Stryker bone cement in combination with DuraMatrix, anddoi:10.14740/jmc3009w fatcat:n3mewu4longcpdunsyclfbi2aa
more »... dvocate this surgical approach as an effective method for treating similar cases. Figure 1 . CT of the middle ear showing the tegmen defect.
Data for this study was extracted from the Enron email dataset, provided by William Cohen of CMU. ... The version of the dataset used in our study, provided by William Cohen of CMU, was last updated in April of 2011  . ...doi:10.4236/jilsa.2012.43017 fatcat:ffshrtn7y5bebpzleswuxrreeu
doi:10.1177/2333794x17751010 pmid:29344560 pmcid:PMC5764131 fatcat:wlqz3lodjndc7acpfitcmmfbze
KIRSTEN DEITRICK et al. PHYS. REV. ACCEL. ... For a more detailed explanation, refer to Deitrick et al.  . The peak brilliance of the source (for a zero crossing angle) is calculated via an analytical formula of Hartemann et al. ...doi:10.1103/physrevaccelbeams.24.050701 fatcat:hfm67movrbetxhpmoqhhbmpxji
ABSTRACTThis study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of topical creams containing 15% paromomycin ("paromomycin alone") and 15% paromomycin plus 0.5% gentamicin (WR 279,396) in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The investigational creams were applied topically to all lesions once daily for 20 days. Plasma samples were analyzed for simultaneous quantitation of paromomycin and gentamicin isomers and total gentamicin. Pharmacokinetic parameters for gentamicin could not be calculated becausedoi:10.1128/aac.00628-13 pmid:23877689 pmcid:PMC3811440 fatcat:pvr7ostkv5bvdm2iiqumahbxue
more »... table levels were rarely evident. After one application, the paromomycin area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) was 2,180 ± 2,621 ng · h/ml (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) for the paromomycin-alone group and 975.6 ± 1,078 ng · h/ml for the WR 279,396 group. After 20 days of application, the paromomycin AUC0–24and maximum concentration of drug (Cmax) were 5 to 6 times greater than those on day 1 for both treatment groups. For the paromomycin-alone group, the AUC0–24was 8,575 ± 7,268 ng · h/ml and theCmaxwas 1,000 ± 750 ng/ml, compared with 6,037 ± 3,956 ng · h/ml and 660 ± 486 ng/ml for the WR 279,396 group, respectively. Possibly due to large intersubject variability, no differences (P≥ 0.05) in the AUC0–24orCmaxwere noted between treatment or between sites on day 1 or 20. The percentage of dose absorbed on day 20 was 12.0% ± 6.26% and 9.68% ± 6.05% for paromomycin alone and WR 279,396, respectively. Paromomycin concentrations in plasma after 20 days of application were 5 to 9% of those after intramuscular administration of 15 mg/kg of body weight/day to adults for the systemic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Effective topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis appears to be possible with limited paromomycin and gentamicin systemic absorption, thus avoiding drug accumulation and toxicity. (The work described here has been registered atClinicalTrials.govunder registration no. NCT01032382 and NCT01083576.)
Jena Deitrick; William Sessions; Daniel Nguyen; Ariel Santos* School of Medicine TTUHSC @ Amarillo, Texas, USA. Citation: Deitrick J, Sessions W, Nguyen D, Santos A. ...doi:10.52768/2766-7820/1144 fatcat:swatj3vc6jgqxbsuzav52uxzfe
In this randomized, double-blinded Phase 2 trial, 30 patients with Leishmania panamensis cutaneous leishmaniasis were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive once daily topical treatment with WR 279,396 (15% paromomycin + 0.5% gentamicin) or Paromomycin Alone (15% paromomycin) for 20 days. The index lesion cure rate after 6 months follow-up was 13 of 15 (87%) for WR 279,396 and 9 of 15 (60%) for Paromomycin Alone (P = 0.099). When all treated lesions were included, the final cure rate for WRdoi:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0736 pmid:23857024 pmcid:PMC3771300 fatcat:ft3ovrekfjcwthmwiasfcfstsq
more »... -treated patients was again 87%, but the final cure rate for Paromomycin Alone-treated patients was 8 of 15 (53.3%; P = 0.046). Both creams were well tolerated with mild application site reactions being the most frequent adverse event. The increased final cure rate in the WR 279,396 group in this small Phase 2 study suggests that the combination product may provide greater clinical benefit than paromomycin monotherapy against L. panamensis cutaneous leishmaniasis.
The importance of fatty acids to the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and differences due to a type I fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway in the parasite, make it an attractive drug target. In the present study, we developed and a utilized a pharmacophore to select compounds for testing against PfKASIII, the initiating enzyme of FAS. This effort identified several PfKASIII inhibitors that grouped into various chemical classes of sulfides, sulfonamides, and sulfonyls. Approximatelydoi:10.1021/jm8008103 pmid:19191586 pmcid:PMC2810129 fatcat:fhgur4e3vvha5bp36imdb6jxne
more »... 0% of the submicromolar inhibitors of PfKASIII inhibited in vitro growth of the malaria parasite. These compounds inhibited both drug sensitive and resistant parasites and testing against a mammalian cell line revealed an encouraging in vitro therapeutic index for the most active compounds. Docking studies into the active site of PfKASIII suggest a potential binding mode that exploits amino acid residues at the mouth of the substrate tunnel. Perhaps the best studied apicoplast metabolic pathway is fatty acid biosynthesis. Most eukaryotes rely on type I fatty acid synthase (FAS a ) enzymes, which are large multifunctional
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