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Why Do Smart Contracts Self-Destruct? Investigating the Selfdestruct Function on Ethereum [article]

Jiachi Chen, Xin Xia, David Lo, John Grundy
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The selfdestruct function is provided by Ethereum smart contracts to destroy a contract on the blockchain system. However, it is a double-edged sword for developers.  ...  On the one hand, using selfdestruct function enables developers to remove smart contracts (SC) from Ethereum and transfers Ethers when emergency situations happen, e.g. being attacked.  ...  Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not reflect the views of National Research Foundation, Singapore.  ... 
arXiv:2005.07908v3 fatcat:2v3tm7rzlvadrgysuerscldv3e

CLUE: Towards Discovering Locked Cryptocurrencies in Ethereum [article]

Xiaoqi Li, Ting Chen, Xiapu Luo, Chenxu Wang
2020 arXiv   pre-print
As the most popular blockchain that supports smart contracts, there are already more than 296 thousand kinds of cryptocurrencies built on Ethereum.  ...  In this paper, we conduct the first systematic investigation on locked cryptocurrencies in Ethereum.  ...  For the destructed contracts, many of them were created due to DoS attacks [20] . The attacker created large amount of smart contracts and destructed them through SELFDESTRUCT operation.  ... 
arXiv:2012.01370v1 fatcat:yqomcwtlebaexjjlmoaqog65ee

Time-Travel Investigation: Towards Building A Scalable Attack Detection Framework on Ethereum [article]

Lei Wu, Siwei Wu, Yajin Zhou, Runhuai Li, Zhi Wang, Xiapu Luo, Cong Wang, Kui Ren
2020 arXiv   pre-print
As one of the representative blockchain platforms, Ethereum has attracted lots of attacks.  ...  In this paper, we present the design of a scalable attack detection framework on Ethereum.  ...  Both opcodes behave similarly, except the way to calculate the address of the newly created smart contract [14] . A smart contract can be self-destructed through the opcode SELFDESTRUCT.  ... 
arXiv:2005.08278v2 fatcat:tzbd5dnn2jh3hlijvhziqr4sza

Defining Smart Contract Defects on Ethereum [article]

Jiachi Chen, Xin Xia, David Lo, John Grundy, Daniel Xiapu Luo, Ting Chen
2020 arXiv   pre-print
To fill this gap, we collected smart-contract-related posts from Ethereum StackExchange, as well as real-world smart contracts.  ...  Smart contracts are programs running on a blockchain. They are immutable to change, and hence can not be patched for bugs once deployed.  ...  The only way to remove a smart contract from blockchain is by adding a selfdestruct [5] function in their code. Even worse, smart contracts on Ethereum operate on a permission-less network.  ... 
arXiv:1905.01467v3 fatcat:y5lipeuogvghndrq5koquvgxwa

Smart Contract Vulnerabilities: Vulnerable Does Not Imply Exploited [article]

Daniel Perez, Benjamin Livshits
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In recent years, we have seen a great deal of both academic and practical interest in the topic of vulnerabilities in smart contracts, particularly those developed for the Ethereum blockchain.  ...  While most of the work has focused on detecting *vulnerable* contracts, in this paper, we focus on finding how many of these vulnerable contracts have actually been *exploited*.  ...  Smart contracts themselves have the capability to call another account present on the Ethereum blockchain.  ... 
arXiv:1902.06710v5 fatcat:zl3ibhy6j5cqbn3bq6jjhefv4i

A Survey on Ethereum Systems Security: Vulnerabilities, Attacks and Defenses [article]

Huashan Chen, Marcus Pendleton, Laurent Njilla, Shouhuai Xu
2019 arXiv   pre-print
While the first generation of blockchain technology (i.e., Blockchain 1.0) is almost exclusively used for cryptocurrency purposes, the second generation (i.e., Blockchain 2.0), as represented by Ethereum  ...  Since Ethereum is a new, yet complex, system, it is imperative to have a systematic and comprehensive understanding on its security from a holistic perspective, which is unavailable.  ...  A contract account can be killed by the contract's owner (or a trusted third party) using the suicide or self-destruct method.  ... 
arXiv:1908.04507v1 fatcat:wxddcfw57zginckgt7oucei2nu

A Trust-Centric Privacy-Preserving Blockchain for Dynamic Spectrum Management in IoT Networks [article]

Jingwei Ye, Xin Kang, Ying-Chang Liang, Sumei Sun
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Two smart contracts are designed to make the whole procedure (spectrum sensing, spectrum auction, and spectrum allocation) run automatically.  ...  Simulation results demonstrate the expected computation cost of the PoT consensus algorithm for reliable sensing nodes is low, and the cooperative sensing performance is improved with the help of trust  ...  In [15] , a smart contract running on Ethereum was proposed as a platform to provide spectrum sensing services.  ... 
arXiv:2106.13958v1 fatcat:4jnsc4w6pjaftgzkrwop2vtmiu

eThor: Practical and Provably Sound Static Analysis of Ethereum Smart Contracts [article]

Clara Schneidewind, Ilya Grishchenko, Markus Scherer, Matteo Maffei
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Ethereum has emerged as the most popular smart contract development platform, with hundreds of thousands of contracts stored on the blockchain and covering a variety of application scenarios, such as auctions  ...  contract-specific functional properties.  ...  RELATED WORK & DISCUSSION In the last years there has been plenty of work on the automatic analysis of Ethereum smart contracts.  ... 
arXiv:2005.06227v1 fatcat:fyo2hk6uzbd3rjkhlwno3osa4m

Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: Is the State Still Necessary?

Marcella Atzori
2015 Social Science Research Network  
In particular, the paper verifies to which extent blockchain and decentralized platforms can be considered as hyper-political tools, capable to manage social interactions on large scale and dismiss traditional  ...  Blockchain Technology and Decentralized Governance: is the State The core technology of Bitcoin, the blockchain, has recently emerged as a disruptive innovation with a wide range of applications, potentially  ...  According to the theory of Programmed Self-Destruction (Curtois, 2014) , fatal engineering mistakes in the Bitcoin architecture will eventually result in a process of programmed decline and selfdestruction  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2709713 fatcat:rcze6k4gnvaqvoey6re75xmbci

Smart contracts in a DAG ledger : Blockchain 5.0

Lukas Hetzenecker, Monika di Angelo, Gernot Salzer
Although this comes with the disadvantage that smart contract engines are more difficult to implement on such ledger structures.  ...  One of the most promising solutions for better scalability is challenging the entire structure of organizing transactions in a blockchain.  ...  The opcode SELFDE-STRUCT allows a contract to self-destruct, and send the remaining ether value to another account.  ... 
doi:10.34726/hss.2020.62445 fatcat:qyoczpz55fgxri3kcsu7pjelaq

Clustering of Ethereum Smart Contracts using the Graph Database Neo4j

Milosh Davidovski, Monika di Angelo
In this thesis, an approach is proposed for clustering Ethereum smart contracts with regard to the functionality they share by using the graph database Neo4j and other visualization methods and/or tools  ...  One such application is smart contracts, or programs with the aim to execute automatically and securely the agreements of a contract without the support of a centralized authority.  ...  The approved original version of this thesis is available in print at TU Wien Bibliothek. The approved original version of this thesis is available in print at TU Wien Bibliothek.  ... 
doi:10.34726/hss.2020.72204 fatcat:blpkzrthnrgkfg6grajqogbxcy

Identifying related smart contracts by their bytecode

Tan Yücel, Gernot Salzer, Monika di Angelo
As only a small proportion of live smart contracts provide their source openly, it can be helpful to automatically determine the functional similarity between smart contracts, especially with open and  ...  Applying this on a set of vulnerable contracts, allowed for the detection of priorly unknown vulnerabilities in other smart contracts.The primary goal of this work is to create suitable datasets and verify  ...  Acknowledgements "I haven't actually seen further, but standing on the giants' shoulders was fun anyways."  ... 
doi:10.34726/hss.2022.96144 fatcat:n5tiyn2gqnfgbmpyo5km2eudoe

Optimization of solidity smart contracts

Tamara Brandstätter, Stefan Schulte
Additional fees have to be paid, whenever a function of a smart contract is executed, depending on the needed computational steps and required storage space.  ...  Fees in form of gas have to be paid for deploying a smart contract on the blockchain, depending on the size of the byte code.  ...  R selfdestruct 24000 Refund given (added into refund counter) for self-destructing an account.  ... 
doi:10.34726/hss.2020.66465 fatcat:fbfor6ijsfaxtphlb5l5qsodra

Inter-workgroup barrier synchronisation on graphics processing units

Tyler Sorensen, Alastair Donaldson, Intel Corporation
Multitasking: because many GPUs do not support preemption, long-running GPU compute tasks (e.g. applications that use the global barrier) may block other GPU functions, including graphics.  ...  The idea of such a barrier might seem straightforward, however this investigation reveals many challenges and insights.  ...  For the oitergb implementation in this chapter, this issue was addressed by implementing a self-destruct mechanism to the discovery protocol mutex.  ... 
doi:10.25560/68006 fatcat:6ogn37ahvnci3ooke5w42bxewu