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Which Event Happened First? Deferred Choice on Blockchain Using Oracles [article]

Jan Ladleif, Mathias Weske
2021 arXiv   pre-print
First come, first served: Critical choices between alternative actions are often made based on events external to an organization, and reacting promptly to their occurrence can be a major advantage over  ...  We introduce and compare several oracle architectures able to satisfy certain requirements, and show that they can be implemented using state-of-the-art blockchain technology.  ...  Deferred Choice on Blockchain.  ... 
arXiv:2104.10520v1 fatcat:krbs7ke625glrhdivf5wseycdy

Which Event Happened First? Deferred Choice on Blockchain Using Oracles

Jan Ladleif, Mathias Weske
2021 Frontiers in Blockchain  
First come, first served: Critical choices between alternative actions are often made based on events external to an organization, and reacting promptly to their occurrence can be a major advantage over  ...  We introduce and compare several oracle architectures able to satisfy certain requirements, and show that they can be implemented using state-of-the-art blockchain technology.  ...  Thus, we find that our work significantly extends on existing research in numerous fields, and is the first to provide an end-to-end vision of the usage of the deferred choice pattern on blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fbloc.2021.758169 fatcat:oqigmh7l5nggliyejpf5aunpxu

Which Event Happened First? Deferred Choice on Blockchain Using Oracles

Jan Ladleif, Mathias Weske
2022 Zweitveröffentlichungen der Universität Potsdam : Reihe der Digital Engineering Fakultät; 11  
First come, first served: Critical choices between alternative actions are often made based on events external to an organization, and reacting promptly to their occurrence can be a major advantage over  ...  We introduce and compare several oracle architectures able to satisfy certain requirements, and show that they can be implemented using state-of-the-art blockchain technology.  ...  Thus, we find that our work significantly extends on existing research in numerous fields, and is the first to provide an end-to-end vision of the usage of the deferred choice pattern on blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.25932/publishup-55068 fatcat:47knok3uzvfspdlwdlx6rytwhm

Time in Blockchain-Based Process Execution [article]

Jan Ladleif, Mathias Weske
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The traceable execution of business processes and choreographies using smart contracts is one prominent application of blockchain technology in Business Process Management (BPM).  ...  We argue that this deficit is due to inherent limitations of smart contracts---in particular the absence of a natural notion of measuring time---on popular blockchain platforms used in research and practice  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT We would like to thank Ingo Weber for his valuable input and feedback on early versions of the manuscript.  ... 
arXiv:2008.06210v1 fatcat:l7efqtprrfatdiaam2p6ef4xde

Fully-automated liberalism? Blockchain technology and international cooperation in an anarchic world

Bernhard Reinsberg
2020 International Theory  
order based on liberal values.  ...  Blockchain technology is a data structure that enables global governance stakeholders to establish decentralized governance systems which provide high-powered incentives for enhanced cooperation.  ...  A blockchain-based prediction market is another type of oracle, allowing participants to ascertain the probability that a specified event happened.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1752971920000305 fatcat:oxjmtc4yvbdirkqmsdaumq633a

Mechanism Design and Blockchains [article]

Akaki Mamageishvili, Jan Christoph Schlegel
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We consider some of the most frequently used mechanisms in practice and identify circumstances under which manipulation is possible.  ...  Game theory is often used as a tool to analyze decentralized systems and their properties, in particular, blockchains. In this note, we take the opposite view.  ...  First of all, we have to agree on a weather-related event that determines the outcome. Our choice of such an event depends on our prior information about, e.g., the likelihood of rainfall tomorrow.  ... 
arXiv:2005.02390v2 fatcat:csahhz6je5fulkglxum2vj5b4u

ACeD: Scalable Data Availability Oracle [article]

Peiyao Sheng, Bowen Xue, Sreeram Kannan, Pramod Viswanath
2021 arXiv   pre-print
A popular method in practice offloads computation and storage in blockchains by relying on committing only hashes of off-chain data into the blockchain.  ...  In this paper, we propose ACeD, a scalable solution to this data availability problem with O(1) communication efficiency, the first to the best of our knowledge.  ...  We use these parameter choices to design and implement an ACeD oracle layer that interfaces with Ethereum as the trusted blockchain. Parameter Specifications.  ... 
arXiv:2011.00102v2 fatcat:knydtwxrcfek3ebhtelerlvcri

Thunderella: Blockchains with Optimistic Instant Confirmation [chapter]

Rafael Pass, Elaine Shi
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We provide instantiations of this paradigm in both permissionless (using proof-of-work) and permissioned settings.  ...  State machine replication, or "consensus", is a central abstraction for distributed systems where a set of nodes seek to agree on an ever-growing, linearly-ordered log.  ...  Henceforth we ignore the negligible fraction of views where relevant bad events happen.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-78375-8_1 fatcat:5hftaljhjbatldxtbvyvssqln4

Understanding blockchain for insurance use cases

D. Popovic, C. Avis, M. Byrne, C. Cheung, M. Donovan, Y. Flynn, C. Fothergill, Z. Hosseinzadeh, Z. Lim, J. Shah
2020 British Actuarial Journal  
blockchain.  ...  This paper provides a practical guide for actuaries, risk professionals, insurance companies and their Boards on blockchain, including an education piece to provide an understanding of the technology.  ...  events) could be used to trigger the pre-defined action(s).  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1357321720000148 fatcat:ctloarjalveazkqb6lpjp4o2xu

Plumo: An Ultralight Blockchain Client [article]

Psi Vesely, Kobi Gurkan, Michael Straka, Ariel Gabizon, Philipp Jovanovic, Georgios Konstantopoulos, Asa Oines, Marek Olszewski, Eran Tromer
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Instantiating this, we present Plumo, an ultralight client for the Celo blockchain capable of syncing the latest network state summary in just a few seconds even on a low-end mobile phone.  ...  Plumo achieves this level of efficiency thanks to two new SNARK-friendly constructions, which may also be of independent interest: a new BLS-based offline aggregate multisignature scheme in which signers  ...  If coll happens, then A outputs the first colliding query pair (q i , q j ); else A outputs two random messages.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/VeselyGSGJKOOT21 fatcat:565sme34irhe5f7wplafpueg3y

PayMo: Payment Channels For Monero [article]

Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan, Giulio Malavolta, Fritz Schmidt, Dominique Schröder
2020 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Secondly, the event ¬E which denotes the complement of the above event, where S aborts the execution by outputting abort 1 .  ...  Secondly, the event ¬E which denotes the complement of the above event, where E A aborts the execution by outputting abort 1 .  ...  Note that this hybrid differs from the previous one only if the adversary finds a collision in the random oracle, which happens only with negligible probability.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/ThyagarajanMSS20 fatcat:izx4lpubl5h2nnnstoayqgqzra

Associative Blockchain for Decentralized PKI Transparency

Xavier Boyen, Udyani Herath, Matthew McKague, Douglas Stebila
2021 Cryptography  
Existing approaches to make certificate issuance more transparent, including ones based on blockchains, are still somewhat centralized.  ...  DPKIT efficiently leverages an existing blockchain to realize an append-only, distributed associative array, which allows anyone (or their browser) to audit and update the history of all publicly issued  ...  In the first case, c is in the tree for key FP C (c), which can only happen if FP C (c) = FP C (c ), implying a collision in FP C .  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography5020014 fatcat:hh2jr4hd6ncwrjvul24quoavdu

Practical Decentralized Oracle Contracts for Cryptocurrencies [article]

Varun Madathil, Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan, Dimitrios Vasilopoulos, Lloyd Fournier, Giulio Malavolta, Pedro Moreno-Sanchez
2022 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Smart contracts and blockchain technologies are inherently limited as their decision cannot rely on real-world events that happen "outside" of the blockchain environment.  ...  This has motivated the introduction of trusted identities, the so-called "Oracles", that attest the information about real-world events into the blockchain.  ...  After the event happens, Olivia attests the outcome of the event to the smart contract and the corresponding user (either Alice or Bob) gets paid.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/MadathilTVFMM22 fatcat:lrosfyxktbabjkqw5xrkjsxysi

The impact of blockchain technologies and smart contracts on dispute resolution: arbitration and court litigation at the crossroads

Pietro Ortolani
2019 Uniform Law Review = Revue de Droit Uniforme  
On the one hand, these technologies enable private parties to devise arbitral systems that are self-enforcing and, therefore, largely bypass the recognition and enforcement procedures through which State  ...  This article investigates the twofold impact that blockchain technologies and smart contracts have on dispute resolution.  ...  If, conversely, the tokens were purchased on the secondary market, as it often happens, a non-professional investor could not use Articles 17 and 18 to establish jurisdiction.  ... 
doi:10.1093/ulr/unz017 fatcat:sfnqtqssyjdorn4plwtw3p7e2q

How to build time-lock encryption

Jia Liu, Tibor Jager, Saqib A. Kakvi, Bogdan Warinschi
2018 Designs, Codes and Cryptography  
We propose a new construction of a witness encryption scheme which is of independent interest: our scheme, based on Subset-Sum, achieves extractable security without relying on obfuscation.  ...  We explain how to construct a computational reference clock based on Bitcoin. We show how to achieve constant level of multilinearity for witness encryption by using SNARKs.  ...  To circumvent this issue, we define extractable security in an oracle model. The oracle is used to model the Bitcoin blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10623-018-0461-x fatcat:gp5tebkchbexnmdhj7girsh4ki
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