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Where and When: Space-Time Attention for Audio-Visual Explanations [article]

Yanbei Chen, Thomas Hummel, A. Sophia Koepke, Zeynep Akata
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Specifically, we propose a novel space-time attention network that uncovers the synergistic dynamics of audio and visual data over both space and time.  ...  In this work, we take a crucial step forward and explore learnable explanations for audio-visual recognition.  ...  Learning to Explain Where and When To demystify how the audio and visual modalities are composed for recognizing a video event, our space-time attention mechanism is learned to explain where the visual  ... 
arXiv:2105.01517v1 fatcat:4avh3zn6xvcutihresexrnjrke

Machine Learning: When and Where the Horses Went Astray? [article]

Emanuel Diamant
2009 arXiv   pre-print
Despite of its common acceptance and widespread recognition, this definition is wrong and groundless. Meaningful information does not belong to the data that bear it.  ...  It belongs to the observers of the data and it is a shared agreement and a convention among them. Therefore, this private information cannot be extracted from the data by any means.  ...  If so, how does the brain know where to place the eye's fovea -(the main means for visual information gathering) -before it knows in advance where such information is to be found?  ... 
arXiv:0911.1386v1 fatcat:ir6eyevhwrddjajdttnk5gor6y

Machine Learning: When and Where the Horses Went Astray? [chapter]

Emanuel Diamant
2010 Machine Learning  
If so, how does the brain know where to place the eye's fovea -(the main means for visual information gathering) -before it knows in advance where such information is to be found?  ...  Now the question in the paper's title -"When and Where the Horses Went Astray?" -can be answered beyond any doubts: It has happened about 50 years ago!  ... 
doi:10.5772/9156 fatcat:c37lwpo3l5drpautoyxy6r3fiy

Binding "When" and "Where" Impairs Temporal, but not Spatial Recall in Auditory and Visual Working Memory

Franco Delogu, Tanja C. W. Nijboer, Albert Postma
2012 Frontiers in Psychology  
This asymmetric influence of attention on the two tasks was similar for the auditory and visual modality.  ...  Information about where and when events happen seem naturally linked to each other, but only few studies have investigated whether and how they are associated in working memory.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was supported by the grant 254446 from the IEF Marie Curie Actions to Franco Delogu and by the grant 451-10-013 from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00062 pmid:22408632 pmcid:PMC3296061 fatcat:hk5jzdc5efb2rls7chmfksehae

Time and the observer: The where and when of consciousness in the brain

Daniel C. Dennett, Marcel Kinsbourne
1992 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
The standard Cartesian Theater model postulates a place in the brain where "it all comes together": where the discriminations in all modalities are somehow put into registration and "presented" for subjective  ...  The alternative, Multiple Drafts model holds that whereas the brain events that discriminate various perceptual contents are distributed in both space and time in the brain, and whereas the temporal properties  ...  /264/1/time%26obs.htm analysis and blinding theory-builders to other explanations.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x00068229 fatcat:7h4vln6755birluai76pimr3se

Applications of Virtual Reality in Engineering and Product Design: Why, What, How, When and Where

Aurora Berni, Yuri Borgianni
2020 Electronics  
The possibility to support early design phases by means of VR is mirrored by the attention on products that involve an emotional dimension beyond functional aspects, which are particularly focused on in  ...  virtual assemblies and prototypes.  ...  system or similar devices, and Desktop VR with stereo glasses for 3D visualization.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics9071064 fatcat:7c4n7nkmznetlbgz7m2znumw6u

Twenty years of load theory—Where are we now, and where should we go next?

Gillian Murphy, John A. Groeger, Ciara M. Greene
2016 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
It is now more than 20 years since the proposal of load theory, and it is a good time to evaluate the evidence in support of this influential model.  ...  The article comprises five parts, examining (1) evidence for the effects of perceptual load on attention, (2) cognitive load, (3) individual differences under load, (4) alternative theories and criticisms  ...  The efficiency of selective attention in most visual studies is measured by the difference in target response times for trials containing congruent and incongruent distractors.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13423-015-0982-5 pmid:26728138 fatcat:qo3kvgsccnc73gdbkepyiaz544

Aura Mapping: Where Vision and Somatosensation Meet

Frances Wilkinson
2021 Vision  
They timed, described and mapped their visual and somatosensory auras as they were in progress. Twenty-nine episode reports are summarized here.  ...  Various forms of the cortical spreading depression hypothesis of migraine aura are evaluated in terms of whether they can account for the timing, pattern of symptom spread and laterality of the recorded  ...  She would also like to thank the participants for their dedication to this project, and to acknowledge the support of the physicians and staff at the Clinique de la Migraine de Montréal who, over a period  ... 
doi:10.3390/vision5040052 pmid:34842832 pmcid:PMC8628888 fatcat:6spb3d3oznc4nknlf5lgptklku

Deciding where to look based on visual, auditory, and semantic information

Kyeong-Jin Tark, Clayton E. Curtis
2013 Brain Research  
Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how target selection may generalize beyond visual transformations when auditory and semantic information is used for selection.  ...  We compared activity in the frontal and parietal cortex when subjects made visually, aurally, and semantically guided saccades to one of fourts.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Adam Riggall and Keith Sanzenbach for technical support. Funded by US National Institutes of Health R01 EY016407.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2013.06.002 pmid:23769862 pmcid:PMC3746794 fatcat:er462iwttbamdajodxoinhij3u

Audio-visual attractors for capturing attention to the screens when walking in CAVE systems

F. Grani, F. Argelaguet, V. Gouranton, M. Badawi, R. Gaugne, S. Serafin, A. Lecuyer
2014 2014 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR)  
An experiment was conducted in order to analyze how user attention is diverted while physically walking in a virtual environment, when audio and/or visual attractors are present.  ...  The experiment analyzed how different "attractors" (audio and/or visual, static or dynamic) modify the user's attention.  ...  Plot shows a clear increase of attractiveness for the crow and the goose when visible and audible at the same time.  ... 
doi:10.1109/vr.2014.6802058 dblp:conf/vr/GraniAGBGSL14a fatcat:tvddcpeb2faafpsamopdtx7xzq

Where the Garment Gapes: On Objectification, Narrative Structure, and Sympathy in The Fermata versus Cashback

Nienke Sinnema
2015 Zenodo  
Both narrative texts focus on a young man who freezes time to undress women.  ...  Based on their actions, one would assume to feel more sympathy for Cashback's Ben than for The Fermata's Arno. However, a case is made for the opposite.  ...  On the visual track he is not the active male Hollywood hero that we have come to expect and are willing to engage with, nor does the audio track make up for this lack of assurance.Ben mostly acts muted  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4161779 fatcat:zu7yrygrlbeunayp3pqxk5ohlu

Explainable recommendation: when design meets trust calibration

Mohammad Naiseh, Dena Al-Thani, Nan Jiang, Raian Ali
2021 World wide web (Bussum)  
As a conclusion of our research, we provide five design principles: Design for engagement, challenging habitual actions, attention guidance, friction and support training and learning.  ...  An essential requirement for their success is the ability to provide explanations about themselves that are understandable and meaningful to the users.  ...  Acknowledgements This work is partially funded by iQ HealthTech and Bournemouth University PGR development fund.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11280-021-00916-0 pmid:34366701 pmcid:PMC8327305 fatcat:7mipj7ejpfbkxoq53oubsxw7ea

Speech Perception: When to Put Your Money Where the Mouth Is

K.G. Munhall, E.K. Johnson
2012 Current Biology  
the integration of the audio and visual aspects of speech [8] .  ...  If adult gaze fixations serve as the benchmark, then there is still much uncertainty about when and where people direct their attention during speech perception and what benefit they gain from the distribution  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.02.026 pmid:22440802 fatcat:j66ukcme45fzbcggccdft42jaq

Proprioception: where are we now? A commentary on clinical assessment, changes across the life course, functional implications and future interventions

K. J. Suetterlin, A. A. Sayer
2013 Age and Ageing  
Proprioception, the sense of where one is in space, is essential for effective interaction with the environment.  ...  We look at approaches to the clinical assessment of proprioception, changes in proprioception across the life course, functional implications of proprioception in health and disease and the potential for  ...  Proprioception is the sense of where one's body is in space. By its very nature, it is critical for meaningful interaction with the environment.  ... 
doi:10.1093/ageing/aft174 pmid:24231586 fatcat:xhiruomo5vep3ad6quy6m5zaqq

When room size matters: Acoustic influences on emotional responses to sounds

Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Pontus Larsson, Aleksander Väljamäe, Daniel Västfjäll, Mendel Kleiner
2010 Emotion  
These effects were more pronounced for natural, compared to artificial, sound sources, as confirmed by subjective and physiological measures.  ...  When people hear a sound (a "sound object" or a "sound event") the perceived auditory space around them might modulate their emotional responses to it.  ...  These results might suggest the existence of an auditory attention and emotion bias towards the space outside one's visual field.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0018423 pmid:20515229 fatcat:cvxfo53ohjgnnh4myjryu2dhke
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