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When is social computation better than the sum of its parts? [article]

Vadas Gintautas, Aric Hagberg, Luis M. A. Bettencourt
2011 arXiv   pre-print
Social computation, whether in the form of searches performed by swarms of agents or collective predictions of markets, often supplies remarkably good solutions to complex problems.  ...  We explore the types of search problems, defined in terms of the statistical properties of the source and the nature of measurements at each agent, for which coordination among multiple searchers yields  ...  To improve the efficiency of search by using more than one searcher requires determining under what circumstances a collective (parallel) search is better (faster) than the independent combination of the  ... 
arXiv:1103.4854v1 fatcat:clkdhb6ofzhe7b6i552rwww7ti

When is social computation better than the sum of its parts? [chapter]

Vadas Gintautas, Aric Hagberg, Luís M. A. Bettencourt
2009 Social Computing and Behavioral Modeling  
We explore the types of search problems, defined in terms of the statistical properties of the source and the nature of measurements at each agent, for which coordination among multiple searchers yields  ...  Specifically, we illustrate the problem in terms of local search algorithms for autonomous agents looking for the spatial location of a stochastic source.  ...  To improve the efficiency of search by using more than one searcher requires determining under what circumstances a collective (parallel) search is better (faster) than the independent combination of the  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-0056-2_13 fatcat:m5u56oefxjcchp57nq6kis2pqq

Part 1

Michael R. Botnick
2000 Journal of Homosexuality  
There are two explanations for its significance: first, it is the symbol for synergy, meaning that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; second, it is the Greek equivalent of the letter “L,”  ...  When the issue is translated into the example of HIV in impoverished communities of colour, it be- comes abundantly clear that it is a question of relative risk.  ... 
doi:10.1300/j082v38n04_03 pmid:10807028 fatcat:mgbo3fryqvehteqq3vxe2dlodm

Insatiability: Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution?

Lyle K. Grant
2014 Behavior and Social Issues  
This finding of income insatiability is consistent with the status of money as a powerful generalized reinforcer that is not subject to satiation.  ...  A conceptual solution to the problem is to accept and even embrace the insatiability of generalized reinforcers, yet to develop a culture of education and skills that empowers alternative generalized reinforcers  ...  is described in terms of the social validity of those procedures.  ... 
doi:10.5210/bsi.v23i0.5346 fatcat:7jwej5jbhfg3hcrt47gvgfmpqm

Taking part

Mark Matthews, Geri Gay, Gavin Doherty
2014 Proceedings of the 32nd annual ACM conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI '14  
This is a particular difficulty given that the experience of those with mental illness can be difficult for researchers to understand, and is further complicated by its associated stigma.  ...  We argue that role-play is particularly suited for use in mental healthcare settings and, when used judiciously, can address some of the difficulties associated with working in this setting.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would to thank the therapists who participated in the role-plays including Yvonne Tone, Debra Frankel, Simon Molloy, Fidelma Byrne and Alan Delahunty.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2556288.2557103 dblp:conf/chi/MatthewsGD14 fatcat:3bt6nh36orbj3h6knopb63hj6e

Acting the Part

Ahmer Arif, Leo Graiden Stewart, Kate Starbird
2018 Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction  
Later, when Twitter released a list of RU-IRA affiliated accounts during formal hearings with the U.S.  ...  Conceptually, this research enhances our understanding of how information operations can leverage the interactive social media environment to both reflect and shape existing social divisions. being affiliated  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research is a collaboration between the emCOMP lab and DataLab at the University of Washington and was supported by Office of Naval Research Grants N000141712980 and N000141812012  ... 
doi:10.1145/3274289 fatcat:vyqeiz5jtzbgdn7hm6dhprk6ne

FULL ISSUE, part 1

The Editors
2012 Biolinguistics  
But in the end we made it and are happy to present a comprehensive collection that reviews and advances the emerging field of "embodiment of language".  ...  We were intrigued by the possibility, least of all because it does offer new ways of probing language in the species, but also because of the top-notch research on mirror neurons coming from the field.  ...  It follows that mentalist interpretations are not in a better position than embodied approaches in describing the earliest forms of social cognition.  ... 
doaj:bed162fa24444775a70b3566e5ba3dce fatcat:wsqhp2tsbvcofc7ezol4cgzi4y

Expertise revisited, Part I—Interactional expertise

Harry Collins, Robert Evans
2015 Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A  
In sum, the shape of the bodies of the members of a social collectivity and the situations in which they find themselves give Dreyfus is famous for claiming that computers cannot act 'intelligently' because  ...  We claim that this is how every social group that is distinct in terms of its practices interacts with other social groups when that interaction is 'complex'ie, when that interaction demands understanding  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2015.07.004 pmid:26568093 fatcat:bliffrtmcbclbg2o2rpypycdjm

Doing More with Less: Price Discrimination with Three-Part vs. Two-Part Tariffs

Adib Bagh, Hemant K. Bhargava
2008 Social Science Research Network  
We show that a relatively small menu of three-part tariffs (3PTs) can be more profitable and, sometimes, socially more desirable than a larger menu (more items) of two-part tariffs (2PTs).  ...  We show that a relatively small menu of three-part tariffs (3PTs) can be more profitable and, sometimes, socially more desirable than a larger menu (more items) of two-part tariffs (2PTs).  ...  The surprising aspect of our result is that a three-part menu of i items can yield more profits than a menu of n two-part tariffs even when i is strictly less than n.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1134387 fatcat:q6tgumoxnbfoxe5c7vcyu4ebnu

Part II: Building Blocks [chapter]

2021 Economy Studies  
When the student comes to class for a lecture, for example, various questions arise: how is education organised, who performs what work and how is it financed?  ...  If the student pays by card, the bank also plays a role in his or her economic activity and becomes part of the exercise.  ...  This textbook is perhaps the most critical of this list, providing a sharp criticism of the neoclassical school as well as providing a wealth of empirical data and findings.  ... 
doi:10.1515/9789048552801-006 fatcat:2h754eallze27lru4os7yowzoy

Reinventing academic publishing online. Part I: Rigor, relevance and practice

Brian Whitworth, Rob Friedman
2009 First Monday  
Part II suggests the sort of socio-technical design needed to bring this transformation about.  ...  Excess rigor supports the demands of appointment, grant and promotion committees, but is drying up the wells of academic inspiration.  ...  insights, to Karen Patten and Elizabeth Whitworth for early help, to Jeff Axup for useful comments, to Peter Denning for a valuable redirection, to our First Monday reviewer for critical insights, and to the  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v14i8.2609 fatcat:r6haparvhfhelna3jhhkrcwnoi

Part 1: Growth Theory [chapter]

2021 Advanced Macroeconomics: An Easy Guide  
When we put all of this together, a surprising result emerges: the model can deliver a rate of innovation (and growth) that is higher than the social optimum.  ...  Because of the externality: private agents do not capture the full social benefit of their investment since part of it spills over to everyone else.  ... 
doi:10.31389/lsepress.ame.1 fatcat:hs5o3xjn65ekpdl5zvdfgcwcmm

Condensing Two-stage Detection with Automatic Object Key Part Discovery [article]

Zhe Chen, Jing Zhang, Dacheng Tao
2020 arXiv   pre-print
with the performance only deteriorating by 1.5% when waiving around 96% of the original model parameters.  ...  To address this problem, we propose that the model parameters of two-stage detection heads can be condensed and reduced by concentrating on object key parts.  ...  Suppose c i s is the sum of confidence values across K maps for the i-th object, and (c i s ) m is the spatial maximum summed confidence.  ... 
arXiv:2006.05597v3 fatcat:abjbuy6syrgjfa245veq64dofy

LazyNav: 3D ground navigation with non-critical body parts

Emilie Guy, Parinya Punpongsanon, Daisuke Iwai, Kosuke Sato, Tamy Boubekeur
2015 2015 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI)  
Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25540083, the European Commission under contracts FP7-323567 HARVEST4D and FP7-287723 REVERIE and the ANR iSpace&Time project  ...  Finally, to compute the step motion, we use the same angle than for the bend knee motion and we also compare the sum of the knee positions between the rest and current poses in the z axis to determine  ...  First, when the user is carrying a grocery bag in her hand, the bag can interfere with the tracked body points (i.e., it moves in front of the knees and it is wrongly detected as a body point by the RGB-D  ... 
doi:10.1109/3dui.2015.7131725 dblp:conf/3dui/GuyPISB15 fatcat:oiq7gxwp6bdobdqrevze6fhllq

Reinventing academic publishing online. Part II: A socio-technical vision

Brian Whitworth, Rob Friedman
2009 First Monday  
Part II now suggests the next evolutionary step is democratic online knowledge exchange, run by the academic many rather than the few.  ...  Part I of this paper outlined the limitations of feudal academic knowledge exchange and predicted its decline as cross-disciplinary research expands.  ...  Part I argued that the goal of academic knowledge exchange, to develop, discriminate and disseminate knowledge, is better served by a democratic social system rather than the current feudal one.  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v14i9.2642 fatcat:hxotn7fsyzdd3bajbbkbuc35f4
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