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How to Determine When SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Testing Is or Is Not Useful for Population Screening: A Tutorial

Niklas Keller, Mirjam A. Jenny
2020 MDM Policy & Practice  
For example, when only very few people in a population are infected, a positive test result has a high chance of being a false positive.  ...  But the usefulness of these tests depends not only on the quality of the test but also, critically, on how far disease has already spread in the population.  ...  The NPV is the value we are looking for when we wish to answer the question: ''Given a negative test result, how likely is it, that that person really has not undergone a SARS-CoV-2 infection?''  ... 
doi:10.1177/2381468320963068 pmid:33225066 pmcid:PMC7649853 fatcat:o27gjuxplngjbo3rtcmq3ety6u

Sed Lex, EudraLex: A Near Future Possibility for a Real Time Release Testing in Aseptic Processing when the Practice of Sterility Testing is not Possible

Didier Albert Meyer
2016 Pharmaceutical Technology in Hospital Pharmacy  
to the patient when sterility testing is either not applicable or when its result is only available after the administration.  ...  This Eudralex document to come in 2016 [1] emphasizes this idea, when sterility testing cannot be practiced or when it is economically absurd about a Real Time Release Testing (RTRT): "The previous guideline  ... 
doi:10.1515/pthp-2015-0004 fatcat:sthljhpmk5donhgbba6f6yhu4u

A Novel Design for Estimating Relative Accuracy of Screening Tests When Complete Disease Verification Is Not Feasible

Todd A. Alonzo, John M. Kittelson
2005 Biometrics  
However, it is not always feasible to administer a GS test to all study subjects.  ...  When determination of disease status is not possible for all study subjects, the relative accuracy of two screening tests can still be estimated by using a paired screen-positive (PSP) design in which  ...  This research is partially funded by NIH R01 GM54438.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1541-0420.2005.00445.x pmid:16918926 fatcat:jclg55ykjjforkluwrvwmrgrka

Population finiteness is not a concern for null hypothesis significance testing when studying human behavior. A reply to Pollet (2013)

Tadeg Quillien
2015 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
A commentary on Much ado about p. What does a p-value mean when testing hypotheses with aggregated cross-cultural data in the field of evolution and human behavior? by Pollet, TV (2013) . Front.  ...  The reason why they gather data on US states is because they aim at testing a general hypothesis about brains, and presumably find it convenient to use data that has been compiled for a country that merely  ...  Conflict of Interest Statement: The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2015.00081 pmid:25814923 pmcid:PMC4357258 fatcat:mq5ww6wf6na4xhdlgbt6f5p7di

Grounding the data. A response to: Population finiteness is not a concern for null hypothesis significance testing when studying human behavior

Thomas V. Pollet
2015 Frontiers in Psychology  
A commentary on Population finiteness is not a concern for null hypothesis significance testing when studying human behavior. A reply to Pollet (2013) by Quillien, T. (2015). Front. Neurosci. 9:81.  ...  However, what I highlighted is but a side-issue when working with macro-level cross-cultural data (e.g., Poortinga, 1989; Mace and Pagel, 1994; Pollet et al., 2014) .  ...  Quillien's argument thus seems to crucially rest on the claim that the observed unit of analysis is not a U.S. state score but rather something else.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01169 pmid:26300839 pmcid:PMC4526787 fatcat:67ycai7earefbdae6cwfh2fdxi

Genetic association tests when a nuisance parameter is not identifiable under no association

Wonkuk Kim, Yeong-Hwa Kim
2017 Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods  
When the mode of inheritance (MOI) is not specified in a case-control design, the Cochran-Armitage (CA) trend test contains an unidentifiable nuisance parameter.  ...  A common method is to use a Davies's upper bound of the p-value instead of an exact asymptotic p-value.  ...  Methods Suppose that the probability function p(y, β, α, ϕ) does not depend on θ when the null hypothesis is true, that is, H 0 : β = β 0 .  ... 
doi:10.29220/csam.2017.24.6.663 fatcat:lc3ak4xcefht7knvuund5pz67e

Strategies for Clarifying Penicillin Allergies When Skin Testing Is Not an Option

Elizabeth W. Covington, Mary Joyce B. Wingler, Rebecca A. Jayakumar, C. Whitney White
2019 Pharmacy  
This literature review describes the current literature surrounding the use of penicillin allergy interviews when skin testing is not an option.  ...  Though skin testing has been proposed as a method to clarify penicillin allergies, many institutions may lack the resources to perform skin testing on a wide scale.  ...  Though many penicillin allergies wane over time, a significant proportion of patients cannot be de-labeled if further testing is not performed [31, 35] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/pharmacy7020069 pmid:31248168 pmcid:PMC6630467 fatcat:jtqq4zruzncv3igg2ves77vjgi

Exercise testing when there is not a doctor present: recommendations of the Medical Practice Committee and Council of the British Cardiac Society

1993 Heart  
Exercise testing when there is not a doctor present: Recommendations of the Medical Practice Committee and Council of the British Cardiac Society 1 LOCATION OF THE EXERCISE ROOM Previous Region quota  ...  The technician should not perform the test if the medical details on the forms are not completed correctly or the forms are not signed by the responsible physician.  ... 
pmid:8260288 pmcid:PMC1025372 fatcat:u3ufvo3hjfbc5nmbhkd7ul44p4

Exercise testing when there is not a doctor present: recommendations of the Medical Practice Committee and Council of the British Cardiac Society

1993 Heart  
Exercise testing when there is not a doctor present: Recommendations of the Medical Practice Committee and Council of the British Cardiac Society 1 LOCATION OF THE EXERCISE ROOM Previous Region quota  ...  The technician should not perform the test if the medical details on the forms are not completed correctly or the forms are not signed by the responsible physician.  ... 
doi:10.1136/hrt.70.5.488 fatcat:fzbyzm4qgjf2jpa633qbykmqdu

Secretory Carcinoma of the Parotid: Making the Correct Diagnosis of a Rare Salivary Gland Carcinoma When Molecular Biology Testing Is Not Available

Nelson Montalvo, David Galarza, Ligia Redrobán
2019 Case Reports in Pathology  
, which is actually a rule-out diagnosis.  ...  diagnoses, when necessary.  ...  Even when a rare case is involved, it is important to keep in mind the typical findings and presentation, since it is probable that a larger number of clinicians will see these cases and thus potentially  ... 
doi:10.1155/2019/5103496 pmid:31007960 pmcid:PMC6441535 fatcat:4h226mspybgp3iogrlxxolg6lm

When a Case Is Not a Case: Effects of Phenotype Misclassification on Power and Sample Size Requirements for the Transmission Disequilibrium Test with Affected Child Trios

Steven Buyske, Guang Yang, Tara C. Matise, Derek Gordon
2009 Human Heredity  
A 39-fold sample size increase is required when the misclassification rate is 5% and the disease prevalence is 1%.  ...  We compute the non-centrality parameter of the distribution corresponding to the TDT statistic when there is linkage and association of a marker locus with a disease locus and there is phenotype misclassification  ...  For example, when the prevalence is 0.025, a 0.01 misclassification rate requires 1363 trios to achieve the desired power.  ... 
doi:10.1159/000194981 pmid:19172087 fatcat:p5itueqel5c2tjrvt6w5k7igsm

When the Whole is Not Greater than the Sum of the Parts: A Critical Review of Laboratory Bioassay Effects Testing for Insecticidal Protein Interactions

Frederick S Walters, Gerson Graser, Andrea Burns, Alan Raybould
2018 Environmental Entomology  
A brief overview of the positioning of interaction testing data in safety assessments of GM food crops is also provided.  ...  A contrast of underlying testing assumptions associated with the additivity models is provided, along with a comprehensive review of interaction data for Cry1, Cry2, Cry3, Cry9, and Vip3A insecticidal  ...  And if the above hypothesis (that the toxicity of the insecticidal proteins in the transgenic crop is no greater when the traits are combined than when the traits are separate) is not corroborated, one  ... 
doi:10.1093/ee/nvx207 pmid:29432611 pmcid:PMC5888968 fatcat:2phn424e4be4xmhgp5kzuiljxi

When a test is too good: how CT pulmonary angiograms find pulmonary emboli that do not need to be found

R. S. Wiener, L. M. Schwartz, S. Woloshin
2013 The BMJ (British Medical Journal)  
The answer is not simply to do less testing-clinicians should continue to have a low threshold for considering pulmonary embolism-but to test (and subsequently treat) more selectively and to consider alternative  ...  score <4 do not need any imaging as long as their D-dimer blood concentration is normal CT pulmonary angiography is always the best test • CT pulmonary angiography is sensitive and easy to get, but for  ... 
doi:10.1136/bmj.f3368 pmid:23820021 pmcid:PMC4688549 fatcat:6kmhkgucyjeizls3mcvn3jxwrm

Interpretations of the Term "Actionable" when Discussing Genetic Test Results: What you Mean Is Not What I Heard

Michele C. Gornick, Kerry A. Ryan, Aaron M. Scherer, J. Scott Roberts, Raymond G. De Vries, Wendy R. Uhlmann
2018 Journal of Genetic Counseling  
This describes the situation when genetic testing may be done, even though the anticipated yield of a positive result is low, in order to not miss a potential diagnosis for which there could be a treatment  ...  In this context, testing is being used to determine that nothing more can be done, and it needs to be made clear to the patient that doing this testing might be a "last resort" option.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10897-018-0289-6 pmid:30194681 fatcat:az7l545rxvhi5o3prqm2ah65pe

Effect of vitamin D supplementation on aortic stiffness and central haemodynamics in older individuals with vitamin D deficiency: promising observational data is not supported when tested by double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial design

P. Veloudi, C. Ding, L. Blizzard, G. Jones, F. Cicuttini, A. Wluka, T. Winzenberg, J. Sharman
2014 Artery Research  
WHEN TESTED BY DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, RANDOMISED TRIAL DESIGN P.  ...  Although cross-sectional, these results indicate that a high GLP-1 response has a beneficial impact on the vascular function but not on vascular structure, whereas GIP does not affect the vasculature.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.artres.2014.09.066 fatcat:yfshziv5svac3lrd2yfwzvfj7a
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