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When Does Contrastive Visual Representation Learning Work? [article]

Elijah Cole, Xuan Yang, Kimberly Wilber, Oisin Mac Aodha, Serge Belongie
2022 arXiv   pre-print
representations, (iii) corrupted pretraining images have a disparate impact on supervised and self-supervised pretraining, and (iv) contrastive learning lags far behind supervised learning on fine-grained  ...  visual classification tasks.  ...  This work was supported by the Caltech Resnick Sustainability Institute, an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (grant number DGE1745301), and the Pioneer Centre for AI (DNRF grant number P1).  ... 
arXiv:2105.05837v2 fatcat:77rgzospbvg6zbz6imyejmwfgm

Banishing the homunculus: Making working memory work

T.E. Hazy, M.J. Frank, R.C. O'Reilly
2006 Neuroscience  
The model, called PBWM (prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia working memory model), relies on actively maintained representations in the prefrontal cortex, which are dynamically updated/gated by the basal  ...  The model can learn challenging working memory tasks, and has been corroborated by several important empirical studies. © 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.  ...  Learning what and when to gate: Underlying all successful working memory task performance is the need to learn when to gate appropriately.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.04.067 pmid:16343792 fatcat:efb7e3iyozdffdulqgeaqwkfwq

Evolution of working memory

P. Carruthers
2013 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
In contrast, experimental work with animals suggests that their WM limits may fall within the human range.  ...  The other contrast is with what is sometimes called in the human literature "long-term working memory" (18) .  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.1301195110 pmid:23754428 pmcid:PMC3690618 fatcat:warwvvgcovhkljtpnxc5xcmwxi

Working memory1

Graham J. Hitch
1984 Psychological Medicine  
Two factors which complicate the interpretation of the letter-matching task are the possible role of verbal coding of the alphabetic stimuli, and the existence of well-learned representations in long-term  ...  Visually identical pairs (e.g. AA) receive faster responses than non-identical pairs (aA) at short delays, suggesting the persistence of some form of visual representation for up to a few seconds.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0033291700003548 fatcat:twzsncz4hbf5rfghlvlylllsmq

Working Models of Perception; Five General Issues [chapter]

Willem J.M. Levelt
1989 Working Models of Human Perception  
Fourcin reminded us of the learning problems of the hard of hearing when they want to acquire the phonetic contrasts of their language.  ...  In fact, it has been suggested that the visual module's output is a kind of 2.5-D representation in Marr's sense.  ... 
doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-238050-1.50028-7 fatcat:d3no7y5tbren7kpg4kyotfqswe

Does learning to read shape verbal working memory?

Catherine Demoulin, Régine Kolinsky
2015 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
In contrast, very little attention has been dedicated to the converse possibility that learning to read shapes the development of verbal memory processes.  ...  In addition, learning to read and write in an alphabetical system allows the emergence of phonemic awareness and finely tuned phonological representations, as well as of orthographic representations.  ...  Learning to read: A task engaging working memory The alphabetic writing system is based on the representation of phonemes by individual letters or groups of letters, the graphemes (e.g., Bsh^in Bshe^;  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13423-015-0956-7 pmid:26438254 fatcat:43fv4prdlrdpjjhpq4igzzoov4

External cognition: how do graphical representations work?

Mike Scaife, Yvonne Rogers
1996 International Journal of Human-Computer Studies  
Our analysis reveals a fragmented and poorly understood account of how graphical representations work , exposing a number of assumptions and fallacies .  ...  Many benefits have been claimed for this new kind of interactivity , a general assumption being that learning and cognitive processing are facilitated .  ...  The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge support for this work from the ESRC (Cognitive Engineering Programme award L127251033) .  ... 
doi:10.1006/ijhc.1996.0048 fatcat:dk6bm4cwqzegdgvs2edlsjram4

A multisensory perspective of working memory

Michel Quak, Raquel Elea London, Durk Talsma
2015 Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
Although our sensory experience is mostly multisensory in nature, research on working memory representations has focused mainly on examining the senses in isolation.  ...  We argue that a multisensory approach to the study of working memory is indispensable to achieve a realistic understanding of how working memory processes maintain and manipulate information.  ...  This memory representation does not only consist of information coming from different modalities but also includes information from long-term memory such as semantic knowledge or learned associations.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00197 pmid:25954176 pmcid:PMC4404829 fatcat:eapdygbwk5gnza5mtibqpgontq

Attention for action in visual working memory

Christian N.L. Olivers, Pieter R. Roelfsema
2020 Cortex  
From the conception of Baddeley's visuospatial sketchpad, visual working memory and visual attention have been closely linked concepts.  ...  However, empirical evidence from various paradigms and dependent measures has now firmly established an at least partial dissociation between visual attention and visual working memory maintenance - thus  ...  Shared representations for working memory and mental imagery in early visual cortex. Current Biology, 23(15), 1427e1431. ).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2020.07.011 pmid:32892152 fatcat:dfwhoclexzbyfpju5wqzh6pnha

Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory

Yu-Xuan Zhang, David R. Moore, Jeanne Guiraud, Katharine Molloy, Ting-Ting Yan, Sygal Amitay, Philip Allen
2016 PLoS ONE  
Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM).  ...  Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not.  ...  Temporal-interval discrimination training, which does not benefit FD performance when conducted alone, does so when mixed with FD training [11] .  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147320 pmid:26799068 pmcid:PMC4723131 fatcat:6ss4iavrqvbihb6fjjqedpcyma

Associative learning improves visual working memory performance

Ingrid R. Olson, Yuhong Jiang, Katherine Sledge Moore
2005 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance  
The ability to remember visual stimuli over a short delay period is limited by the small capacity of visual working memory (VWM). Here the authors investigate the role of learning in enhancing VWM.  ...  Spatial VWM performance increased significantly when the same location changed across display repetitions, but not at all when different locations changed from one display repetition to another.  ...  Does associative learning influence VWM immediately after the presentation of the memory display, or does it affect VWM only after the presentation of the probe display, when explicit comparison is needed  ... 
doi:10.1037/0096-1523.31.5.889 pmid:16262486 fatcat:vcrm7efq5vft7e34z6ybdqfi6q

Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory

Ilja G. Sligte
2010 Frontiers in Psychology  
This suggests that people maintain many highresolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory.  ...  Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory  ...  Finally, when new visual stimulation (such as the test display) is shown all representations that have not received top-down amplification are overwritten (visual working memory).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00175 pmid:21897823 pmcid:PMC3158431 fatcat:juffldyqevcyxkb5mr2ob323b4

Modules of Working Memory [chapter]

John Jonides, Ching-Yune C. Sylvester, Steven C. Lacey, Tor D. Wager, Thomas E. Nichols, Edward Awh
2003 Principles of Learning and Memory  
We also know that when the brain structures that mediate working memory are compromised by illness or injury, not only does working memory itself suffer, but deficits also pervade the cognitive skills  ...  the episodic tag of when an item appeared in a series, and inhibition of the potency of a familiarity representation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-0348-8030-5_7 fatcat:heae4qmqz5fxnbp6bpewnforne

How camouflage works

Sami Merilaita, Nicholas E. Scott-Samuel, Innes C. Cuthill
2017 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences  
This is what camouflage does. Thus studying only photon flux and ignoring perception cannot lead us to an understanding of how camouflage works.  ...  Visual perception While it is convenient to conceive of vision as a sequence of information processing steps from photoreceptor to feature detection to object recognition to mental representation, with  ... 
doi:10.1098/rstb.2016.0341 pmid:28533458 pmcid:PMC5444062 fatcat:7p27tivvujcsjjfthnikrvrmbe

How Do Vision Transformers Work? [article]

Namuk Park, Songkuk Kim
2022 arXiv   pre-print
The code is available at https://github.com/xxxnell/how-do-vits-work.  ...  However, little is known about how MSAs work. We present fundamental explanations to help better understand the nature of MSAs.  ...  The code is available at https://github.com/xxxnell/how-do-vits-work. Appendix A.1 provides the specifications of all models used in this work.  ... 
arXiv:2202.06709v4 fatcat:vc5mmudxkjdvvocwi2ggwzsdky
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