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What are Weak Links in the npm Supply Chain? [article]

Nusrat Zahan, Laurie Williams, Thomas Zimmermann, Patrice Godefroid, Brendan Murphy, Chandra Maddila
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The goal of this work is to help software developers and security specialists identify weak links in a software supply chain by empirically studying npm package metadata.  ...  We obtained feedback on our weak link signals through a survey responded to by 470 npm package developers. The majority of the developers supported three out of our six proposed weak link signals.  ...  We acknowledge the npm package maintainers contributions to our study. We also thank the NCSU Realsearch group for valuable feedback.  ... 
arXiv:2112.10165v1 fatcat:njtpdwovqjcwncw6z5jt7g7tuy

Backstabber's Knife Collection: A Review of Open Source Software Supply Chain Attacks [chapter]

Marc Ohm, Henrik Plate, Arnold Sykosch, Michael Meier
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A software supply chain attack is characterized by the injection of malicious code into a software package in order to compromise dependent systems further down the chain.  ...  This paper presents a dataset as well as analysis of 174 malicious software packages that were used in real-world attacks on open source software supply chains and which were distributed via the popular  ...  This work is funded under the SPARTA project, which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 830892.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-52683-2_2 fatcat:doq7zzm5lbcxdjrycvwcqw3uy4

Towards Measuring Supply Chain Attacks on Package Managers for Interpreted Languages [article]

Ruian Duan, Omar Alrawi, Ranjita Pai Kasturi, Ryan Elder, Brendan Saltaformaggio, Wenke Lee
2020 arXiv   pre-print
For example, eslint-scope, a package with millions of weekly downloads in Npm, was compromised to steal credentials from developers.  ...  To understand the security gaps and the misplaced trust that make recent supply chain attacks possible, we propose a comparative framework to qualitatively assess the functional and security features of  ...  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of our sponsors or collaborators.  ... 
arXiv:2002.01139v2 fatcat:n3k62ggdorag5ep5isqznct3z4

Control and accountability in supply chain management: Evidence from a South African metropolitan municipality

Modeni Mudzamba Sibanda, Beauty Zindi, Tafadzwa Clementine Maramura, Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek
2020 Cogent Business & Management  
Accountability requires supply chain management (SCM) public officials to account for, report on, explain and justify activities, and accept responsibility for municipal financial expenditure outcomes.  ...  The consequences are pervasive non-compliance with SCM policy, procuring and tendering processes, favouritism and corruptible tendencies.  ...  The introduction of supply chain management systems in South African  ... 
doi:10.1080/23311975.2020.1785105 fatcat:wkk74umo6ffdfhw4sg47rwtdz4

Exploring forecasting and project management characteristics of supply chain management

Alan D. Smith, O. Felix Offodile
2007 International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management  
Essential questions were sought within the empirical portions of this study: What is the perception of SCM amongst top management? How is SCM linked to corporate strategy and corporate objectives?  ...  Effective forecasting with the framework of Supply Chain Management (SCM) requires precise and decisive strategic leadership supportive of the roles of such tools.  ...  While supply chain managers should understand what the major efficiency goals of SCM and promoting vendor relationships, people in other parts of the organisation may not.  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijlsm.2007.011821 fatcat:s54beqri7ff4fkafi4gutdsgfi

The Globalization of Public Services Production: Can Government be 'Best in World'?

Patrick Dunleavy
1994 Public Policy and Administration  
Although the full NPM agenda is only partially implemented in some countries, it has already had enormous impacts in creating a proto-market in the public services.  ...  These developments are likely to erode the 'core competencies' of government, undermining the state's ability to act even as an 'intelligent consumer' in the face of increasing concentrations of expertise  ...  , what technologies are employed, and what treatments are attempted in public services.  ... 
doi:10.1177/095207679400900204 fatcat:l6endcr2o5bd5mgonqapyscjme

NPM Reforms in Ghana's Public Sector Management & Administration: Changing Trends in MDAs & MMDAs Functions

Nick Fobih
2020 Journal of Public Administration and Governance  
The study also examines the challenges that have been encountered in the implementation process and recommendations to address the weaknesses in the system.  ...  The purpose of the study is to examine the new public management (NPM) reforms in Ghana's Ministries, Departments and Agencies, and at the local government level in terms of key changes implemented and  ...  And what are some of the major challenges hindering the success of the NPM reforms in Ghana?  ... 
doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17955 fatcat:yb3gltwvkrhb3orhg6mrjikvbi

Accountability and health systems: toward conceptual clarity and policy relevance

D. W Brinkerhoff
2004 Health Policy and Planning  
Agency for International Development, through the Partners for Health Reform Project, Phase II (PHRplus). The views expressed are solely those of the author and should not be attributed to USAID.  ...  Acknowledgements Support for this research, conducted while the author was at Abt Associates, is acknowledged from the U.S.  ...  information or impose sanctions: Weak â, Medium ò, Strong ê which actors are in a position to demand information and impose sanctions, and which actors are charged with supplying information and are subject  ... 
doi:10.1093/heapol/czh052 pmid:15459162 fatcat:eunq2q75zrafjdblas7yxjxqe4

Overlaps between Human Resources' Strategic Planning and Strategic Management Tools in Public Organizations

Jalil Bagheri
2016 Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences  
The aim of this paper is to present scientific research about the applicability and efficiency of two strategic management tools including the analysis of value chain and stakeholder analysis in the public  ...  organizations and to suggest that strategic tools such as value chain analysis used in public organizations need to adapt themselves to presupposed conditions in order to maximize the effect of them for  ...  The interest in the value chain framework initially obtains through operations and supply chain management perspectives.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.09.054 fatcat:syjyzhowsfc5vcb53rt425npl4

New Models of Contracting in the Public Sector: A Review of Alliance Contracting, Prime Contracting and Outcome-based Contracting Literature

Marie Sanderson, Pauline Allen, Randeep Gill, Emma Garnett
2017 Social Policy & Administration  
These new contractual forms are characterised as models which, in line with the New Public Management/post New Public Management agenda, seek to incentivise providers through the transfer of risk from  ...  Key findings are that the models are likely to incur high transaction costs relating to the negotiation and specification of outcomes and rely heavily on the relational aspects of contracting.  ...  and the prime contractor team (Defence Estates and Ministry of Defence, 2003 , Kebede, 2011 , and within the supply chain (Finn, 2012, p5) .  ... 
doi:10.1111/spol.12322 fatcat:tuj444j7dbc4rlb6ol4t3rasoq

Rethinking New Public Management: A Metaphorical Approach

Bin Chen
2016 Chinese Public Administration Review  
To reinvent their public sectors, many countries have embraced the ideas of NPM that are based on the private sector model.  ...  Through the lens of a metaphorical analysis, this paper highlights and explores the specific weakness in the NPM's claim of a convergence to a business-like model driven by competition and technological  ...  One must ask some questions: Whose goals are being pursued? What interests are being served? And who benefits? A number of winners have been identified in the NPM reform.  ... 
doi:10.22140/cpar.v6i3/4.90 fatcat:zt67yjsbebb2tjbllrqo2jvlve

Digital Government, Open Architecture, and Innovation: Why Public Sector IT Will Never Be the Same Again

J. Fishenden, M. Thompson
2012 Journal of public administration research and theory  
citizen in the form of services.  ...  implications for the way in which the state buys and deploys technology.  ...  Providing you achieve these, we don't care how you do it, or what sort of supplier you are."  ... 
doi:10.1093/jopart/mus022 fatcat:lbbsrlq6zje5vk5t2cwi2z5yiy

Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

Hallie Eakin, Siri Eriksen, Per-Ove Eikeland, Cecilie Øyen
2011 Environmental Management  
Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-foradaptation" with the current paradigms of public  ...  Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been  ...  Any opinions and interpretations expressed in this article are those of the authors and not of the funding agencies.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00267-010-9605-0 pmid:21229245 pmcid:PMC3056008 fatcat:i6ydevncpfabbblocwxn6olctq

Farmers' Participation in Knowledge Circulation and the Promotion of Agroecological Methods in South India

Saurabh Arora
2012 Journal of Sustainable Agriculture  
The links in this network are directed, representing the flow of knowledge from a source to a recipient.  ...  the provision of chemical inputs or through the supply of farm-inputs on credit to farmers).  ... 
doi:10.1080/10440046.2011.620231 fatcat:v54zdegixffhfdvsvwzv4qs56a

Chromatin Decondensation and Nuclear Reprogramming by Nucleoplasmin

H. Tamada, N. V. Thuan, P. Reed, D. Nelson, N. Katoku-Kikyo, J. Wudel, T. Wakayama, N. Kikyo
2006 Molecular and Cellular Biology  
Here we found that Npm could widely decondense chromatin in undifferentiated mouse cells without overt histone exchanges but with specific epigenetic modifications that are relevant to open chromatin structure  ...  Decondensation of sperm chromatin in eggs is explained by the replacement of sperm-specific histone variants with egg-type histones by the egg protein nucleoplasmin (Npm).  ...  This work was supported by the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program to D.N., a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Priority Areas (15080211) and Project for the Realization of Regenerative Medicine  ... 
doi:10.1128/mcb.26.4.1259-1271.2006 pmid:16449640 pmcid:PMC1367201 fatcat:nivetlp26vdcrkl42oxd4syway
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