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What a Difference a Variable Makes [chapter]

Marijn J. H. Heule, Armin Biere
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Applying our tool to PR proofs of pigeon-hole formulas results in short DRAT proofs, linear in size with respect to the size of the input formula, which have been certified by a formally verified proof  ...  The PR proof system allows short proofs without new variables for some hard problems, while the DRAT proof system is supported by top-tier SAT solvers.  ...  Short proofs for hard formulas in the RAT proof system likely require many new variables, making it difficult to find them automatically.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-89963-3_5 fatcat:jxqfz6wcyncvlixc4yry23v65q

Causes That Make a Difference

C. Kenneth Waters
2007 Journal of Philosophy  
The distinction between triggering and structural causes, or something much like it, can be sustained by analyzing it in terms of actual difference making causes, rather than mere causes.  ...  In this case, the match would have lit at a later time. Hence, one might argue that the timing of the match lighting was caused by such a series of events not occurring.  ...  uniform values taken by what I'm calling the potential difference making variables.  ... 
doi:10.5840/jphil2007104111 fatcat:dknuh5vfuva3lnuidr2fcbbpgy

Critical Temperature from Unsupervised Deep Learning Autoencoders

Andreas Athenodorou
2022 Zenodo  
We define as a quasi-order parameter the absolute average latent variable, which enables us to predict the critical temperature.  ...  We demonstrate that we can define a latent susceptibility and use it to quantify the value of the critical temperature Tc(L) at different lattice sizes and that these values suffer from smaller finite  ...  Different Temperature Windows What happens within different "temperature windows" What if we use a temperature window within the range T = 1 − 2 and apply the autoencoder • Two ordered states are visible  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6373351 fatcat:54tziaguqrbdffsgklx4zlpbra

Identifying Exogenous Cultural Variables in Ethical Decision Making in Negotiation: A Qualitative Study of Differences Between Australia and China

Cheryl Rivers, Anne Louise Lytle, Michael J.V. Hudson
2003 Social Science Research Network  
It focuses not on the end-product differences between cultures -what is or is not ethical as a tactic in negotiation -but on how negotiators see the situation and what variables they take into account  ...  have a new baby in the house. need to ask and answer the question: what are the cross-cultural differences in how the legal environment influences ethical decision-making?  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.400920 fatcat:s3ovc2uvtfbd3ckh72d2b6voym

Critical Temperature from Unsupervised Deep Learning Autoencoders

Andreas Athenodorou
2022 Zenodo  
We define as a quasi-order parameter the absolute average latent variable, which enables us to predict the critical temperature.  ...  We demonstrate that we can define a latent susceptibility and use it to quantify the value of the critical temperature Tc(L) at different lattice sizes and that these values suffer from smaller finite  ...  • We define new observables: The latent variable and latent susceptibility • We can determine the critical temperature T C to an adequate accuracy. • We can extract T C as a function of L with small finite  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.6405399 fatcat:bcqaehqn55ed7jliqrzicrcq6y

Page 414 of MIND Vol. 34, Issue 136 [page]

1925 MIND  
We could easily make the distinction in other ways; for instance by determining that if the variable came after the ¢ it should mean what we now express by ¢2, but if before the ¢ what we express by /(  ...  itself in terms of our “previous treatment of the difference between substantive and adjective ; namely that attaching the variable z helps us to make the distinction we require to make in the case of  ... 

Page 76 of Contemporary Psychology Vol. 44, Issue 1 [page]

1999 Contemporary Psychology  
Foremost, they focus on what makes a psychotherapist highly effective.  ...  Toward Addressing the Best of Questions: What Makes a Psychotherapist Highly Effective? Doing Psychotherapy Effectively by Mona Sue Weissmark and Daniel A.  ... 

Normative commitments, causal structure, and policy disagreement

Georgie Statham
2018 Synthese  
fixed, and therefore which variables should be relegated to the background of a causal model.  ...  Thus, focusing on a new context has revealed a previously unexplored sense in which normative factors are incorporated into causal reasoning.  ...  A number of variables were mentioned as making a difference to the price of renewables.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11229-018-1775-y fatcat:72qjzty5kfawtctya2qrf7auji

The Central Dogma as a thesis of causal specificity

Marcel Weber
2006 History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences  
Analyzing in particular the experimental evidence that Crick cited, I argue that these hypotheses can be understood as claims about the actual difference-making cause in protein synthesis.  ...  I first show that causal specificity is a special kind of invariance under interventions, namely invariance of generalizations that range over finite sets of discrete variables.  ...  The striking is what made the difference; it was the actual difference-making cause. The other factors were merely potential difference-making causes.  ... 
pmid:18351054 fatcat:7gesulrefjbxfnkudodfduqmp4

The Effect of the Program of Using the Technology Education to Learning Some Basic Skills in Basketball

2015 مجلة تطبیقات علوم الریاضة  
The study aims to design an educational program by using Whats App program on mobile phones in order to learn some basic skills in basketball and to recognize the effect of the program on students learning  ...  mobile phone in learning affects positively the ability development to learn some basic skills in basketball in the experimental group and using learning through mobile phone in the athletic education had a  ...  To make use of Whats App program in teaching players other skills in different sports. 5. To make use of Whats App program in different age stages.  ... 
doi:10.21608/jass.2015.84485 fatcat:pag6ctk6hrf7xi75sxxggbx4m4

Teacher subject matter knowledge for the meaningful transition from arithmetic to algebra

Pınar Yıldız, İ. Elif Yetkin Özdemir
2021 Journal of Pedagogical Research  
Developing a solid understanding of algebra requires teachers to unpack the meaning underlying the basic concepts, make clear and explicit distinctions among concepts, and facilitate students to connect  ...  Trimming, on the other hand, was not observed as a common teaching practice.  ...  Emre: and , here, are different concepts. is a different value, is a different value. What did we just say instead of ? Students: Pen.  ... 
doi:10.33902/jpr.2021474587 fatcat:ul2gu3vkvrcb3o6zxbjjqr2nbu

Its All on the Square- The Importance of the Sum of Squares and Making the General Linear Model Simple [article]

Alexander Nussbaum, Richard Seides
2016 arXiv   pre-print
Adding to the difficulty is that undergraduate textbooks tend to make statistical tests seem to be an unorganized conglomeration of unrelated procedures, and this leads to a failure of students to understand  ...  Yet statistics is difficult to understand for a large percentage of those who will be evaluating and even doing research.  ...  Dividing by 4 instead of 5 makes a noticeable difference, dividing by 999 instead of 1000 makes no practical difference. ! 13 By how much do the 30 and 20 differ?  ... 
arXiv:1604.05418v1 fatcat:tglc64fk4zaf3f5cfdmwczxmdi

Effect of Organizational Climate on Teaching Professional Competencies of Public School Teachers in Punjab

Perviz Iqbal
2020 Pakistan Social Sciences Review  
The decision making process was highly and positively correlating component of organizational climate with the teachers' competence factor, teaching methods and strategies competence.  ...  The difference with what researchers do is the number of variables. In this study there are four variables while the researchers conducted only three variables.  ...  The equation with what the researchers did was in the dependent variable, the teacher's performance. The difference is in the object of research and the independent variables are different.  ... 
doi:10.35484/pssr.2020(4-ii)10 fatcat:gtrtnh5fxjecpiqxstb6rujv3i

Hypothesis Development

2017 Asian Research Journal of Business Management  
Depending with the situation at hand, researcher's deals with hypothesis as a guess or a basis of reasoning making it an area of interest in the Global Market.  ...  Hypothesis therefor is an important tool, in observations and making concrete decision of delicate situation and complicated matters at hand. It is a very reliable tool for gauging the situation.  ...  To guarantee a fair test when conducting the experiment, make sure that the only thing changing is the independent variable. All controlled variables must remain constant.  ... 
doi:10.24214/arjbm/4/4/125130 fatcat:yltt3kk4gzd4nlunf7qtxhcn54

Page 209 of Chemical Engineering Vol. 60, Issue 5 [page]

1953 Chemical Engineering  
However, what should we consider as a sufficiently large or small differ- ence, especially when results of the individual tests in each series differ among themselves considerably, or what should be the  ...  For instance, we can make a number of tests at a temperature of 10 deg.  ... 
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