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We for the first time obtain the analytical solution for the quirk equation of motion in an approximate way. Based on it, we study several features of quirk trajectory in a more precise way, including quirk oscillation amplitude, number of periods, as well as the thickness of quirk pair plane. Moreover, we find an exceptional case where the quirk crosses at least one of the tracking layers repeatedly. Finally, we consider the effects of ionization energy loss and fixed direction of infracolor string for a few existing searches.arXiv:2002.07503v2 fatcat:lbndbc4f55fnrlnnnrd3nd25oi
Carnot cycle and theorem are major contributions of classical thermodynamics since proposed in 1824, while Carnot failed to prove it because of the influence of Caloric theory of heat. Then in 1850, Clausius confirmed Carnot theorem via reduction to absurdity and put forward the second law of thermodynamics. From then on, the theory that Carnot cycle is the one with the highest efficiency is generally accepted by scholars and regarded as the key premise or basis of thermodynamic analysis.doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.12.213 fatcat:3q7bpz2guvgrjhgr2ffkrm7bpu
more »... r, few researchers care about how Carnot proposed the theory with the absence of the second law of thermodynamics. Can we get and prove Carnot theorem without the help of the second law of thermodynamics? In this paper, based on the polytropic process equations and p-v diagram, an analytical method of thermodynamics is developed and the cycle with the highest efficiency is deduced out only through extremum principle, instead of the second law of thermodynamics. The preliminary results indicate that Carnot cycle just serves as one form of the best cycles and only if the polytropic exponents (n) of the expansion and compression processes equal to each other, the efficiency of that cycle reaches the highest value, just that of Carnot cycle. This work gives a new insight into Carnot theorem and classical thermodynamics, which is of great importance in enlightenment for applying the new analysis method to address the complicated problems which are very difficult to address by using the second law of thermodynamics.
Electronic devices lose efficacy due to quantum effect when the line-width of gate decreases to sub-10 nm. Spintronics overcome this bottleneck and logic gates are building blocks of integrated circuits. Thus, it is essential to control electronic transport of opposite spins for designing a spintronic logic gate, and spin-selective semiconductors are natural candidates such as zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR) whose edges are ferromagnetically ordered and antiferromagnetically coupled withdoi:10.1038/srep06320 pmid:25204808 pmcid:PMC4159627 fatcat:je4klbio65b7tjvu72qlov4chy
more »... other. Moreover, it is necessary to sandwich ZGNR between two ferromagnetic electrodes for making a spintronic logic gate and also necessary to apply magnetic field to change the spin orientation for modulating the spin transport. By first principle calculations, we propose a method to manipulate the spin transport in graphene nanoribbons with electric field only, instead of magnetic field. We find that metal gates with specific bias nearby edges of ZGNR build up an in-plane inhomogeneous electric field which modulates the spin transport by localizing the spin density in device. The specific manipulation of spin transport we have proposed doesn't need spin-charge conversion for output and suggests a possible base for designing spintronic integrated circuit in atomic scale.
Olfactory masking is a complex olfactory response found in humans. However, the mechanisms whereby the presence of one odorant masks the sensory and behavioral responses elicited by another odorant are poorly understood. Here, we report that Caenorhabditis elegans displays olfactory masking and that the presence of a repulsive odorant, 2-nonanone, that signals threat strongly masks the attraction of other odorants, such as isoamyl alcohol (IAA) or benzaldehyde that signals food. Using a forwarddoi:10.1101/2021.04.19.440489 fatcat:tag5bc56pbedfacevpas4wzmsq
more »... genetic screen, we found that several genes, osm-5, osm-1, and dyf-7, known to regulate the structure and function of sensory neurons played a critical role in olfactory masking. Loss of these genes mildly reduces the response to 2-nonanone and disrupts the masking effect of 2-nonanone. Restoring the function of OSM-5 in either AWB or ASH, two sensory neurons known to mediate 2-nonanone-evoked avoidance, is sufficient to rescue olfactory masking. AWB is activated by the removal of 2-nonanone stimulation or the onset of IAA; however, the mixture of 2-nonanone and IAA stimulates AWB similarly as 2-nonanone alone, masking the cellular effect of IAA. The latency of the AWB response is critical for the masking effect. Thus, our results identify redundant neural circuits that regulate the robust masking effect of a repulsive odorant and uncover the neuronal and cellular basis for this complex olfactory task.
This article reports preparation of a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network via dynamic transesterification reaction between PDMS-diglycidyl ether and pripol 1017 with Zn(OAc) 2 as the catalyst. The thermal dynamic nature of the network was investigated by the creep-recovery and stressrelaxation tests. The synthesized PDMS elastomer showed excellent solvent resistance even under high temperature, and could be reprocessed by hot pressing at 180 °C with the mechanical propertiesdoi:10.1038/s41598-017-11485-6 pmid:28928370 pmcid:PMC5605709 fatcat:yv3lltfyirho5bchpdpr6i7che
more »... ed after 10 cycles. Application of the PDMS elastomer in constructing micro-patterned stamps repeatedly has been demonstrated. The high plastic temperature and good solvent resistance distinguish the research from other reported thermoplastic PDMS elastomers and broaden the practical application areas. Published: xx xx xxxx OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2 Scientific RepoRts | 7: 11833 | copolymers 50,51 , melting temperatures could reach above 170 °C, but they may not have good solvent resistance at high temperature. Herein, crosslinked PDMS network was obtained from the reaction between PDMS-diglycidyl ether and pripol 1017 catalyzed by Zn(OAc) 2 . Owing to the reversible transesterification reaction, the as-prepared network had excellent recyclability at 180 °C and the mechanical properties could be maintained even after 10 cycles. Example of employing the PDMS elastomer prepared as reusable stamps has been demonstrated. The high plastic temperature will broaden the scope of applications of the thermoplastic silicone elastomers. Results and Discussions Preparation and structural characterization of crosslinked PDMS network. The crosslinked PDMS network was prepared using the reaction between PDMS-diglycidyl ether and pripol 1017 with Zn(OAc) 2 as the catalyst (Fig. 1) . The crosslinking process completed after 12-hour at 130 °C, which was confirmed by the disappearance of typical epoxy ethyl peak (911 cm −1 ), the blue shift of acid peak (1710 cm −1 ) to ester peak (1740 cm −1 ) and the appearance of hydroxyl absorption peak at 3474 cm −1 in FT-IR spectra (see Supplementary Fig. S1 ), and the increasing proton peaks of epoxy ethyl from 2.5-3.2 to 3.9-4.3 ppm in 1 H NMR results (see Supplementary Fig. S2 ). Swelling properties of crosslinked PDMS network. When the obtained crosslinked PDMS network was swollen in its good solvent toluene, a swelling ratio (SR) of 355%, a gel fraction (GF) of 90% and a crosslink density (ν) of 0.0164 mol/cm 3 were obtained (see Supplementary Table S1 ), indicating the integrity with few defects of the crosslinking structure. To determine the effects of crosslinking and de-crosslinking, solubility experiments in diphenyl ether were conducted at high temperature. The mass ratio of the crosslinked PDMS network after swelling (m swollen /m initial ) increased with time (Fig. 2a) . The crosslinked PDMS is insoluble at 180 °C for 48 h (Fig. 2b, left) . This good solvent resistance at high temperature can be ascribed to that the transesterification reaction is a kind of associative exchangeable covalent interactions. Thus the number of crosslinks keeps constant both in inter-and intra-molecular polymer chains, making the network integrity in the solvent at 180°C. Nevertheless, a complete dissolution occurred by adding 1-nonanol into the solvent, due to the collapse of the network by the induced transesterification reaction between the network and the small molecules (Fig. 2b, right) . Mechanical and thermal properties of crosslinked PDMS network. The elastic network at room temperature was yielded through the reaction of PDMS-diglycidyl ether and pripol 1017, leading to a glass transition temperature of about −50 °C (see Supplementary Fig. S3b ), a storage modulus and a rubbery plateau of approximately 600 MPa and 0.71 MPa, respectively, (see Supplementary Fig. S3a) , and a maximal stress of about 0.45 MPa (see Supplementary Fig. S9 ). The prepared network is thermally stable up to 250 °C with a weight loss of around 1.5% (see Supplementary Fig. S4a ). Isothermal TGA was performed in case the crosslinked PDMS network might be used at elevated temperatures for a long-term (see Supplementary Fig. S4b ). The weight loss at 130, 180 and 200 °C after 60 min is less than 1, 3 and 5%, respectively, demonstrating that the crosslinked PDMS network is thermally stable under the reasonable temperature for certain period.
Multimodal fusion benefits disease diagnosis by providing a more comprehensive perspective. Developing algorithms is challenging due to data heterogeneity and the complex within- and between-modality associations. Deep-network-based data-fusion models have been developed to capture the complex associations and the performance in diagnosis has been improved accordingly. Moving beyond diagnosis prediction, evaluation of disease mechanisms is critically important for biomedical research.arXiv:2006.09454v1 fatcat:u7hldccojzb3fd5mlf2lpsj4me
more »... rk-based data-fusion models, however, are difficult to interpret, bringing about difficulties for studying biological mechanisms. In this work, we develop an interpretable multimodal fusion model, namely gCAM-CCL, which can perform automated diagnosis and result interpretation simultaneously. The gCAM-CCL model can generate interpretable activation maps, which quantify pixel-level contributions of the input features. This is achieved by combining intermediate feature maps using gradient-based weights. Moreover, the estimated activation maps are class-specific, and the captured cross-data associations are interest/label related, which further facilitates class-specific analysis and biological mechanism analysis. We validate the gCAM-CCL model on a brain imaging-genetic study, and show gCAM-CCL's performed well for both classification and mechanism analysis. Mechanism analysis suggests that during task-fMRI scans, several object recognition related regions of interests (ROIs) are first activated and then several downstream encoding ROIs get involved. Results also suggest that the higher cognition performing group may have stronger neurotransmission signaling while the lower cognition performing group may have problem in brain/neuron development, resulting from genetic variations.
Zhang et al. put forward a new concept of heat adaptor and found that the thermal performance can be greatly improved after bringing in heat-work conversion devices on the basis of heat exchanger  ...doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.224 fatcat:fcqvxcn3jjetnpmnofo46l72zy
We for the first time obtain the analytical solution for the quirk equation of motion in an approximate way. Based on it, we study several features of quirk trajectory in a more precise way, including quirk oscillation amplitude, number of periods, as well as the thickness of quirk pair plane. Moreover, we find an exceptional case where the quirk crosses at least one of the tracking layers repeatedly. Finally, we consider the effects of ionization energy loss and fixed direction of infracolor string for a few existing searches.doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-020-8209-y fatcat:vodd2g6l6va3fm23elgrfbqbai
Zhang proposed the principal correlation estimator β = P 1 Λ −1 1 P ′ 1 X ′ Y in  . Some principal components that have minor effect on the dependent variable are deleted. ...doi:10.1007/s00362-015-0678-y fatcat:5356wteynvgvfimn5pfzagdoz4
Rpd3L-like HDAC complex in Fusarium Pseudograminearum contained multiple partners including FpDep1, FpSds3, FpSin3, FpRpd3, FpRxt3, FpCti6, FpPho23, and FpUme6 (Zhang et al., 2020) . ... ., 2019; Zhang et al., 2020) . In this study, we investigated the roles of BcRPD3 as a class I HDAC in fungal growth and pathogenesis in order to bridge this knowledge gap in B. cinerea. ...doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.01832 pmid:32849432 pmcid:PMC7403187 fatcat:7e2aetaqcfczhpycpprzkledrm
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is an important fruit crop in East Asia and has great commercial potential due to the high demand for fresh edible fruits or processed dried persimmon, as well as its being a source of raw materials for the chemical industry. Genetic engineering has shown great potential in persimmon fruit improvement and compensated for the limitations of conventional breeding. In this study, we developed an efficient transformation system and in vivo regeneration protocol bydoi:10.3390/horticulturae8050422 fatcat:rxdaltb4gbgppp2davlnz72gum
more »... sing the leaf disc culture of 'Gongcheng Shuishi' persimmon through the optimization of different basic media and hormone combinations. Based on the secondary induction system on 1/2DKW (DKW medium) + ZT (2.0 mg/L) + TDZ (0.5 mg/L) and MS (1/2 N) + ZT (2.0 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L), the callus induction rate and adventitious bud induction rate were 96.0% and 94.0%, respectively, and RNA interference of DkANR (ANR, anthocyanidin reductase) was achieved after transformation, thus resulting in a reduction in proanthocyanidin accumulation. The GFP (green fluorescent protein) fluorescence signal was visualized in the transgenic seedlings with GFP gene cotransformation. A total of 17.9% of the positive regenerated transgenic seedlings with empty vector were confirmed by both hyg gene and 35S promoter PCR analysis. Southern blotting assays showed that 20 positive transgenic persimmon seedlings were obtained from 135 regenerated transformants derived from DkANRi. Altogether, a reliable and highly efficient transformation system was achieved in persimmon, which may contribute to gene function identification and genetic improvement in the future.
Interesting coherence and correlations appear between superpositions of two bosonic modes when the modes are parametrically coupled to a third intermediate mode and are also coupled to external modes which are in thermal states of unequal mean photon numbers. Under such conditions, it is found that one of linear superpositions of the modes, which is effectively decoupled from the other modes, can be perfectly coherent with the other orthogonal superposition of the modes and can simultaneouslydoi:10.3390/e24050692 fatcat:zvs55vy6djdavjwkgb2wmzou2m
more »... hibit anticoherence with the intermediate mode, which can give rise to entanglement between the modes. It is shown that the coherence effects have a substantial effect on the population distribution between the modes, which may result in lowering the population of the intermediate mode. This shows that the system can be employed to cool modes to lower temperatures. Furthermore, for appropriate thermal photon numbers and coupling strengths between the modes, it is found that entanglement between the directly coupled superposition and the intermediate modes may occur in a less restricted range of the number of the thermal photons such that the modes could be strongly entangled, even at large numbers of the thermal photons.
Figure 5 5 Figure 5 Letters parameters interpretation Zhang Ye and Li Wenxing / Procedia Engineering 15 (2011) 3911 -3915 Zhang Ye et al / Procedia Engineering 00 (2011) 000-000 ...doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2011.08.732 fatcat:4mlji3mhyfccfotr3iq42co5ke
We study FASER and FASER 2 sensitivities to the quirk signal by simulating the motions of quirks that are travelling through several infrastructures from the ATLAS interaction point to the FASER (2) detector. The ionization energy losses for a charged quirk travelling in different materials are treated carefully. We calculate the expected numbers of quirk events that can reach the FASER (2) detector for an integrated luminosity of 150 (3000) fb^-1. Scenarios for quirks with four differentarXiv:2108.06748v2 fatcat:6jwxzgfebrbctjt4eszduupybq
more »... m numbers, and different masses and confinement scales are studied.
We report a 12-year-old girl who presented with recurrent angioedema on the face, trunk, and extremities, and concomitant marked weight gain for 5 years. During the episode, her white blood cell count increased to 47.7×109/L with 89.9% eosinophils, followed by elevated serum level of IL-5, IgE, IgM, and LDH. Histopathology showed perivascular eosinophilic infiltration and diffuse eosinophilic infiltration throughout the dermis. Possible causes of hypereosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltrationdoi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20174351 pmid:28954105 pmcid:PMC5595603 fatcat:opsxmvf7arf2vgilaucq3m7pne
more »... f vital organs were ruled out. We also tested the FIP1L1/PDGFRa and ETV6/PDGFRβ fusion gene to exclude the possibility of myeloid and lymphatic vessel neoplasms. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone and discharged with an oral prednisolone taper, which resulted in complete remission of the edema and normalization of peripheral blood eosinophil count, serum IL-5 level, IgE, IgM, and LDH.
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