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Watermarking a 3D Shape Model Defined as a Point Set

R. Ohbuchi, A. Mukaiyama, S. Takahashi
2004 International Conference on Cyberworlds  
This paper discusses a method to watermark a 3D shape model defined as a set of unoriented points.  ...  the watermarked point set model.  ...  However, such meshes can be used for shape analysis, and for digital watermarking, of a 3D shape model defined as a point set.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cw.2004.70 dblp:conf/cw/OhbuchiMT04 fatcat:6r6bqyt4fvbhfmekualanx4s4q

Managing CAD Data as a Multimedia Data Type Using Digital Watermarking [chapter]

Ryutarou Ohbuchi, Hiroshi Masuda
2002 From Knowledge Intensive CAD to Knowledge Intensive Engineering  
Three-dimensional (3D) model, including 3D geometric CAD model, has come to be recognized as a "multimedia" data type, along with such data types as sound, text, still image, and movie.  ...  The paper then presents multiple approaches to watermark mechanical CAD models defined by using parametric curves and surfaces.  ...  A set of control points curve (){(),(),()} uxuyuzu = C defined on u can be reparameterized by the curve is computed as a function of a new parameter s .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-0-387-35494-1_8 fatcat:ythmsrlu7vcwxnfwnsnrdkykze

A Robust Scheme for 3D Point Cloud Copy Detection [article]

Jiaqi Yang, Xuequan Lu, Wenzhi Chen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Most existing 3D geometry copy detection research focused on 3D watermarking, which first embeds "watermarks" and then detects the added watermarks.  ...  In this paper, we focus on a fundamental and practical research problem: judging whether a point cloud is plagiarized or copied to another point cloud in the presence of several manipulations (e.g., similarity  ...  Finally, we look back upon some related applications of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). 3D Shape Watermarking Like 2D image watermarking, 3D shape watermarking adds negligible watermarks on 3D geometric  ... 
arXiv:2110.00972v1 fatcat:6uxlqp5zmfghpembirwgyte5ja

Blind and Robust Watermarking of 3D Models: How to Withstand the Cropping Attack?

Patrice Rondao Alface, Benoit Macq, Francois Cayre
2007 2007 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing  
Our algorithm proceeds by the automatic detection of robust shape feature points which are then used for the embedding of a watermark in a local neighborhood.  ...  State-of-the-art blind and robust 3D watermarking schemes already withstand combinations of a wide variety of attacks (e.g. noise addition, simplification, smoothing, ...) except cropping.  ...  A 3D model is usually represented by a 3D mesh which is composed of two sets : the geometry which is the set of 3D points and their coordinates and the connectivity which is the set of edges and polygons  ... 
doi:10.1109/icip.2007.4379866 dblp:conf/icip/Rondao-AlfaceMC07 fatcat:wlwswljqdzdjrdwmfw237bikk4

A shape-preserving data embedding algorithm for NURBS curves and surfaces

Ohbuchi, Masuda, Aono
1999 Proceedings Computer Graphics International CGI-99  
First, these CAD systems employ parametric curves and surfaces, not polygonal meshes, as their main shape-defining primitives.  ...  The algorithm exactly preserves the shape, -that is, the geometry and topology -of its embedding targets. Furthermore, it preserves the data size of the model.  ...  Benedens [2] described a watermarking algorithm that employs a set of normal vectors derived from geometric shape of a 3D model for embedding. Hartung et al.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cgi.1999.777952 dblp:conf/cgi/OhbuchiMA99 fatcat:jelakldhlzbovcwcdt7bkup5em

Robust Watermarking of 3D Polygonal Meshes

H. S. SONG, N. I. CHO
2008 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
The proposed algorithm embeds the watermark into a 2D image extracted from the 3D model, rather than directly embedding it into 3D geometry.  ...  , robust watermarking, 3D polygonal mesh model Manuscript  ...  With these projected coordinates of vertices, we define a set of vertices that is associated with the reference point (ur, vr) as where V is the set of all the vertices and d(x,y) is a metric that defines  ... 
doi:10.1093/ietisy/e91-d.5.1512 fatcat:xuetva457bdsnokzhev5wgo274

Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking Based on Sphere-Shape Template [chapter]

Hak-Yeol Choi, Jeongho Son, Han-Ul Jang, Heung-Kyu Lee
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The proposed template has a sphere shape with a basis point and scale information for the watermarking. The template is invariant to translation, rotation, and scale.  ...  In this paper, we propose a novel blind 3D mesh watermarking scheme based on synchronization using a template.  ...  The template can be defined as a set of vertices v t that represent the specific sphere, including the center point and scale information.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-53465-7_21 fatcat:jsxboa2tujgp3l32nbn67jhb2u

Digital watermarking of MPEG-4 facial animation parameters

Frank Hartung, Peter Eisert, Bernd Girod
1998 Computers & graphics  
Watermarking methods have already been presented for audio, images, video, and polygonal 3D models.  ...  In this paper, we present a method for digital watermarking of MPEG-4 facial animation parameter data sets.  ...  For rendering of animated video sequences using 3D models, usually 3 separate data sets are utilized: a data set describing the basic shape of the 3D object (e.g. a wireframe or a spline surface), a data  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0097-8493(98)00032-6 fatcat:g5ylhh56q5d65hwlzbj7p6hjcy

Robust Digital Watermarking for Compressed 3D Models based on Polygonal Representation

Samir AbouEl-Seoud, Nadine Abu Rumman, Islam A. T. F. Taj-Eddin, Khalaf F. Khatatneh, Christain Gütl
2013 International Journal of Computer Applications  
This paper introduces a methodology of robust digital watermarking based on a wellknown spherical wavelet transformation, applied to 3D compressed model based on polygonal representation using a neural  ...  It will be demonstrated in this work that applying a watermarking algorithm on a compressed domain of a 3D object is more effective, efficient, and robust than when applied on a normal domain.  ...  It was applied on the watermarked mesh as follows: Input: The point set P with N p points from the data shape and the model shape M (section 3.2). The data set is initialized.  ... 
doi:10.5120/9913-3909 fatcat:2owb5zbyyramvaflrkuozt5pxu

3D Printing Watermarking Algorithm Based on 2D Slice Mean Distance

Thang V. Tran
2020 International Journal of Advanced Trends in Computer Science and Engineering  
In the proposed method, 3D printing model is sliced into a set of 2D slices, and each 2D slice is then embedded a bit of watermark data by changing the length of mean distance of that slice.  ...  To solve the copyright issue of 3D printing, we would like to propose a 3D printing watermarking algorithm based on the mean distance of 2D slices in this paper.  ...  Fig. 4 show the distances of a slice of a bunny model from center to points. Suppose, a 3D triangle mesh is cut into a set of 2D slices, = { | ∈ [1, N]} where N is the number of slices.  ... 
doi:10.30534/ijatcse/2020/10912020 fatcat:rhjobjcavncy5k3nxcrp2h3age

A Frequency-Domain Approach to Watermarking 3D Shapes

Ryutarou Ohbuchi, Akio Mukaiyama, Shigeo Takahashi
2002 Computer graphics forum (Print)  
This paper presents a robust watermarking algorithm with informed detection for 3D polygonal meshes.  ...  This paper presents extensions to our previous algorithm so that (1) much larger meshes can be watermarked within a reasonable time, and that (2) the watermark is robust against connectivity alteration  ...  Mesh data of the bunny model is obtained from the Stanford University.  ... 
doi:10.1111/1467-8659.00597 fatcat:ryopsgpaa5hnzlqcyyt3zr4rka

A Frequency-Domain Approach to Watermarking 3D Shapes

Ryutarou Ohbuchi, Akio Mukaiyama, Shigeo Takahashi
2002 Computer graphics forum (Print)  
This paper presents a robust watermarking algorithm with informed detection for 3D polygonal meshes.  ...  This paper presents extensions to our previous algorithm so that (1) much larger meshes can be watermarked within a reasonable time, and that (2) the watermark is robust against connectivity alteration  ...  Mesh data of the bunny model is obtained from the Stanford University.  ... 
doi:10.1111/1467-8659.t01-1-00597 fatcat:pg3b4tnqnzh25dsckzh7bxjkhu

Digital watermarking of 3D meshes

Mauro Barni, Franco Bartolini, Vito Cappellini, Massimiliano Corsini, Andrea Garzelli, Mark S. Schmalz
2004 Mathematics of Data/Image Coding, Compression, and Encryption VI, with Applications  
So it is very difficult to develop robust watermarking algorithms for 3D models.  ...  In this paper we propose a blind watermarking algorithm for 3D meshes.  ...  The 3D model is the geometric realization of the mesh ϕ(K) defined as s∈K ϕ(s).  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.507437 fatcat:k3qyum7j6vhibbokp44i6ojo3q

A robust high-capacity affine-transformation-invariant scheme for watermarking 3D geometric models

Xifeng Gao, Caiming Zhang, Yan Huang, Zhigang Deng
2012 ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)  
Given a 3D mesh model, a watermark is embedded as affine-invariant length ratios of one diagonal segment to the residing diagonal intersected by the other one in a coplanar convex quadrilateral.  ...  In this paper, we propose a novel, robust and high capacity watermarking method for 3D Meshes with arbitrary connectivities in spatial domain based on affine invariants.  ...  Note that the geometry invariant defined in [Gao et al. 2010 ] comes from the projected ratios of a four-points-set.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2344436.2344440 fatcat:snokjgi25nhivau7scthditdpq

Efficient spectral watermarking of large meshes with orthogonal basis functions

Jianhua Wu, Leif Kobbelt
2005 The Visual Computer  
adapted for the newly emerged multimedia data type of 3D geometry models.  ...  and thus can efficiently watermark very large models.  ...  The models in the paper are partially courtesy of the computer graphics group at the Stanford University and the Cyberware website.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00371-005-0311-5 fatcat:hddxmr7p7nfzhen6nrengajymu
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