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Why so? or Why no? Functional Causality for Explaining Query Answers [article]

Alexandra Meliou, Wolfgang Gatterbauer, Katherine F. Moore, Dan Suciu
2009 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we propose causality as a unified framework to explain query answers and non-answers, thus generalizing and extending several previously proposed approaches of provenance and missing query  ...  can model both provenance as well as non-answers, (ii) we can define explanations as either data in the input relations or relational operations in a query plan, and (iii) we can give graded degrees of  ...  We like to thank Christoph Koch for valuable insights, and Chris Ré for helpful discussions in early stages of this project.  ... 
arXiv:0912.5340v1 fatcat:fhmoabgeqfg2lid43dv6c6wbke

The Downward Causality and the Hard Problem of Consciousness or Why Computer Programs Do not Work in the Dark

Alexander Boldachev
2015 Studia Humana  
Any low-level processes, the sequence of chemical interactions in a living cell, muscle cellular activity, processor commands or neuron interaction, is possible only if there is a downward causality, only  ...  Therefore, there is no special "hard problem of consciousness", i.e. the problem of relation of ostensibly purely biological materiality and non-causal mentality - we have only the single philosophical  ...  Moreover, there is no necessity to bring to light (to display on the screen) all cycles of array sorting and database queries.  ... 
doi:10.1515/sh-2015-0002 fatcat:ddtoiusoird2tlg7dfkzxqxe2u

Why do individuals with autism lack the motivation or capacity to share intentions?

Tony Charman
2005 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
Understanding intentions is foundational because it provides the interpretive matrix for deciding precisely what it is that someone is doing in the first place.  ...  For example, it is only if a young child understands other persons as intentional agents that she can acquire and use linguistic symbols -because the learning and use of symbols requires an understanding  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Rob Whelan, Ruth Anne Rehfeldt, and Eric Fox for helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x05260120 fatcat:5qdxsvwsrnaplpw2qxliqq6u6e

No narrative so grand

Geoff Carver, Matthias Lang
2017 Sprawozdania Archeologiczne  
No narrative so grand. Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 69, 9-31. Archaeology deals with many narratives, on a number of different levels.  ...  "Free text" entry of the temporal "location" of an object, site or context does not suffi ce for modelling complex semantic structures in a database.  ...  " from) causal relations -explain why these things go together -without which we might as well be surrealists.  ... 
doi:10.23858/sa69.2017.001 fatcat:tddqni2s7nf27nxd6csfqvj6jm

Why Does China Invest So Much?

John Knight, Sai Ding
2010 Asian Economic Papers  
This survey paper gathers together the available evidence to explain why investment is so high.  ...  It draws on the literature to explain the high saving rate, and considers why the imperfect capital market and institutional deficiencies have not constrained investment.  ...  Acknowledgements: We thank the Leverhulme Trust and the ESRC for providing financial support for this research.  ... 
doi:10.1162/asep_a_00030 fatcat:sa733d2hong53kpyrkrvvnps6a

The Causal Theory of Properties and the Causal Theory of Reference, or How to Name Properties and Why It Matters*

ROBERT D. RUPERT
2008 Philosophy and Phenomenological Research  
causal relation or other and in virtue of which they do so.  ...  If we assume that the causal powers of larger wholes supervene on the causal powers of their constituents, CTP's singular property-terms could explain why the extensions of the predicative forms of those  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1933-1592.2008.00211.x fatcat:2org4mkzvzgh7kca3bisw7scqe

Models of innovation: Why models of innovation are models, or what work is being done in calling them models?

Benoît Godin
2015 Social Studies of Science  
To the producers and users of models of innovation, a model has at least five different meanings: conceptualization, narrative, figure, tool and perspective Why so many things are called model?  ...  Calling a conceptualization or narrative or tool model facilitate its propagation.  ...  Acknolwedgments Special thanks to Tiago Brandao, Joseph Lane, Désirée Schauz and Sergio Sismondo for commenting on a first draft of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0306312715596852 fatcat:7dbqsya7gvfw7nyp5ynjdlnyhy

Why no populism in Portugal? [chapter]

Filipe Carreira da Silva, Susana Salgado
2018 Changing societies: legacies and challenges. Citizenship in crisis  
As Mahoney and Goertz point out (2004, 656) , Seymour Martin Lipset's famous query -Why no Socialism in the United States?  ...  intrinsic. acknowledgements Chapter 10 "Why no populism in Portugal?"  ... 
doi:10.31447/ics9789726715047.10 fatcat:2tc3igelvzfgddsucw4xj4keli

Why So Many Published Sensitivity Analyses Are False. A Systematic Review of Sensitivity Analysis Practices [article]

Andrea Saltelli, Ksenia Aleksankina, William Becker, Pamela Fennell, Federico Ferretti, Niels Holst, Sushan Li, Qiongli Wu
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Sensitivity analysis offers crucial contextual information regarding a prediction by answering the question "Which uncertain input factors are responsible for the uncertainty in the prediction?"  ...  Mature methods have existed for about two decades to produce a defensible sensitivity analysis. We end by offering a rough guide for proper use of the methods.  ...  Rosen uses here the four causality categories of Aristotle, on which we will not dwell here, to highlight that no arrow of causality flows from the natural system to the formal one.  ... 
arXiv:1711.11359v2 fatcat:hp7kihuronhhtj74xp6vh525ke

LGBTQ Kids, School Safety, and Missing the Big Picture: How the Dominant Bullying Discourse Prevents School Professionals from Thinking about Systemic Marginalization or … Why We Need to Rethink LGBTQ Bullying

Elizabethe Payne, Melissa Smith
2013 QED A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking  
For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. .  ...  In turn, interventions typically focus on eliminating bullying behaviors and providing protection for victims.  ...  This teacher believes the potential harm is significant enough to "go out of [her] way" to stop students from saying things like "that's so gay" or "no homo."  ... 
doi:10.14321/qed.0001 fatcat:mxlnkkp2o5d4thtbdu6rjlpkce

Why do so many randomised controlled trials vitamin D supplementation fail?

Barbara J Boucher
2020 Endocrine Connections  
for improving future RCT design.  ...  RCT design and how to allow for them  ...  where many subjects have 25 Future RCT design Allowing for the various factors reducing RCT specificity discussed above should improve our ability to get definite answers to the many persisting queries  ... 
doi:10.1530/ec-20-0274 pmid:33052876 pmcid:PMC7487184 fatcat:pkmruzpoabemtaffef7csia5je

LGBTQ Kids, School Safety, and Missing the Big Picture: How the Dominant Bullying Discourse Prevents School Professionals from Thinking about Systemic Marginalization or . . . Why We Need to Rethink LGBTQ Bullying

Elizabethe Payne, Melissa Smith
2013 QED A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking  
For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. .  ...  In turn, interventions typically focus on eliminating bullying behaviors and providing protection for victims.  ...  This teacher believes the potential harm is significant enough to "go out of [her] way" to stop students from saying things like "that's so gay" or "no homo."  ... 
doi:10.1353/qed.2013.0012 fatcat:z2addtxakjhsncrex2zw6rlbde

The Australian corporate closet: Why it's still so full!

Ian P. Smith, Grace McCarthy
2017 Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health  
Heterosexism is defined as a socio-political system that rejects, defames, and stigmatises any non-heterosexual type of behaviour, association, or community, with the continued promotion of a heterosexual  ...  These studies then provide clear evidence for why the Australian corporate closet is still so full.  ...  and analysis of a study, so that no ambiguities or misinterpretations can be made by the reader.  ... 
doi:10.1080/19359705.2017.1354793 fatcat:ntg3xtdrrfbhbkuow57p77daoi

A Survey on Why-Type Question Answering Systems [article]

Manvi Breja, Sanjay Kumar Jain
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Question Answering Systems reduce the time taken to get an answer, to a query asked in natural language by providing the one most relevant answer.  ...  To the best of our knowledge, major research in Why-type questions began in early 2000's and our work on Why-type questions can help explore newer avenues for fact-finding and analysis.  ...  The score is 0 if no correct answer is found. If the relevant answer is found at rank 1, RR is calculated as 1, and 0.5 if a relevant answer is ranked second and so on.  ... 
arXiv:1911.04879v1 fatcat:wdvngfqkqvgfvmjn67adebwtqi

Why was there no controversy over life in the Scientific Revolution? [chapter]

Charles T. Wolfe
2011 Controversies  
It is therefore curious to turn to the ‗passion play' of the Scientific Revolution -whether in its early, canonical definitions or its more recent, hybridized, reconstructed and expanded versions: from  ...  Neither Harvey, nor Boyle, nor Locke (to name some likely candidates, the latter having studied with Willis and collaborated with Sydenham) ever ask what makes organisms unique, or conversely, what does  ...  Another possible answer to the ‗why?'  ... 
doi:10.1075/cvs.11.13wol fatcat:26hgjiei3bcupkxmr7rbdeyp3m
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