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WCET analysis of probabilistic hard real-time systems

G. Bernat, A. Colin, S.M. Petters
23rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2002. RTSS 2002.  
We introduce the notion of probabilistic hard real-time system as a system which has to meet all the deadlines but for which a (high) probabilistic guarantee suffices.  ...  Traditional approaches for worst case execution time (WCET) analysis produce values which are very pessimistic if applied to modern processors.  ...  Additionally the reviewers of RTSS deserve a large "Thank You" for the quality of their comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/real.2002.1181582 dblp:conf/rtss/BernatCP02 fatcat:sgs3bmhtlbcbllvvoj32ezuk5m

On the Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic WCET Estimation Techniques

Jaume Abella, Damien Hardy, Isabelle Puaut, Eduardo Quinones, Francisco J. Cazorla
2014 2014 26th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems  
SDTA  defies PTA goal[JR] [JR] Randomized Caches Considered Harmful in Hard Real-Time Systems .  ...  of a real-time system -WCET estimates derived per task (Unit of Scheduling) -Task WCET estimate given as an input to schedulability analysis • Classification of existing WCET estimation techniques  ... 
doi:10.1109/ecrts.2014.16 dblp:conf/ecrts/AbellaHPQC14 fatcat:f6sl55hniva67ktzap34ih35d4

The Extreme Value Theory In Probabilistic Real-Time Computing

Federico Reghenzani, Giuseppe Massari, William Fornaciari
2018 Zenodo  
In this article we introduce the statistical theory foundation of probabilistic real-time computing: the Extreme Value Theory.  ...  Provided that certain hypotheses are satisfied, the Extreme Value Theory is able to produce a probabilistic estimation of the worst-case timing behaviour of a real-time task, i.e. the statistical distribution  ...  Petters WCET analysis of probabilistic hard real-time systems, Real-Time Systems Symposium, IEEE, 279-288, 2002 George Lima, DÃąrio Dias, Edna Barros Extreme value theory for estimating task execution  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1462958 fatcat:3iol5vx2qfd7bmk2lb7kkc2y4a

Beyond the Traditional Analyses and Resource Management in Real-Time Systems [chapter]

Federico Reghenzani
2022 SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology  
AbstractThe difficulties in estimating the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of applications make the use of modern computing architectures limited in real-time systems.  ...  Critical embedded systems require the tasks of hard real-time applications to meet their deadlines, and formal proofs on the validity of this condition are usually required by certification authorities  ...  Computing a correct Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) is then essential to perform a legitimate scheduling analysis and the consequent claims of satisfying hard real-time constraints.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-85918-3_6 fatcat:fzgxrcnbd5a57hbe2kmzpjcr4m

chronovise: Measurement-Based Probabilistic Timing Analysis framework

Federico Reghenzani, Giuseppe Massari, William Fornaciari
2018 Journal of Open Source Software  
The increasing demand of computational power in cyber-physical systems (CPS) is getting hard to fulfill, if we consider typical real-time constrained applications.  ...  The rapid advance of computer architectures towards more powerful, but also more complex platforms, has the side effect of making the timing analysis of applications a challenging task (Cullmann et al.  ...  In particular, the Measurement-Based Probabilistic Time Analysis (MBPTA) (Cucu-Grosjean et al., 2012) is a probabilistic analysis branch for real-time systems to estimate the WCET directly from the observed  ... 
doi:10.21105/joss.00711 fatcat:wderxfeyw5e45hp7nktulzpk7m

A survey of hard real-time scheduling for multiprocessor systems

Robert I. Davis, Alan Burns
2011 ACM Computing Surveys  
systems in the aerospace, space, and automotive markets are beginning to make use of multicore processors for hard real-time applications.  ...  Static Probabilistic Timing Analysis (SPTA) has been developed for single processor systems assuming both evict-on-access [4] and evict-on-miss policies [8], with analysis of probabilistic CRPDs also given  ...  systems in the aerospace, space, and automotive markets are beginning to make use of multicore processors for hard real-time applications.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1978802.1978814 fatcat:uumyvp23cneobisbkpaogfogci

Abstract Interpretation for Worst and Average Case Analysis [chapter]

Alessandra Di Pierro, Chris Hankin, Herbert Wiklicky
2007 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We review Wilhelm's work on WCET for hard real-time applications and also recent work on analysis of soft-real time systems using probabilistic methods.  ...  We then present Probabilistic Abstract Interpretation (PAI) as a quantitative variation of the classical approach; PAI aims to provide close approximations -this should be contrasted to the safe approximations  ...  Reinhard's approach, which is surveyed in [1], concentrates on WCET for hard real-time problems -examples include safety-critical systems such as control software in automobiles.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-71322-7_8 fatcat:aty4bdmtezggzhidh6z7azhieu

Special issue on scheduling and timing analysis for advanced real-time systems

Robert I. Davis, Emmanuel Grolleau
2014 Real-time systems  
Advances in software development methods, hardware technology, and the need to focus on energy efficiency pose significant challenges to the analysis of the overall timing behaviour of real-time systems  ...  Forward Real-time embedded systems such as those found in automotive, aerospace, and other domains are characterised not only by the need for functional correctness, but also the need for temporal or timing  ...  Together, these papers form an excellent cross-section of state-of-the-art research applicable to advanced hard real-time systems.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11241-014-9215-7 fatcat:gnidxflv6vev5jf77ghkzbx5pu

Estimating Probabilistic Safe WCET Ranges of Real-Time Systems at Design Stages

Jaekwon Lee, Seung Yeob Shin, Shiva Nejati, Lionel C. Briand, Yago Isasi Parache
2022 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology  
Estimating worst-case execution times (WCET) is an important activity at early design stages of real-time systems.  ...  Given a set of real-time tasks with such ranges, we provide an automated technique to determine for what WCET values the system is likely to meet its deadlines, and hence operate safely with a probabilistic  ...  The experiments presented in this paper were carried out using the HPC facilities of the University of Luxembourg [68] ś see hpc.uni.lu.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3546941 fatcat:cv3shyfjdnhgljf46puikfu2uq

STT-MRAM for real-time embedded systems

Kazi Asifuzzaman, Mikel Fernandez, Petar Radojković, Jaume Abella, Francisco J. Cazorla
2019 Proceedings of the International Symposium on Memory Systems - MEMSYS '19  
Analyzing whether this deadline is met requires Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis, which is a fundamental part of evaluating any real-time system.  ...  In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using STT-MRAM in real-time embedded systems by analyzing average system performance impact and WCET implications.  ...  Timing analysis of real-time systems Real-time embedded systems are subject to strict timing constraints as defined by applicable safety standards.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3357526.3357531 dblp:conf/memsys/AsifuzzamanFRAC19 fatcat:xvbys24pyzbopj47ibqgjh2jnu

Estimating Probabilistic Safe WCET Ranges of Real-Time Systems at Design Stages [article]

Jaekwon Lee, Seung Yeob Shin, Shiva Nejati, Lionel C. Briand, Yago Isasi Parache
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Estimating worst-case execution times (WCET) is an important activity at early design stages of real-time systems.  ...  Given a set of real-time tasks with such ranges, we provide an automated technique to determine for what WCET values the system is likely to meet its deadlines, and hence operate safely with a probabilistic  ...  The experiments presented in this paper were carried out using the HPC facilities of the University of Luxembourg [68] see hpc.uni.lu.  ... 
arXiv:2007.10490v5 fatcat:rsrkgtrtdbc4hjdkcnxw67tm6m

Randomized Caches Can Be Pretty Useful to Hard Real-Time Systems

Enrico Mezzetti, Marco Ziccardi, Tullio Vardanega, Jaume Abella, Eduardo Quiñones, Francisco J. Cazorla
2014 Leibniz Transactions on Embedded Systems  
Randomized Caches Considered Harmful in Hard Real-Time Systems.  ...  LITES, 1(1), 03:1-03:13.) provides a critical analysis of the weaknesses and risks entailed in using randomized caches in hard real-time systems.  ...  The authors also wish to acknowledge Benoît Triquet and Franck Wartel from Airbus France, for their useful comments on an earlier version of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.4230/lites-v002-i001-a001 dblp:journals/lites/MezzettiZVAQC15 fatcat:5qmmap7q2zetdizelnejmtjvge

Survey : Various Methods for WCET Estimate Calculation

Manjiri K., J.S. Umale
2016 International Journal of Computer Applications  
To use the GPUs in real time systems it is required to have time predictable behavior. However, it is hard to give an estimation of the WCET of a GPU program.  ...  The design of a real-time system revolves heavily around a model known as a task schedule, which allots computational resources to executing tasks, i.e. programs.  ...  WCET estimate.  ... 
doi:10.5120/ijca2016908152 fatcat:zungibiou5gjtiqbsbcidqqyoe

Boosting Guaranteed Performance in Wormhole NoCs with Probabilistic Timing Analysis

Mladen Slijepcevic, Carles Hernandez, Jaume Abella, Francisco J. Cazorla
2017 2017 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD)  
In this paper, in the context of probabilistic timing analysis (PTA), we propose a PTA-compatible wNoC design that provides tight time-composable contention bounds.  ...  However, wNoCs suitability in the context of critical real-time applications has not been demonstrated yet.  ...  As representative real-time workloads we use the EEMBC Autobench suite [20] , which reflects current realworld demand of some automotive critical real-time embedded systems. WCET estimation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/dsd.2017.71 dblp:conf/dsd/SlijepcevicHAC17 fatcat:d3qk7e26jje5lhddxrle3zrede

The Misconception of Exponential Tail Upper-Bounding in Probabilistic Real-Time

Federico Reghenzani, Giuseppe Massari, William Fornaciari
2018 IEEE Embedded Systems Letters  
Measurement-Based Probabilistic Timing Analysis, a probabilistic real-time computing method, is based on the Extreme Value Theory (EVT), a statistical theory applied to Worst-Case Execution Time analysis  ...  on real-time embedded systems.  ...  CONCLUSION In hard real-time embedded systems, the reliability of the WCET analysis is essential in order to guarantee the timing constraints.  ... 
doi:10.1109/les.2018.2889114 fatcat:mrdhmvoytvce5pw4dyqebgzeh4
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