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The WCET Analysis Tool CalcWcet167 [chapter]

Raimund Kirner
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present the WCET analysis tool CalcWcet167, which supports the Infineon C167 processor as its main target. CalcWcet167 was designed with the goal to enable research on WCET analysis.  ...  Determining upper bounds for the worst-case execution time (WCET) is mandatory to ensure timeliness of hard real-time systems. To be of practical use, such WCET estimates also have to be precise.  ...  Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the IST FP7 research project "Asynchronous and Dynamic Virtualization through performance  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34032-1_17 fatcat:u652xdk4unfkpdd5thgm64g6va

Usability Aspects of WCET Analysis

Jan Gustafsson
2008 2008 11th IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC)  
In this paper we discuss usability using the results of the WCET Challenge 2006, which was the first event that compared different WCET tools using the same set of benchmarks.  ...  Often, timing analysis in industry is done by measurements. Recently, tools for deriving WCET estimates have reached the market.  ...  The WCET Tool Challenge concentrated on the following three aspects of WCET analysis: flow analysis, user interaction, and performance. Five WCET tools entered the Challenge.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isorc.2008.55 dblp:conf/isorc/Gustafsson08 fatcat:5fmhh5hvlzb3nj2nkwtxi4xbwe

WCET Analysis meets Virtual Prototyping

Martin Becker, Marius Pazaj, Samarjit Chakraborty
2019 Proceedings of the 22nd International Workshop on Software and Compilers for Embedded Systems - SCOPES '19  
(WCET) analysis.  ...  This paper shows that there exists a mutual benefit in exchanging solutions between the two research domains, by demonstrating the applicability and utility of VP methods for WCET analysis, and highlighting  ...  However, the bigger challenge is to annotate this in the source code, since not all binary edges have equivalent source edges/locations.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3323439.3323978 dblp:conf/scopes/0001PC19 fatcat:egqirc44k5eq5o6e7te43thdby

N-version programming in WCET analysis

Trevor Harmon, Michael R. Lowry
2010 Proceedings of the FSE/SDP workshop on Future of software engineering research - FoSER '10  
This paper argues that N-version programming still has merit and cites an example of how the technique improved the quality of two WCET analysis tools at relatively low cost.  ...  This potential for error is serious, given that the usual purpose of WCET analysis is to verify the correctness of hard real-time systems-software on which entire missions and even human lives may depend  ...  WHAT IS WCET? In 1986, while developing a real-time variant of the programming language Euclid, Kligerman and Stoyenko proposed a new way of providing this guarantee [6] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/1882362.1882396 dblp:conf/sigsoft/HarmonL10 fatcat:nn5x6nclwbe2jeyui46d3smq4u

Model-based WCET Analysis with Invariants

Bojan Nokovic, Emil Sekerinski
2015 Electronic Communications of the EASST  
In this paper, we show how model-based WCET analysis can improve timing calculations compared to program-based WCET analysis.  ...  Our contribution is to use invariants additionally to determine transition combinations (paths) that can be eliminated from the WCET analysis, with the help of a decision procedure, thus making the analysis  ...  The annotated model indicates to the analysis tools what property has to be computed.  ... 
doi:10.14279/tuj.eceasst.72.1026 dblp:journals/eceasst/NokovicS15 fatcat:7vj7fozgojcybmqc6zipnhbc2u

WCET Analysis: The Annotation Language Challenge

Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Adrian Prantl, Markus Schordan, Ingomar Wenzel, Marc Herbstritt
In this paper, we thus propose to complement the WCET tool challenge, which has recently successfully been launched, by a second closely related challenge: the WCET annotation language challenge.  ...  The expressiveness and usability of annotation languages, which are used by algorithms and tools for WCET analysis in order to separate feasible from infeasible program paths, have a crucial impact on  ...  The authors greatfully acknowledge the helpful comments of the anonymous referees and the feedback of the participants at the WCET'07 workshop.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2007.1197 fatcat:ct3wnx2x7nfmjj3vc6wya64yai

WCET and Mixed-Criticality: What does Confidence in WCET Estimations Depend Upon?

Sebastian Altmeyer, Björn Lisper, Claire Maiza, Jan Reineke, Christine Rochange, Marc Herbstritt
2015 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
In this paper, we refine this view by exploring sources of doubt in the correctness of both static and measurement-based WCET analysis.  ...  Confidence in worst-case execution time (WCET) estimates depends on the process by which they have been obtained.  ...  This paper has been initiated in the Dagstuhl Seminar 15121 -Mixed Criticality on Multicore/Manycore Platforms.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2015.65 dblp:conf/wcet/AltmeyerLMRR15 fatcat:cj4y66ubdrfdzkcmy3livaae7a

Formal Verification of Loop Bound Estimation for WCET Analysis [chapter]

Sandrine Blazy, André Maroneze, David Pichardie
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We extend the CompCert RTL intermediate language with a notion of loop nesting (a.k.a. weak topological ordering on CFGs) that is useful for reasoning on CFGs.  ...  The automatic extraction of our loop bound estimation into OCaml yields a program with competitive results, obtained from experiments on a reference benchmark for WCET bound estimation tools.  ...  The formal verification of a value analysis based on abstract interpretation and operating over a real-world language raises many challenging verification problems that are detailed in [7] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-54108-7_15 fatcat:o5vp3z7x5ffrfodzc753bik4wy

Experiences from Applying WCET Analysis in Industrial Settings

Jan Gustafsson, Andreas Ermedahl
2007 10th IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC'07)  
A critical timing measure is the worst-case execution time (WCET) of a program. Recently, tools for deriving WCET estimates, mostly based on static program analysis, have reached the market.  ...  We were also interested how WCET estimates can be derived by different methods, how labor-intensive the methods are, and the accuracy of obtained results.  ...  To do this conveniently by hand requires good support from the annotation language, to allow such constraints to be easily expressed.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isorc.2007.36 dblp:conf/isorc/GustafssonE07 fatcat:vrdgam7vfrgt5krxtcjcqsgqda

Why Model Checking Can Improve WCET Analysis [chapter]

Alexander Metzner
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The approach presented in this paper shows that model checking is adequate and, furthermore, can improve the results.  ...  There exist successful analysis methods, based on abstract interpretation and integer linear programming (ILP) for that problem.  ...  Design-Flow Starting point of the analysis is a C program with user annotations to bound the number of loop iterations. This is transfered to assembly language whereby the annotations are preserved.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-27813-9_26 fatcat:2itwhhgrsnd2jkhcugcxpbgkuq

Software Structure and WCET Predictability

Gernot Gebhard, Christoph Cullmann, Reinhold Heckmann, Marc Herbstritt
2011 Design, Automation, and Test in Europe  
In this paper we study existing coding proposals and guidelines, such as MISRA-C, and investigate whether they simplify static timing analysis.  ...  Any means to increase the (static) time predictability of the embedded software are of high interest -especially due to the ever-growing complexity of such software systems.  ...  Tools for Static Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis Challenges A static WCET analysis has to cope with several challenges to be successful.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.ppes.2011.1 dblp:conf/date/GebhardCH11 fatcat:ax45h6yrrnb5bhjqgoozl372de

The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation

Maiza Claire, Raymond Pascal, Parent-Vigouroux Catherine, Bonenfant Armelle, Carrier Fabienne, Hugues Cassé, Philippe Cuenot, Denis Claraz, Nicolas Halbwachs, Erwan Jahier, Hanbing Li, Marianne De Michiel (+8 others)
2017 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
Another source of over-approximation comes from the software itself: WCET analysis may consider potential worst-cases executions that are actually infeasible, because of the semantics of the program or  ...  In static WCET analysis, a main source of over-approximation comes from the complexity of the modern hardware platforms: their timing behavior tends to become more unpredictable because of features like  ...  The analysis performed on the enriched CFG delivers a WCET improvement up to 10% on the benchmarks of the WCET Tool Challenge.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2017.9 dblp:conf/wcet/MaizaRPBCCCCHJL17 fatcat:qoobg54nkrb7zhauujzgws7xlu

Testing Implementation Soundness of a WCET Analysis Tool [chapter]

Reinhard Wilhelm, Markus Pister, Gernot Gebhard, Daniel Kästner
2020 A Journey of Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems  
The microarchitectural analysis is modified to predict those events and annotate them to the edges of the generated prediction graph.  ...  Certification becomes more challenging through DO-333, the formal-methods supplement to DO-178C.  ...  from the copyright holder.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-47487-4_2 fatcat:qvnt6ltauzcjjpmtgro7r3tpa4

A Survey of WCET Analysis of Real-Time Operating Systems

Mingsong Lv, Nan Guan, Yi Zhang, Qingxu Deng, Ge Yu, Jianming Zhang
2009 2009 International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems  
By summarizing previous work, challenges of WCET analysis of complete real-time systems are presented, and some possible further research potentials are unleashed.  ...  Timing correctness of hard real-time systems is guaranteed by schedulability analysis and worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis of programs.  ...  New challenges emerge in many aspects of the analysis. Does Single WCET Value Suffice?  ... 
doi:10.1109/icess.2009.24 dblp:conf/icess/LvGZDYZ09 fatcat:gtueqpoqy5ew5ptjkunsbx75t4

Estimating the WCET of GPU-Accelerated Applications Using Hybrid Analysis

Adam Betts, Alastair Donaldson
2013 2013 25th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems  
We further describe how to extend the basic hybrid WCET analysis of sequential code so that concurrent timing effects in the GPU execution model are incorporated.  ...  We propose the use of hybrid WCET analysis whereby execution times of small program segments are deduced from traces of execution and a calculation backend derived from the Control Flow Graph (CFG) produces  ...  a key research challenge.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ecrts.2013.29 dblp:conf/ecrts/BettsD13 fatcat:x2kitcdfnffi3lqxooehd233om
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