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Crypto Minning : Indonesia Carbon Tax Challenges and Safeguarding International Commitment on Human Security

Ika Riswanti Putranti
2022 International Journal of Business Economics and Social Development  
The issue of carbon footprint in cryto mining has in several ways been the cause of the prohibition of this activity.  ...  The need for financial transactions in the virtual world that continues to grow demands an increase in the speed, quality, and quantity of various innovations and discoveries in the field of financial  ...  with proof of stake, proof ofauthority (poa), proof of believability, proof of activity, proof of space, proof of views, and proof of time (Grobys & Sapkota, 2019) The cryptocurrency mining (proof of  ... 
doi:10.46336/ijbesd.v3i1.206 fatcat:7s2sklyblzgxrbv3fcmifwyxsu

Crypto Jacking a Technique to Leverage Technology to Mine Crypto Currency

Haitham Hilal Al Hajri, Badar Mohammed Al Mughairi, Mohammad Imtiaz Hossain, Asif Mahbub Karim
2019 International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences  
Blockchain made its first debit as a proof of concept on money exchange platforms back in 2008, where the born of the first cryptocurrency.  ...  are experimenting with cryptocurrency and methods or techniques to mine cryptocurrency effectively and anonymously, the attack is known by Cryptojacking.  ...  Therefore, the newer generation of cryptocurrency is ASIC-Resistances.  ... 
doi:10.6007/ijarbss/v9-i3/5791 fatcat:hkuo2w52ezekrcd26nz5zoisge

An Empirical Study On Digital Virtual Crypto Currency Like Bitcoin Etc. In Contemporary Scenario Of Indian Investment Business

Pawan Kalyani
2018 Zenodo  
In this paper the author is doing an empirical study about the various aspects of digital virtual crypto currency like Bitcoins, whether the people are aware about the understanding of this currency and  ...  In digital India people came across with the digital virtual crypto currency like Bitcoins and others, people are investing in these currency as it gets the hype of higher returns as compared to the traditional  ...  Lunched in 2012, it was the first digital currency to use a combination of proofof-work and proof-of-stake. At first, the coins are mined using the proof-of-work hashing process.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1186185 fatcat:xdz6kdguajcwnnyiksra4ffywm

Evaluation of Green Alternatives for Blockchain Proof-of-Work (PoW) Approach

Mahdi H. Miraz, Peter S. Excell, Khan Sobayel
2021 Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing  
Following the footprints of Bitcoins, many other cryptocurrencies were developed mostly adopting the same or similar Proof-of-Work (PoW) approach.  ...  to compete in the mining race, thus contributing to electronics waste.  ...  Mining encourages the use of performance-specific hardware, such as ASICs, which becomes obsolete in approximately every 1.5 years and contributes to, as of early 2021, the average e-waste generated by  ... 
doi:10.33166/aetic.2021.04.005 fatcat:rzndbovsn5e2tm3o3alp3npdoy

Comparative Study of Proof of Work (PoW) and Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) Blockchain Consensus Algorithm

Nithish Kumar R
2021 International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology  
This paper presents the results of a comparative study between Proof of Work and Delegated Proof of Stake, both of which have been widely used in Blockchain projects recently.  ...  A major development in the technology came with the introduction of virtual cryptocurrencies where transactions were recorded and verified by miners or validators at various nodes in different locations  ...  Over time, the reward amount decreases as more blocks are mined. 2) Delegated Proof of Work (DPOW): In a Delegated Proof of stake System, the voters stake their coin and elect their block producer and  ... 
doi:10.22214/ijraset.2021.36425 fatcat:j45qfleianbzxcsn6banipwi3e

Cryptocurrency: The Present and the Future Scenario

Anusha Ramkumar Kommuru, Aastha Gupta, Manvi Chauhan
2022 International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology  
In this paper, we shall discuss the mining techniques, growth of cryptocurrencies and the associated risks and returns.  ...  Mining is a method through which new units of cryptocurrencies are generated and earned. It also adds past transactions to the distributed and open ledger among the users known as the blockchain.  ...  Scrypt takes about 2.5 minutes to mine a block with the same difficulty measures. 3) Peercoin Peercoin uses Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Stake hand-in-hand in the main mining system.  ... 
doi:10.22214/ijraset.2022.43812 fatcat:4mw7aqumdnf5bkbazz6lm4j65u

PROOF OF VALUE ALIENATION (PoVA) - a concept of a cryptocurrency issuance protocol [article]

Tim Shuliar, Nikita Goldsmit
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we will describe a concept of a cryptocurrency issuance protocol which supports digital currencies in a Proof-of-Work (< PoW >) like manner.  ...  However, the methods assume alternative utilization of assets used for cryptocurrency creation (rather than purchasing electricity necessary for < mining >).  ...  of specific mining equipment, such as ASICs, etc.  ... 
arXiv:1901.04928v1 fatcat:qitcmi27nncfbets4e73bp7xoe

Survey on Surging Technology: Cryptocurrency

Swathi Singh, Suguna R, Divya Satish, Ranjith Kumar MV
2018 International Journal of Engineering & Technology  
The concept of cryptocurrency is not new in digital world and is already gaining subtle importance in electronic commerce market.  ...  The transaction of cryptocurrencies are protected with strong cryptographic hash functions that ensure the safe sending and receiving of assets within the transaction chain or blockchain in a Peer-to-Peer  ...  The time stamping strategies that are dedicated towards mining these virtual currencies include Proof-Of-Work, Proof-Of-Stake or Consensus methods.  ... 
doi:10.14419/ijet.v7i3.12.16045 fatcat:6eszjzgchbgtfm3oqkwf52bn7a

An Analysis of Energy Consumption and Carbon Footprints of Cryptocurrencies and Possible Solutions [article]

Varun Kohli, Sombuddha Chakravarty, Vinay Chamola, Kuldip Singh Sangwan, Sherali Zeadally
2022 arXiv   pre-print
The increased popularity of cryptocurrencies since the introduction of Bitcoin in 2009 has been accompanied by an increasing trend in greenhouse gas emissions and high electrical energy consumption.  ...  We compare with the energy consumption and carbon footprints of these cryptocurrencies with countries around the world, and centralized transaction methods such as Visa.  ...  Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, and through its cooperating agency the Institute of International Education ("IIE").  ... 
arXiv:2203.03717v1 fatcat:jiwa4l4rjbcxjp7ew26t2g4u74

Advanced Programming: The Future Implication on Cryptocurrency-Digital Money Mining and Energy Consumption

Orlunwo Placida Orochi, Ojekudo Nathaniel
2021 International journal of research and scientific innovation  
This article focuses on the emerging phenomenon of energy sustainability mining cryptocurrencies.  ...  The increase in market value and the increasing global popularity of cryptocurrencies are giving rise to a number of energy consumption concerns.  ...  Other protocols such as Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and Proof-of-Authority (PoA) could also, however, achieve more energyefficient validation. There are a number of other alternative algorithms.  ... 
doi:10.51244/ijrsi.2021.8508 fatcat:qh4g6muetbc3fhho5ftoke6rda

Based on the Time-Spatial Power-Based Cryptocurrency Miner Driving Force Model, Establish a Global CO2 Emission Prediction Framework after China Bans Cryptocurrency

Xuejia Sang, Xiaopeng Leng, Linfu Xue, Xiangjin Ran
2022 Sustainability  
rapid growth in carbon emissions from cryptocurrencies.  ...  After China bans cryptocurrencies, the conservative change in global CO2 emissions from 2020 will be between −0.4% and 4.4%, and Central Asian countries such as Kazakhstan are likely to become areas of  ...  After China bans cryptocurrency mining, global cryptocurrency mining activities are likely to cause more carbon emissions, with a growth rate between −0.2% and 4.4%.  ... 
doi:10.3390/su14095332 fatcat:vab537tfhnbilfaxyh2awe4muq

A probative value for authentication use case blockchain

Dominique Guégan, Christophe Henot
2019 Digital Finance  
, and industry) decides that a blockchain protocol is more legitimate than another one for the business which it wants to develop looking at the legal (in case of dispute) points of view.  ...  In this paper, considering the creation of small companies interested to develop their business with a public blockchain, we analyse from different aspects why a company (in banking or insurance system  ...  Delegated Proof-of-Stake is a generic term describing an evolution of the basic Proof-of-Stake consensus protocols.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s42521-019-00003-0 fatcat:zj57zyd54fcuxe5b3xk5424hqy

NeuCoin: the First Secure, Cost-efficient and Decentralized Cryptocurrency [article]

Kourosh Davarpanah, Dan Kaufman, Ophelie Pubellier
2015 arXiv   pre-print
This paper demonstrates how NeuCoin's proof-of-stake implementation addresses all commonly raised "nothing at stake" objections to generic proof-of-stake systems.  ...  higher mining rewards and lower minimum stake age; (2) abandoning the use of coin age in the mining formula; (3) causing the stake modifier parameter to change over time for each stake; and (4) utilizing  ...  In proof-of-stake, mining nodes generate blocks in proportion to their stake in (i.e. ownership of) the currency itself.  ... 
arXiv:1503.07768v1 fatcat:6eagekierfghtb5melf6i3z4zu

CLASSIFICATION CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES OF CRYPTOCURRENCY IN THE WORLD ECONOMY

Oleh Senyk, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
2020 FORMATION OF MARKET ECONOMY IN UKRAINE  
, Proof-of-Capacity, Proof of Storage та інші [7] . 13.  ...  За алгоритмом генерації: -Proof-of-Work (PoW) -алгоритм захисту, що полягає в необхідності виконання достатньо складної та тривалої задачі та можливості швидко й легко перевірити результат; -Proof of stake  ...  The algorithms for generating cryptocurrency systems, in particular Proof-of-Work and Proof of share, are considered. The analysis shows the diversity and versatility of cryptocurrency systems.  ... 
doi:10.30970/meu.2020.44.0.3443 fatcat:ako6sahcczhq7dohheg2zkf7km

Cryptocurrencies and blockchain – challenges and threats

Kamil Jurczyk
2021 The Review of Economics, Finance & Investments  
In recent years, one of the most frequently discussed aspects in the world of economics has been the use of blockchain technology in economic life and the growing popularity of cryptocurrencies.  ...  The analysis involves technical, social and legal aspects linked to the development of virtual money.  ...  The mining process of this cryptocurrency generates carbon dioxide emissions comparable to those of Greece (Bank of America, 2021).  ... 
doi:10.53752/refi.2020.1.15 fatcat:pr43h26lo5bhjprbs2ylpiavui
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