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Automated Requirements Traceability: The Study of Human Analysts

David Cuddeback, Alex Dekhtyar, Jane Hayes
2010 2010 18th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference  
When using RTMs to support the V&V of mission-or safety-critical systems, however, a human analyst must vet the candidate RTMs. The focus thus becomes the quality of the final RTM.  ...  This paper investigates how human analysts perform when vetting candidate RTMs.  ...  We would also like to thank David Janzen and Gene Fisher for allowing us to run the study in their classes.  ... 
doi:10.1109/re.2010.35 dblp:conf/re/CuddebackDH10 fatcat:nnvgfxdn75cufbrw4mhw4dmxfm

Towards a model of analyst effort for traceability research

Alex Dekhtyar, Jane Huffman Hayes, Matt Smith
2011 Proceeding of the 6th international workshop on Traceability in emerging forms of software engineering - TEFSE '11  
A number of simulations were undertaken in order to build effort curves to assist in evaluating numerous tracing scenarios, such as determining at what point in time an analyst should switch from vetting  ...  This paper posits that a theoretical model of analyst effort in tracing tasks is necessary to assist with study of the analyst.  ...  information retrieval and text mining methods for automatic trace recovery.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1987856.1987870 dblp:conf/icse/DekhtyarHS11 fatcat:52livit22zefta6w62ypv4ocqa

On human analyst performance in assisted requirements tracing: Statistical analysis

Alex Dekhtyar, Olga Dekhtyar, Jeff Holden, Jane Huffman Hayes, David Cuddeback, Wei-Keat Kong
2011 2011 IEEE 19th International Requirements Engineering Conference  
Assisted requirements tracing is a process in which a human analyst validates candidate traces produced by an automated requirements tracing method or tool.  ...  We describe the information collected about each study participant and their work on the tracing task, and apply statistical analysis to study which factors have the largest effect on the quality of the  ...  We thank John Dalbey for the ChangeStyle dataset, and David Janzen, Clark Turner, and Gene Fisher for allowing us to conduct the studies in their courses.  ... 
doi:10.1109/re.2011.6051649 dblp:conf/re/DekhtyarDHHCK11 fatcat:yfhyg2eoizaztcj32q4xm2qsuy

Gray links in the use of requirements traceability

Nan Niu, Wentao Wang, Arushi Gupta
2016 Proceedings of the 2016 24th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering - FSE 2016  
The results uncover what we call "gray links"-around 20% of the total traces are voted to be true links with respect to only one task but not the others.  ...  The value of traceability is in its use. How do different software engineering tasks affect the tracing of the same requirement?  ...  Such judging-the-tool-output is referred to as vetting, where an analyst is asked to browse and verify the automatically generated trace links [9] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/2950290.2950354 dblp:conf/sigsoft/NiuWG16 fatcat:hpr3emeblzerhk2bvwgmcqaasa

A semantic relatedness approach for traceability link recovery

Anas Mahmoud, Nan Niu, Songhua Xu
2012 2012 20th IEEE International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC)  
Human analysts working with automated tracing tools need to directly vet candidate traceability links in order to determine the true traceability information.  ...  Currently, human intervention happens at the end of the traceability process, after candidate traceability links have already been generated. This often leads to a decline in the results' accuracy.  ...  In fact, studies of assisted requirements tracing -in which human analysts work with the automated tracing tool to verify traceability links -suggest that human analysts working with such tools usually  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpc.2012.6240487 dblp:conf/iwpc/MahmoudNX12 fatcat:rw6hkt3ubzdvvfdt7bysmq6zdq

Domain Knowledge Discovery Guided by Software Trace Links [article]

Jin L.C. Guo, Natawut Monaikul, Jane Cleland-Huang
2018 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we present a novel approach for leveraging trace links in software intensive systems to guide the process of mining facts that contain domain knowledge.  ...  and human effort.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work in this paper was partially funded by the US National Science Foundation Grant CCF:1319680.  ... 
arXiv:1808.05209v1 fatcat:tygvdm2ixngc5owo42vye5gdf4

Advancing candidate link generation for requirements tracing: the study of methods

J.H. Hayes, A. Dekhtyar, S.K. Sundaram
2006 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering  
This paper addresses the issues related to improving the overall quality of the dynamic candidate link generation for the requirements tracing process for Verification and Validation and Independent Verification  ...  The contribution of the paper is four-fold: we define goals for a tracing tool based on analyst responsibilities in the tracing process; we introduce several new measures for validating that the goals  ...  We would also like to thank Doug Oard for useful discussions about measurement in Information Retrieval. Last but not least, we would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tse.2006.3 fatcat:y2w773qymfa5xfihq3snjvbngm

Enhancing candidate link generation for requirements tracing: The cluster hypothesis revisited

Nan Niu, Anas Mahmoud
2012 2012 20th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE)  
Modern requirements tracing tools employ information retrieval methods to automatically generate candidate links.  ...  In this paper, we propose an approach to improving the quality of candidate link generation for the requirements tracing process.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank the partner company for the generous support of our research.  ... 
doi:10.1109/re.2012.6345842 dblp:conf/re/NiuM12 fatcat:kdpxovfhhjdnniz5s2l5pe3moe

A Context-based Information Retrieval Technique for Recovering Use-Case-to-Source-Code Trace Links in Embedded Software Systems

Jiale Zhou, Yue Lu, Kristina Lundqvist
2013 2013 39th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications  
However, semi-automatically or fullyautomatically generating accurate trace links remains an open research challenge, especially for legacy systems.  ...  Post-requirements traceability is the ability to relate requirements (e.g., use cases) forward to corresponding design documents, source code and test cases by establishing trace links.  ...  Then, different strategies are applied to prune undesired links, and finally, the resulting candidate trace link lists are vetted by human analysts w.r.t. relevancy to a specific project.  ... 
doi:10.1109/seaa.2013.30 dblp:conf/euromicro/ZhouLL13 fatcat:35irwuomk5adfjzawjr5csgm2y

Tagging in Assisted Tracing

Wentao Wang, Nan Niu, Hui Liu, Yuting Wu
2015 2015 IEEE/ACM 8th International Symposium on Software and Systems Traceability  
Assisted tracing is the process where human analyst vets and makes decisions concerning the automated method's output.  ...  We then carry out an experiment to investigate the tagging practices of 28 student analysts in vetting requirements-to-sourcecode trace matrices.  ...  The work is funded in part by the U.S.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sst.2015.9 dblp:conf/icse/WangNLW15 fatcat:nhdfod52zrd4jnse5oe2recyd4

Second-Guessing in Tracing Tasks Considered Harmful? [article]

Bhushan Chitre, Jane Huffman Hayes, Alexander Dekhtyar
2018 arXiv   pre-print
This limitation makes the job of human analysts who must vet recovered trace links more difficult.  ...  to tracing software leads to fewer human errors.  ...  We thank all participants from upper division software engineering classes who took their time to participate in our study. We thank NASA and NSF as prior grants funded the development of RETRO.NET.  ... 
arXiv:1804.02968v1 fatcat:dtygdd3jpbgudgncopvsczvcea

How do we trace requirements

Wei-Keat Kong, Jane Huffman Hayes, Alex Dekhtyar, Jeff Holden
2011 Proceeding of the 4th international workshop on Cooperative and human aspects of software engineering - CHASE '11  
Human analysts must vet candidate traceability links retrieved by such tools and must often go looking for links that such tools fail to locate as they build a traceability matrix.  ...  Such information is a pre-requisite to understanding how to better design traceability tools to best utilize analyst time while developing a high quality final traceability matrix.  ...  look to find key "traits" that can make the tracing task easier and use this to design a tool that caters to this user behavior.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1984642.1984648 dblp:conf/icse/KongHDH11 fatcat:bjn3mhuer5b57emoeplhtiplze

Software traceability: trends and future directions

Jane Cleland-Huang, Orlena C. Z. Gotel, Jane Huffman Hayes, Patrick Mäder, Andrea Zisman
2014 Proceedings of the on Future of Software Engineering - FOSE 2014  
capable of semi-automating the trace creation and maintenance process, developing new trace query languages and visualization techniques that use trace links, and applying traceability in specific domains  ...  In this paper, we build upon a prior body of work to highlight the state-of-the-art in software traceability, and to present compelling areas of research that need to be addressed.  ...  We therefore need to gain a better understanding of the process human analysts go through to vet and approve a generated trace link, and to understand which sequences of actions are more or less likely  ... 
doi:10.1145/2593882.2593891 dblp:conf/icse/Cleland-HuangGHMZ14 fatcat:mxsvacsro5a6piw2uiif7juepm

Improving After-the-Fact Tracing and Mapping: Supporting Software Quality Predictions

J.H. Hayes, A. Dekhtyar, S.K. Sundaram
2005 IEEE Software  
Thus, we introduce the notion of analyst feedback to improve tracing. Here, tracing tool shows the analyst a candidate link list and asks the analyst to vet the links.  ...  The analyst's role would change from a human search engine to a verifier who checks the automatically gener ated candidate RTMs.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ms.2005.156 fatcat:fjitq4m2y5cvvljeeptjt3xufy

Toward an effective automated tracing process

Anas Mahmoud
2012 2012 20th IEEE International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC)  
In particular, our work addresses several issues related to the various aspects of the IR-based automated tracing process, including trace link retrieval, performance enhancement, and the role of the human  ...  Such low levels of accuracy require software engineers working with traceability tools to spend a considerable amount of their time verifying the generated traceability information, a process that is often  ...  ART-Assist therefore presents the human analyst with 70% of the most similar links, a threshold used in prior work [169] . What information is included in the snippet?  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpc.2012.6240502 dblp:conf/iwpc/Mahmoud12 fatcat:2vz2rn5rinezbhywiwpl3hj4oy
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