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Distributed parallel processing in the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex: Learning networks compared to tensor theory

T. J. Anastasio, D. A. Robinson
1990 Biological cybernetics  
As an alternative to tensor theory, we modeled the vertical VOR as a three-layered neural network programmed using the back-propagation learning algorithm.  ...  But tensor theory does not take the distributed, redundant nature of the VOR neural network into account.  ...  The purpose of this relay, commonly known as the three-neuron-arc of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR), is to stabilize the retinal image by producing eye movements that compensate for head movements (  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00195854 pmid:2202438 fatcat:c5upivr3njgrnh3bpgmo7m5r3m

How the brain keeps the eyes still

H. S. Seung
1996 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Existing experimental data are reinterpreted as evidence for an "attractor hypothesis" that the persistent patterns of activity observed in this network form an attractive line of fixed points in its state  ...  The brain's memory of horizontal eye position appears to be represented by persistent neural activity in a network known as the neural integrator, which is localized in the brainstem and cerebellum.  ...  Because the three-neuron vestibuloocular reflex arc was not sufficient to explain persistent neural activity, he was led to the idea of the ''reverberating circuit.''  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.93.23.13339 pmid:8917592 pmcid:PMC24094 fatcat:45v76va27zc47eh25n3o43g2oq

Control of eye orientation: where does the brain's role end and the muscle's begin?

Dora E. Angelaki, Bernhard J. M. Hess
2004 European Journal of Neuroscience  
controller which operates in 3-D, even when considering an eye plant with pulleys.  ...  An important facet in understanding 3-D eye orientation and movement has been the discovery of mobile, soft-tissue sheaths or 'pulleys' in the orbit which might in¯uence the pulling direction of extraocular  ...  This revolutionary proposal assigned the computational load imposed by the 3-D kinematics to premotor neural networks (Fig. 7a ).  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03068.x pmid:14750958 fatcat:h6byzqyvxzfrzjrnmlj2pcekee

What do reflex and voluntary mean? Modern views on an ancient debate

Arthur Prochazka, Francois Clarac, Gerald E. Loeb, John C. Rothwell, Jonathan R. Wolpaw
2000 Experimental Brain Research  
Are the words reflex and voluntary useful scientific concepts, or are they prescientific terms that should be discarded?  ...  Physiologists use these words routinely in their publications, in laboratory experiments and, indeed, like most lay people, in their daily lives.  ...  of the complexity of the neural network involved. 2.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s002219900250 pmid:10717785 fatcat:gxqojjoj7bd3ldmixlsdpydakq

Extraction of spatio-temporal primitives of emotional body expressions

Lars Omlor, Martin A. Giese
2007 Neurocomputing  
, Aichi, Japan, The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes retinal image during head motion by counter-rotating the eyes in the orbit.  ...  We investigated this issue using the rat vibrissa system as an experimental model.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neucom.2006.10.100 fatcat:esivhljzsbcihdl5qbp756josu

Velocity Storage Contribution to Vestibular Self-Motion Perception in Healthy Human Subjects

G. Bertolini, S. Ramat, J. Laurens, C. J. Bockisch, S. Marti, D. Straumann, A. Palla
2011 Journal of Neurophysiology  
We hypothesized that, after an angular velocity step, self-motion perception and reflexive eye movements are driven by the same vestibular pathways.  ...  In 16 healthy subjects (25-71 years of age), perceived rotational velocity (PRV) and the vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) after sudden decelerations (90°/s 2 ) from constant-velocity (90°/s) earth-vertical  ...  signal directly to the ocular motor neurons (3-neuron arc).  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.00154.2010 pmid:21068266 fatcat:2zm66neqqrcjnomdi27be6he24

Adaptive filters and internal models: Multilevel description of cerebellar function

John Porrill, Paul Dean, Sean R. Anderson
2013 Neural Networks  
This initial analysis suggests that cerebellar involvement in particular behaviours is therefore unlikely to have a neat classification into categories such as 'forward model'.  ...  This algorithm is computationally powerful enough to be used in a very wide variety of engineering applications.  ...  SA was supported by a European Union Grant on Biomimetic Technology for Vibrissal Active Touch (BIOTACT) ICT-215910, and an EPSRC grant (EP/1032533/1).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neunet.2012.12.005 pmid:23391782 fatcat:mz76dtx3o5ezjppiqek7szk37i

Ultrastructure of vestibular commissural neurons related to velocity storage in the monkey

G.R. Holstein, G.P. Martinelli, S. Wearne, B. Cohen
1999 Neuroscience  
The indirect pathway involves a more complex neural network that utilizes a portion of the vestibular commissure.  ...  reflex.  ...  Statistical analysis of data A standard unpaired t-test was used to compare two groups of data. For more than two groups, an analysis of variance was used.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(99)00142-6 pmid:10430480 fatcat:dclojygo4jfwllzvnxapwnzqfq

Transformation of Vestibular Signals for the Control of Standing in Humans

Patrick A. Forbes, Billy L. Luu, H.F. Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A. Croft, J. Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
2016 Journal of Neuroscience  
This study provides insight into the neural integration and central processing associated with transformed vestibulomotor relationships that are essential to standing upright.  ...  Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of  ...  Experimental protocol Subjects were given visual targets that were placed in an arc ϳ2 m away from them.  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.1902-16.2016 pmid:27911755 fatcat:kokhoobuvzaszptwpduwbskezi

Modeling Verticality Estimation During Locomotion [chapter]

Ildar Farkhatdinov, Hannah Michalska, Alain Berthoz, Vincent Hayward
2013 Romansy 19 – Robot Design, Dynamics and Control  
The results were further tested with a specifically designed experimental setup that comprised an actuated gimbal mechanism to represent the head-neck articulation and a liquid-based inclinometer that  ...  The model was constructed from general considerations regarding the Newton-Euler dynamics governing the three-dimensional movements of bodies constrained to oscillate in non-inertial frames, such as the  ...  A feedback-error learning algorithm with neural networks was applied to achieve human like vestibuloocular and optokinetic reflexes.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-1379-0_44 fatcat:5jrrt7nyn5dgngrjtdhnfzvqui

The Nucleus Prepositus Hypoglossi Contributes to Head Direction Cell Stability in Rats

W. N. Butler, J. S. Taube
2015 Journal of Neuroscience  
Two brainstem nuclei, the supragenual nucleus (SGN) and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH), are known to project to the HD network and are thought to be possible relays of vestibular information.  ...  Some animals with significant but incomplete lesions of the NPH had HD cells that were stable under normal conditions, but were unstable under conditions designed to minimize the use of external cues.  ...  Because the cells were sensitive to the animal's angular head velocity, it was suggested that they might play an important role in the cancellation of the vestibuloocular reflex, such as during a smooth  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3254-14.2015 pmid:25673848 pmcid:PMC4323533 fatcat:ezo5m6oh3zffngvei43jqz7lpq

Frequency-Dependent Spatiotemporal Tuning Properties of Non–Eye Movement Related Vestibular Neurons to Three-Dimensional Translations in Squirrel Monkeys

Chiju Chen-Huang, Barry W. Peterson
2010 Journal of Neurophysiology  
A novel frequency-dependent spatiotemporal analysis examined in each neuron whether complex models, with unrestricted response dynamics in three-dimensional (3D) space, provided significantly better fits  ...  Subsequently, the statistically selected optimal model was used to predict the maximum translation direction, expressed as a unitary vector, Vt max , and its associated sensitivity and phase across frequencies  ...  The signal processing in central vestibular pathways provides a case study for understanding how spatial information is shaped to meet functional demands, especially for eliciting the vestibuloocular reflex  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.00904.2009 pmid:20375245 pmcid:PMC2888244 fatcat:mpv2bptd2bg73fx6vhsx6klqfa

Commutative Saccadic Generator Is Sufficient to Control a 3-D Ocular Plant With Pulleys

Christian Quaia, Lance M. Optican
1998 Journal of Neurophysiology  
Under such an assumption, an essentially commutative sac-verts the desired rotation of the eyes into the signals needed to produce that rotation) can be commutative. cadic generator could be used, and  ...  Using this quantitative approach, we demonstrate mathematically that the good dynamic behavior pointed out that, if 1) eye orientation and 2) its derivative, but not angular velocity, were encoded neurally  ...  plant appears to the neural controller as an approxi-VOR is at least unaffected.  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.1998.79.6.3197 pmid:9636119 fatcat:7fpxse3q7bfy7edbokz4puf2e4

Re: The Use of a Knowledge Survey as an Indicator of Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

Edward B. Nuhfer, Delores Knipp
2006 CBE - Life Sciences Education  
The semicircular canals get a similar treatment, and then the lesson moves on to the vestibuloocular reflex.  ...  All the animations, covering Synaptic Transmission, Electrical Signaling in Neurons, AMPA and NMDA Receptors, Sound Transduction, Visual Pathways, Receptive Fields, Reflex Arcs, Receptors in the Skin,  ...  Lawson (2002) applied neural network theory to do just that in the case of Galileo Galilei during his discovery of Jupiter's moons in 1610.  ... 
doi:10.1187/cbe.06-05-0166 pmid:17146034 pmcid:PMC1681355 fatcat:zxh7qbb55fgebjbgtr5r47br2q

Three-Dimensional Eye-Head Coordination During Gaze Saccades in the Primate

J. Douglas Crawford, Melike Z. Ceylan, Eliana M. Klier, Daniel Guitton
1999 Journal of Neurophysiology  
in the monkey and the control strategies used to implement these constraints during head-free gaze saccades.  ...  The purpose of this investigation was to describe the neural constraints on three-dimensional (3-D) orientations of the eye in space (Es), head in space (Hs), and eye in head (Eh) during visual fixations  ...  However, it is unclear how the brain organizes 3-D Hs trajectories and coordinates 3-D Eh saccades with vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) slow phases to implement these final fixation constraints.  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.1999.81.4.1760 pmid:10200211 fatcat:2t6tjb4dnbakpmwbsq52yu55e4
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