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Verifying x86 Instruction Implementations [article]

Shilpi Goel, Anna Slobodova, Rob Sumners, Sol Swords
<span title="2019-12-21">2019</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
To our knowledge, there are no similar results in the verification of implementations of an x86 microprocessor.  ...  We focus on proving correctness of instruction implementations, which includes the decoding of an instruction, its translation into a sequence of micro-operations, any subsequent execution of traps to  ...  We use the ACL2 theorem prover [2] and built-in verified proof routines [37, 35] to model and verify a target RTL implementation of instruction execution.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.10285v1">arXiv:1912.10285v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/aeocsrtb5zd6vfsqklcoi3stxy">fatcat:aeocsrtb5zd6vfsqklcoi3stxy</a> </span>
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Steps towards Verified Implementations of HOL Light [chapter]

Magnus O. Myreen, Scott Owens, Ramana Kumar
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
x86) (approx. 7000 64-bit x86 instructions) semantics of Milawa's logic inference rules of Milawa's logic Lisp semantics semantics of x86-64 machine Milawa theorem prover (kernel approx.  ...  Cambridge) verified compilation from CakeML to bytecode operational semantics verified type inference verified parsing (syntax is compatible with SML) verified x86 implementations proof-producing  ...  Main message of the talk: We are working towards a verified implementation of ML (called CakeML) A verified HOL light is an initial challenge case study for CakeML.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39634-2_38">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39634-2_38</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4m4fkze4bnazpgmtpuux5w5yiu">fatcat:4m4fkze4bnazpgmtpuux5w5yiu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150429202916/https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mom22/talks/2013-itp-verified-hol.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/4f/75/4f75f3aacbe25ab5db125069f6a6c6f664501336.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39634-2_38"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

CakeML

Ramana Kumar, Magnus O. Myreen, Michael Norrish, Scott Owens
<span title="">2014</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2qaxtqe2rfgjnfefqcokcnzelq" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages - POPL &#39;14</a> </i> &nbsp;
Step 3: production of verified x86-64 code Verified x86-64 Implementation Real executable also has 30-line unverified C wrapper.  ...  Translation into x86-64 representation of bytecode states, we define a function that maps CakeML Bytecode instructions into concrete x86-64 machine instructions (i.e. lists of bytes).  ...  Top-level Correctness Theorem The top-level theorem for the entire x86-64 implementation is stated as follows. Theorem 25 (x86-64 Implementation of REPL s ).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2535838.2535841">doi:10.1145/2535838.2535841</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/popl/KumarMNO14.html">dblp:conf/popl/KumarMNO14</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/esfxvt5fsbd7pnmkgv7izvmh3u">fatcat:esfxvt5fsbd7pnmkgv7izvmh3u</a> </span>
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Verified just-in-time compiler on x86

Magnus O. Myreen
<span title="2010-01-17">2010</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xu5bk2lj5rbdxlx6222nw7tsxi" style="color: black;">SIGPLAN notices</a> </i> &nbsp;
Our semantics includes a model of the instruction cache.  ...  Two versions of the verified JIT compiler are presented: one generates all of the machine code at once, the other one is incremental i.e. produces code on-demand.  ...  For this we needed verified x86 code which implements code generation i.e. translation from bytecode to x86 code.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1707801.1706313">doi:10.1145/1707801.1706313</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cqgvad6tqzatja2epk6trxxhyi">fatcat:cqgvad6tqzatja2epk6trxxhyi</a> </span>
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Verified just-in-time compiler on x86

Magnus O. Myreen
<span title="">2010</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2qaxtqe2rfgjnfefqcokcnzelq" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 37th annual ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT symposium on Principles of programming languages - POPL &#39;10</a> </i> &nbsp;
Our semantics includes a model of the instruction cache.  ...  Two versions of the verified JIT compiler are presented: one generates all of the machine code at once, the other one is incremental i.e. produces code on-demand.  ...  For this we needed verified x86 code which implements code generation i.e. translation from bytecode to x86 code.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1706299.1706313">doi:10.1145/1706299.1706313</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/popl/Myreen10.html">dblp:conf/popl/Myreen10</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/uy55r3z3sbclnbbaeqq7nxdxgq">fatcat:uy55r3z3sbclnbbaeqq7nxdxgq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20160304055441/http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mom22/jit/jit.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/52/d2/52d2ed3238f6d3c4fb6715a97329bb64b2247e6c.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1706299.1706313"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Proof Pearl: A Verified Bignum Implementation in x86-64 Machine Code [chapter]

Magnus O. Myreen, Gregorio Curello
<span title="">2013</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The case study we describe is the construction of an x86-64 implementation of arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic.  ...  The work presented in this paper has been developed in the HOL4 theorem prover and the case study resulted in 700 lines of verified 64-bit x86 machine code.  ...  -The proofs presented in this paper have produced a reusable verified x86-64 implementation of bignum integer operations.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03545-1_5">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-03545-1_5</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vwdjj3wqfrdy5lwusekyndhkiu">fatcat:vwdjj3wqfrdy5lwusekyndhkiu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170921213224/http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mom22/cpp13/paper.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b0/17/b0177e2c721ec155e9067366d907c2fa62bf71dc.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03545-1_5"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

ISboxing: An Instruction Substitution Based Data Sandboxing for x86 Untrusted Libraries [chapter]

Liang Deng, Qingkai Zeng, Yao Liu
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/kss7mrolvja63k4rmix3iynkzi" style="color: black;">IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology</a> </i> &nbsp;
Our substitution-based method does not insert any additional instructions into library code and therefore incurs almost no measurable runtime overhead.  ...  In this paper, we propose an efficient and practical data sandboxing approach (called ISboxing) on contemporary x86 platforms, which sandboxes a memory read/write by directly substituting it with a selfsandboxed  ...  In our current implementation, the verifier is self-contained and takes about 2.5k LOC, most of which are interpretation for x86 opcode decoding.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18467-8_26">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-18467-8_26</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ghssrfvktzeqzko6s4k5g7zi64">fatcat:ghssrfvktzeqzko6s4k5g7zi64</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200326165820/https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-319-18467-8_26.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/3f/3b/3f3bee8738c8310da09c3759367f6cadea192753.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18467-8_26"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Language-independent sandboxing of just-in-time compilation and self-modifying code

Jason Ansel, Petr Marchenko, Ulfar Erlingsson, Elijah Taylor, Brad Chen, Derek L. Schuff, David Sehr, Cliff L. Biffle, Bennet Yee
<span title="">2011</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jpubwsjaozha5itdes6pzyz2fm" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 32nd ACM SIGPLAN conference on Programming language design and implementation - PLDI &#39;11</a> </i> &nbsp;
We have added our extensions to both the x86-32 and x86-64 variants of a production-quality, SFI-based sandboxing platform; on those two architectures SFI mechanisms face different challenges.  ...  A number of implementation challenges were specific to x86-64.  ...  The x86-64 implementation of Native Client uses the ILP32 data model, to facilitate source code portability between x86-32 and x86-64 sandboxes.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1993498.1993540">doi:10.1145/1993498.1993540</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/pldi/AnselMETCSSBY11.html">dblp:conf/pldi/AnselMETCSSBY11</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/pbd33aeclredjkepisl7rfgkyy">fatcat:pbd33aeclredjkepisl7rfgkyy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131002043837/http://people.csail.mit.edu/jansel/papers/2011pldi-nacljit.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b7/9e/b79e1bb7a7c9718394dbe433e25a8cfba8891ed8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1993498.1993540"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Language-independent sandboxing of just-in-time compilation and self-modifying code

Jason Ansel, Petr Marchenko, Úlfar Erlingsson, Elijah Taylor, Brad Chen, Derek L. Schuff, David Sehr, Cliff L. Biffle, Bennet Yee
<span title="2011-06-04">2011</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xu5bk2lj5rbdxlx6222nw7tsxi" style="color: black;">SIGPLAN notices</a> </i> &nbsp;
We have added our extensions to both the x86-32 and x86-64 variants of a production-quality, SFI-based sandboxing platform; on those two architectures SFI mechanisms face different challenges.  ...  A number of implementation challenges were specific to x86-64.  ...  The x86-64 implementation of Native Client uses the ILP32 data model, to facilitate source code portability between x86-32 and x86-64 sandboxes.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1993316.1993540">doi:10.1145/1993316.1993540</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lem3mp6kdzff7mnjyy44nbrhzu">fatcat:lem3mp6kdzff7mnjyy44nbrhzu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20131002043837/http://people.csail.mit.edu/jansel/papers/2011pldi-nacljit.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b7/9e/b79e1bb7a7c9718394dbe433e25a8cfba8891ed8.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/1993316.1993540"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Language-independent sandboxing of just-in-time compilation and self-modifying code

Jason Ansel, Petr Marchenko, Úlfar Erlingsson, Elijah Taylor, Brad Chen, Derek L. Schuff, David Sehr, Cliff L. Biffle, Bennet Yee
<span title="2012-08-06">2012</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xu5bk2lj5rbdxlx6222nw7tsxi" style="color: black;">SIGPLAN notices</a> </i> &nbsp;
We have added our extensions to both the x86-32 and x86-64 variants of a production-quality, SFI-based sandboxing platform; on those two architectures SFI mechanisms face different challenges.  ...  A number of implementation challenges were specific to x86-64.  ...  The x86-64 implementation of Native Client uses the ILP32 data model, to facilitate source code portability between x86-32 and x86-64 sandboxes.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2345156.1993540">doi:10.1145/2345156.1993540</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/nl6wtq7btbajll3emqmwuxjk2y">fatcat:nl6wtq7btbajll3emqmwuxjk2y</a> </span>
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Verified peephole optimizations for CompCert

Eric Mullen, Daryl Zuniga, Zachary Tatlock, Dan Grossman
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jpubwsjaozha5itdes6pzyz2fm" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 37th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation - PLDI 2016</a> </i> &nbsp;
Peek contributes four new components: a lower level semantics for CompCert x86 syntax, a liveness analysis, a library for expressing and verifying peephole optimizations, and a verified peephole optimization  ...  The approach scans an assembly program for a sequence of instructions matching a syntactic template and replaces it with a faster, equivalent sequence.  ...  However, a single extended shift instruction is bitwise equivalent to these three. We implemented and verified two peepholes of this style, but with different orders of shifts.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2908080.2908109">doi:10.1145/2908080.2908109</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/pldi/MullenZTG16.html">dblp:conf/pldi/MullenZTG16</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4nth3jj23ndjdnoeu7n5bfrzou">fatcat:4nth3jj23ndjdnoeu7n5bfrzou</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170829043105/http://peek.uwplse.org/pldi16.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/8e/7e/8e7eb6fc23c8f3c734cafa91dbaf7f3ec310eddd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2908080.2908109"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Verified peephole optimizations for CompCert

Eric Mullen, Daryl Zuniga, Zachary Tatlock, Dan Grossman
<span title="2016-06-02">2016</span> <i title="Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/xu5bk2lj5rbdxlx6222nw7tsxi" style="color: black;">SIGPLAN notices</a> </i> &nbsp;
Peek contributes four new components: a lower level semantics for CompCert x86 syntax, a liveness analysis, a library for expressing and verifying peephole optimizations, and a verified peephole optimization  ...  The approach scans an assembly program for a sequence of instructions matching a syntactic template and replaces it with a faster, equivalent sequence.  ...  However, a single extended shift instruction is bitwise equivalent to these three. We implemented and verified two peepholes of this style, but with different orders of shifts.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/2980983.2908109">doi:10.1145/2980983.2908109</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/z3jh5bnk25bm3j2poeejjjl5vm">fatcat:z3jh5bnk25bm3j2poeejjjl5vm</a> </span>
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Efficient binary translation system with low hardware cost

Weiwu Hu, Qi Liu, Jian Wang, Songsong Cai, Menghao Su, Xiaoyu Li
<span title="">2009</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/nmhv25e6jvhplcow6e2chjryx4" style="color: black;">2009 IEEE International Conference on Computer Design</a> </i> &nbsp;
These supports are implemented in Godson-3 processors to speedup the x86 binary translation to the native MIPS instruction set.  ...  To verify the thoughts, the XBAR (X86 Binary translation Acceleration on RISC processors) system is designed and implemented based on Godson [9] [10], a MIPS64 compatible processor.  ...  The logic design work of the new x86 decode unit is also easy to be done and verified.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/iccd.2009.5413138">doi:10.1109/iccd.2009.5413138</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/iccd/HuLWCSL09.html">dblp:conf/iccd/HuLWCSL09</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/egk54du44fgs7evfqamr2evehe">fatcat:egk54du44fgs7evfqamr2evehe</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150225025545/http://iccd.et.tudelft.nl/2009/proceedings/305Hu.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b8/27/b827cbea3dbc97341f73e95dad7e0dd3e5431fdb.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/iccd.2009.5413138"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Scalable validation of binary lifters

Sandeep Dasgupta, Sushant Dinesh, Deepan Venkatesh, Vikram S. Adve, Christopher W. Fletcher
<span title="2020-06-15">2020</span> <i title="ACM"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jpubwsjaozha5itdes6pzyz2fm" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 41st ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation</a> </i> &nbsp;
The semantics faithfully formalizes all the non-deprecated, sequential user-level instructions of the x86-64 Haswell instruction set architecture.  ...  The translation validation of instructions in isolation revealed 29 new bugs in McSema -a mature open-source lifter from x86-64 to LLVM IR.  ...  We present the actual specification that is fed to the x86-64 verifier.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/3385412.3385964">doi:10.1145/3385412.3385964</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/pldi/DasguptaDVAF20.html">dblp:conf/pldi/DasguptaDVAF20</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/3khjl5gbmnetjay23fk3sc2ktu">fatcat:3khjl5gbmnetjay23fk3sc2ktu</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201104155823/https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/107968/DASGUPTA-DISSERTATION-2020.pdf?sequence=1" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/6e/36/6e3656801f4858a64b719ba9e8cffe751034d793.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/3385412.3385964"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

The x86isa Books: Features, Usage, and Future Plans

Shilpi Goel
<span title="2017-05-02">2017</span> <i title="Open Publishing Association"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/qzezkwolyvf33pglm2jldjklca" style="color: black;">Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The x86isa library, incorporated in the ACL2 community books project, provides a formal model of the x86 instruction-set architecture and supports reasoning about x86 machine-code programs.  ...  However, analyzing x86 programs can be daunting -- even for those familiar with program verification, in part due to the complexity of the x86 ISA.  ...  implement an ISA-level instruction.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4204/eptcs.249.1">doi:10.4204/eptcs.249.1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/2iajdpymvfcgfg3haozk4fod24">fatcat:2iajdpymvfcgfg3haozk4fod24</a> </span>
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