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What is NP? - Interpretation of a Chinese paradox "white horse is not horse" [article]

Yu Li
2015 arXiv   pre-print
NP as the class of problems verifiable by a deterministic Turing machine in polynomial time, and reveal cognitive biases in this equivalence.  ...  Inspired from a famous Chinese paradox white horse is not horse, we further analyze these cognitive biases.  ...  In Section 2, we carry out a brief survey of the definition of N P .  ... 
arXiv:1501.01906v1 fatcat:zq74qsl45jguvd7g26cmgsya3a

Board examination for anatomical pathology in Switzerland: two intense days to verify professional competence

Hans-Anton Lehr, Holger Moch, Brigitte Christen, Alexandra Safret, Mathias Gugger, Matthias Rössle, Michael von Gunten, Robert Lemoine, Ann-Marie Kurt, Rosmarie Caduff, Arnold Walter, Gad Singer (+3 others)
2012 Virchows Archiv  
brief history of the exam, and finish with a concise discussion about the possible objectives and  ...  About 15 years ago, the Swiss Society of Pathology has developed and implemented a board examination in anatomical pathology.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors of this manuscript have either functioned as presidents and/or elected members of the standing exam committee for periods of usually 4-5 years and/or contributed in a substantial  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00428-012-1262-7 pmid:22718394 fatcat:aimxrp23gzdgxh5arhpmcggube

Journal notes

W K Beatty
1987 Bulletin of the Medical Library Association  
Chunpei He and Miranda Lee Pao have developed a disciplinespecific journal selection algorithm (InfProcessing Management 1986;22(5):405-16).  ...  Frances Brahmi offers guidance on how to verify the "elusive proceedings" (Med Ref Serv Q 1986 Winter;5(4):1-1 1).  ... 
pmid:16017891 pmcid:PMC227716 fatcat:4qgj5uqp5jcrpobptxqq5vitza

Distribution of inter-node distances in digital trees

Rafik Aguech, Nabil Lasmar, Hosam Mahmoud
2005 Discrete Mathematics & Theoretical Computer Science  
Interestingly, the unbiased case gives a bounded variance, whereas the biased case gives a variance growing with the number of keys.  ...  It is therefore possible in the biased case to show that an appropriately normalized version of the distance converges to a limit.  ...  For a survey of the Mellin transform in the context of the analysis of algorithms we refer the reader to the comprehensive survey in Flajolet, Gourdon and Dumas (1995) .  ... 
doi:10.46298/dmtcs.3373 fatcat:gwsamhqqkbdininkg53n2urepy

Network analyses of student engagement with on-line textbook problems [article]

Jesper Bruun, Pia J. Ray, Linda Udby
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We use the approach to analyze student interactions with an online textbook that features physics problems.  ...  We present a novel approach for analyzing server logs that relies on network analysis and principal component analysis.  ...  He may verify the correct solutions without attempting a full survey-explore-plan-implement cycle of his own. This behavioral structure could be called Read-Verify. Appendix D.10.1.  ... 
arXiv:1903.11390v1 fatcat:z2ilt76qejglhloyc63dsnyb24

Selection Errors of Random Route Samples

Johannes J. Bauer
2014 Sociological Methods & Research  
Random route samples are widely used in face-to-face surveys.  ...  The simulation results show that all three sets of tested random route instructions lead to strong deviations from a uniform distribution and two create systematic biases.  ...  creates biased variable distributions.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0049124114521150 fatcat:rb6dmiqzzrcvbchl4ml2q3mzhm

GNSS-Based Attitude Determination Techniques - a Comprehensive Literature Survey

Almat Raskaliyev, Sarosh Patel, Tarek Sobh, Aidos Ibrayev
2020 IEEE Access  
The work presents an extensive literature survey of the methods mentioned above which are classified in many different categories.  ...  Because of constantly increasing number of GNSS-based AD methods, algorithms, and techniques, introduced in scientific papers worldwide, the problem of choosing an appropriate approach, that is optimal  ...  ''Line biases commonly occur due to the differences in cable lengths between antennas and the receiver'' [7] or differences in radio frequency (RF) front ends in the receiver [8] or a combination of  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2970083 fatcat:uof56mhuwbhxnkt3gdbspgwcxa

AISpace2: An Interactive Visualization Tool for Learning and Teaching Artificial Intelligence

Chenliang Zhou, Dominic Kuang, Jingru Liu, Hanbo Yang, Zijia Zhang, Alan Mackworth, David Poole
There was not a clean separation of the algorithms and visualization; it was too complicated for students to modify the underlying algorithms.  ...  AIspace is a set of tools used to learn and teach fundamental AI algorithms. The original version of AIspace was written in Java.  ...  However, as noted in the work of Ainsworth (2008) , the use of the animations could bring a fake feeling of satisfaction hence a biased assessment of confidence.  ... 
doi:10.1609/aaai.v34i09.7068 fatcat:rrtobtvxmfawdecml3phajb55y

Medical Visual Question Answering: A Survey [article]

Zhihong Lin, Donghao Zhang, Qingyi Tac, Danli Shi, Gholamreza Haffari, Qi Wu, Mingguang He, Zongyuan Ge
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Given a medical image and a clinically relevant question in natural language, the medical VQA system is expected to predict a plausible and convincing answer.  ...  In the first part of this survey, we cover and discuss the publicly available medical VQA datasets up to date about the data source, data quantity, and task feature.  ...  language biases [48] .  ... 
arXiv:2111.10056v1 fatcat:mze4m2j4jjdxreiksninlmocoy

The Three Pillars of Machine Programming [article]

Justin Gottschlich, Armando Solar-Lezama, Nesime Tatbul, Michael Carbin, Martin Rinard, Regina Barzilay, Saman Amarasinghe, Joshua B Tenenbaum, Tim Mattson
2021 arXiv   pre-print
In this position paper, we describe our vision of the future of machine programming through a categorical examination of three pillars of research.  ...  Invention emphasizes the creation or refinement of algorithms or core hardware and software building blocks through machine learning (ML).  ...  to a carefully crafted domain specific language (DSL) with carefully tuned biases.  ... 
arXiv:1803.07244v3 fatcat:omlg3emt3fd7ricvr25erjei4i

The three pillars of machine programming

Justin Gottschlich, Armando Solar-Lezama, Nesime Tatbul, Michael Carbin, Martin Rinard, Regina Barzilay, Saman Amarasinghe, Joshua B. Tenenbaum, Tim Mattson
2018 Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGPLAN International Workshop on Machine Learning and Programming Languages - MAPL 2018  
to a carefully crafted domain specific language (DSL) with carefully tuned biases.  ...  an exhaustive survey of all the research in the intention pillar.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3211346.3211355 dblp:conf/pldi/GottschlichSTCR18 fatcat:jfoym7vygbarll7wdwude3crry

Biased Aggregation, Rollout, and Enhanced Policy Improvement for Reinforcement Learning [article]

Dimitri Bertsekas
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The central novel characteristic is the use of a bias function V of the state, which biases the values of the aggregate cost function towards their correct levels.  ...  We propose a new aggregation framework for approximate dynamic programming, which provides a connection with rollout algorithms, approximate policy iteration, and other single and multistep lookahead methods  ...  One may try to improve the rollout algorithms for these problems with the use of biased aggregation.  ... 
arXiv:1910.02426v1 fatcat:gic73rey4jauhfeqebayqq34mq

Teaching Concurrency: Theory in Practice [chapter]

Luca Aceto, Anna Ingolfsdottir, Kim G. Larsen, Jiří Srba
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Teaching courses that rely on sound mathematical principles is nowadays a challenging task at many universities.  ...  lecture notes [4] that are freely available on the web and on Randel Bryant's survey paper [10] .)  ...  For example, the students might be asked about the existence of a particular transition between two CCS expressions and then proceed with verifying their answers by using a tool.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-04912-5_11 fatcat:i4l4phqtozdzjcivujfmd4d74i

How to Address Non-normality: A Taxonomy of Approaches, Reviewed, and Illustrated

Jolynn Pek, Octavia Wong, Augustine C M Wong
2018 Frontiers in Psychology  
We reviewed 61 recently published undergraduate and graduate textbooks on introductory statistics and the linear model, focusing on their treatment of non-normality.  ...  Because textbook coverage of these methods was often cursory, and methodological papers introducing these approaches are usually inaccessible to non-statisticians, this review is designed to be the happy  ...  JP and OW conducted the systematic review of textbooks. OW summarized the data from the systematic review. JP derived the taxonomy, identified, and analyzed empirical examples.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02104 pmid:30459683 pmcid:PMC6232275 fatcat:chkwu3yzbjampcrjjphrdewipm


Christine Taheran
2019 Zenodo  
An evidence-based review of the literature was performed and an algorithm created by the synthesis of the Logic and Reflective Practice models.  ...  The validated assessment tool, the Confidence Scale (C-Scale Survey) by Susan iv Grundy (1993) was utilized to evaluate knowledge level pre-training and post-training.  ...  in the form of a comprehensive diagnostic algorithm.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4503515 fatcat:66wlrfnl4bhpxisr42s7gf3uoy
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