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Evaluation Methodology for Physical Radar Perception Sensor Models Based on On-Road Measurements for the Testing and Validation of Automated Driving

Zoltan Ferenc Magosi, Christoph Wellershaus, Viktor Roland Tihanyi, Patrick Luley, Arno Eichberger
2022 Energies  
In recent years, verification and validation processes of automated driving systems have been increasingly moved to virtual simulation, as this allows for rapid prototyping and the use of a multitude of  ...  To demonstrate the practical feasibility, a commercial radar-sensor model (the ray-tracing based RSI radar model from IPG) was validated using a real radar sensor (ARS-308 radar sensor from Continental  ...  An essential requirement for testing ADAS/AD systems in virtual space is the realistic modelling of the virtual environment required for the system under test.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en15072545 fatcat:e3mqkp3y7va7feu4gztvi6z3gi

A Sensitivity Analysis Approach for Evaluating a Radar Simulation for Virtual Testing of Autonomous Driving Functions [article]

Anthony Ngo, Max Paul Bauer, Michael Resch
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Simulation-based testing is a promising approach to significantly reduce the validation effort of automated driving functions.  ...  A generally accepted method to validate these sensor models does not yet exist. Particularly radar has traditionally been one of the most difficult sensors to model.  ...  The required computing time must also be considered, which increases exponentially with a higher number of reflections.  ... 
arXiv:2008.02725v4 fatcat:emza2nitwbf3lay3wf6zxvk65e

Testing of Advanced Driver Assistance Towards Automated Driving: A Survey and Taxonomy on Existing Approaches and Open Questions

Jan Erik Stellet, Marc Rene Zofka, Jan Schumacher, Thomas Schamm, Frank Niewels, J. Marius Zollner
2015 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems  
Our framework permits the consideration of open research questions which have to be answered to pave the way for future highly automated driving.  ...  In this work, we propose a novel taxonomy to partition the problem of testing advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) into three basic dimensions.  ...  A simulation model generates all underlying input signals of the algorithm or system-under-test and maps these to the ideal output signal.  ... 
doi:10.1109/itsc.2015.236 dblp:conf/itsc/StelletZSSNZ15 fatcat:5fyuce6pozdbbnkidcxmejvg4y

A Systematic Review of Perception System and Simulators for Autonomous Vehicles Research

Francisca Rosique, Pedro J. Navarro, Carlos Fernández, Antonio Padilla
2019 Sensors  
This paper presents a systematic review of the perception systems and simulators for autonomous vehicles (AV). This work has been divided into three parts.  ...  In the second part, the main elements to be taken into account in the simulation of a perception system of an AV are presented.  ...  Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Leanne Rebecca Miller for editing the manuscript. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s19030648 fatcat:zbwk242kabexxaih7phxmalnwa

Investigation of Uncertainty of Deep Learning-based Object Classification on Radar Spectra [article]

Kanil Patel, William Beluch, Kilian Rambach, Adriana-Eliza Cozma, Michael Pfeiffer, Bin Yang
2021 arXiv   pre-print
This raises concerns about the use of the confidence values for decision making under uncertainty, as the model fails to notify when it cannot handle an unknown situation.  ...  to evaluate the reliability of the predictions; however, decisions of DL networks are non-transparent.  ...  Their robustness to weather and lighting conditions makes radar sensors a crucial component of the sensor set, but existing perception algorithms have not yet reached the performance level required for  ... 
arXiv:2106.05870v1 fatcat:wicivzdfhrarpf7a3okninems4

Driver Assistance Technologies [chapter]

Pradip Kumar Sarkar
2020 Transportation Systems for Smart, Sustainable, Inclusive and Secure Cities [Working Title]  
Automotive system architecture integrates multiple applications into ADAS ECUs that serve multiple sensors for their functions.  ...  The architecture of the electronic control units (ECUs) is responsible for executing advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) in vehicle which is changing as per its response during the process of driving  ...  For a 'cocoon' radar system, extra sensors are placed on each side mid-body. Ideally, these radar sensors work on the 79-GHz frequency band with a 4-GHZ bandwidth.  ... 
doi:10.5772/intechopen.94354 fatcat:kgyp4lndxnherdmnunxzdacepe

The highD Dataset: A Drone Dataset of Naturalistic Vehicle Trajectories on German Highways for Validation of Highly Automated Driving Systems [article]

Robert Krajewski, Julian Bock, Laurent Kloeker, Lutz Eckstein
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Scenario-based testing for the safety validation of highly automated vehicles is a promising approach that is being examined in research and industry.  ...  Thus, we propose a novel method to measure data from an aerial perspective for scenario-based validation fulfilling the mentioned requirements.  ...  INTRODUCTION A technical proof of concept for highly automated driving (HAD) has already been shown in many demonstrations and test drives.  ... 
arXiv:1810.05642v1 fatcat:xydsi64r7fezbcqyc2byikixr4

Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulations [chapter]

2011 An Introduction to Network Modeling and Simulation for the Practicing Engineer  
Development of advanced driver assistance systems with vehicle hardware-in-the-loop simulations," Vehicle This paper presents a new method for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems  ...  The working principle and the added value of VEHIL are demonstrated with test results of an adaptive cruise control and a forward collision warning system.  ...  CONtrol: Taming Heterogeneity and Complexity of Networked Embedded Systems (HYCON)", contract number FP6-IST-511368.  ... 
doi:10.1002/9781118063651.ch6 fatcat:qvsk5qb6qjccnhmvvvmj4722me

Autonomous Driving in Adverse Weather Conditions: A Survey [article]

Yuxiao Zhang, Alexander Carballo, Hanting Yang, Kazuya Takeda
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Automated Driving Systems (ADS) open up a new domain for the automotive industry and offer new possibilities for future transportation with higher efficiency and comfortable experiences.  ...  However, autonomous driving under adverse weather conditions has been the problem that keeps autonomous vehicles (AVs) from going to level 4 or higher autonomy for a long time.  ...  “Performance analysis of 10 79-GHz FMCW Radar sensor datasheet. [Last ac- models of 3D LiDARs for automated driving”.  ... 
arXiv:2112.08936v1 fatcat:hmgjhywy7rgx3fgrk6yxnu56ie

Motorway Measurement Campaign to Support R&D Activities in the Field of Automated Driving Technologies

Viktor Tihanyi, Tamás Tettamanti, Mihály Csonthó, Arno Eichberger, Dániel Ficzere, Kálmán Gangel, Leander B. Hörmann, Maria A. Klaffenböck, Christoph Knauder, Patrick Luley, Zoltán Ferenc Magosi, Gábor Magyar (+14 others)
2021 Sensors  
This data set may support a large variety of solutions, for the test and validation of different kinds of approaches and techniques.  ...  As a complementary task, the available 5G network was monitored and tested under different radio conditions to investigate the latency results for different measurement scenarios.  ...  The work was also supported by testEPS-testing and verification methods for Environmental Perception Systems.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21062169 pmid:33808936 fatcat:viqpkatgrnf2vnpvxvrtgqtkty

A Survey of Autonomous Driving: Common Practices and Emerging Technologies

Ekim Yurtsever, Jacob Lambert, Alexander Carballo, Kazuya Takeda
2020 IEEE Access  
Automated driving systems (ADSs) promise a safe, comfortable and efficient driving experience. However, fatalities involving vehicles equipped with ADSs are on the rise.  ...  This paper discusses unsolved problems and surveys the technical aspect of automated driving.  ...  As such, carrying all of the dynamic driving tasks safely under strict conditions outside a well defined, geofenced area remains as an open problem. III. SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND ARCHITECTURE A.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2983149 fatcat:t3w7nopogvbhvbbkgpk3dknn5u

A Survey of Autonomous Driving: Common Practices and Emerging Technologies [article]

Ekim Yurtsever, Jacob Lambert, Alexander Carballo, Kazuya Takeda
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Automated driving systems (ADSs) promise a safe, comfortable and efficient driving experience. However, fatalities involving vehicles equipped with ADSs are on the rise.  ...  The full potential of ADSs cannot be realized unless the robustness of state-of-the-art improved further. This paper discusses unsolved problems and surveys the technical aspect of automated driving.  ...  It has much higher accuracy than radar under 200 meters. Weather conditions such as fog or snow have a negative impact on the performance of lidar. Another aspect is the sensor size.  ... 
arXiv:1906.05113v2 fatcat:2hqztllrgjhndbc5aebduvukai

Where can I drive? A System Approach: Deep Ego Corridor Estimation for Robust Automated Driving [article]

Thomas Michalke, Di Feng, Claudius Gläser, Fabian Timm
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We demonstrate the performance of our approach under challenging conditions qualitatively and quantitatively in comparison to a state-of-the-art model-driven approach.  ...  Thus, we were able to easily integrate into an online AD system of a test vehicle.  ...  From a safety-driven perspective, classical model-driven approaches are still a valid option even for AD systems.  ... 
arXiv:2004.07639v2 fatcat:pritfc2mmfhnfm2gqnhuzsrlci

Digitalize the Twin: A Method for Calibration of Reference Data for Transfer Real-World Test Drives into Simulation

Martin Holder, Lukas Elster, Hermann Winner
2022 Energies  
In the course of the development of automated driving, there has been increasing interest in obtaining ground truth information from sensor recordings and transferring road traffic scenarios to simulations  ...  This is particularly relevant for making sensor-specific features such as material reflectivities for lidar and radar quantifiable in dynamic cases.  ...  Ngo for their contributions to earlier versions of our method and Timm Ruppert for preparing the Piksi Multi GNSS Module System, and Felix Glatzki for supporting the measurement campaign.  ... 
doi:10.3390/en15030989 fatcat:yqe7pukh4newxoov7nrcw4f7im

Area-wide real-world test scenarios of poor visibility for safe development of automated vehicles

Thomas Winkle, Christian Erbsmehl, Klaus Bengler
2018 European Transport Research Review  
The background of this analysis is based on TW's participation for process-safe development and series introduction of new radar-and camerabased safety relevant systems with emergency brake functions and  ...  " (safe intelligent mobility -test field Germany), "Villa Ladenburg -autonomous driving" of the Daimler and Benz Foundation and Daimler Research along with the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS).  ...  The following questions will be discussed, using the database provided by the SMI: -Which factors support a safe development, validation and testing under ethical aspects of automated vehicles?  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12544-018-0304-x fatcat:kdf3jyjsvjfljpsrhf35j6fwh4
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