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Reliability and performance of RAIDs

T.J.E. Schwarz, W.A. Burkhard
1995 IEEE transactions on magnetics  
Using Markov models we calculate the reliability of classic Level 5 as well as MDS RAIDs both with and without ACATS.  ...  We define and analyze the ACATS declustering scheme for use with the classic Level 5 as well as MDS RAIDs. ACATS provides a paradigm for distributed sparing and checking as well.  ...  If the RAID load is A (per millisecond), the utilization at each disk is 0.600A for the Level 5 RAID without distributed sparing; here we use only 50 of our 55 disk drives.  ... 
doi:10.1109/20.364801 fatcat:h3g2ovubivcnhorjg5kpka36ue

REED: A Reliable Energy-Efficient RAID

Shu Yin, Xuewu Li, Kenli Li, Jianzhong Huang, Xiaojun Ruan, Xiaomin Zhu, Wei Cao, Xiao Qin
2015 2015 44th International Conference on Parallel Processing  
To address the reliability issues of energy-efficient parallel disks, we propose a reliable energyefficient RAID system called REED, which aims at improving both energy efficiency and reliability of RAID  ...  We build a model to quantitatively show that REED is capable of improving the reliability of energyefficient RAIDs. We implement the REED prototype in a realworld RAID-0 system.  ...  improving energy efficiency of RAID systems; • the benefit of integrating solid state disks and hard drives; and • the adverse impacts of existing energy-saving techniques on RAID system reliability.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpp.2015.74 dblp:conf/icpp/YinLLHRZCQ15 fatcat:f5oogn3en5cvbegefdqnfqi5p4

Zoned-RAID

Seon Ho Kim, Hong Zhu, Roger Zimmermann
2007 ACM Transactions on Storage  
Z-RAID improves the performance of traditional RAID by utilizing the zoning property of modern disks which provides multiple zones with different data transfer rates within a disk.  ...  The RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks) system has been widely used in practical storage applications for better performance, cost effectiveness, and reliability.  ...  For Z-RAID mirroring, the primary copies of the data was constrained to the faster half of the disk drives.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1227835.1227836 fatcat:57buebrgtrctja5kyvehexaqgi

Reliability analysis of an energy-aware RAID system

Shu Yin, Yun Tian, Jiong Xie, Xiao Qin, Xiaojun Ruan, Mohammed Alghamdi, Meikang Qiu
2011 30th IEEE International Performance Computing and Communications Conference  
The Power-Aware Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk (PARAID) aims to reduce energy use of commodity server-class disks without specialized hardware.  ...  We validate the accuracy of MREED using the DiskSim simulator. Our approach shows that MREED can rely on file access pattern to estimate system utilization correctly.  ...  Disk utilization is computed as the fraction of active time of a disk drive out of its total powered-on-time. Now we describe a generic way of modeling the utilization of a disk drive.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pccc.2011.6108068 dblp:conf/ipccc/YinTXQARQ11 fatcat:uxtnwcjz5rfsxjlygipzj6iaje

Zoned-RAID for Multimedia Database Servers [chapter]

Ali E. Dashti, Seon Ho Kim, Roger Zimmermann
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Z-RAID improves the performance of traditional RAID system by utilizing the zoning property of modern disks which provides multiple zones with different data transfer rates in a disk.  ...  Out of multiple levels of RAID, especially, both RAID level 1 and level 5 have been commonly used for a fault tolerant disk system [9] .  ...  Conclusion Our proposed Z-RAID system constrains the data block placement in a RAID system utilizing the zone characteristics of multi-zone disk drives.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11408079_41 fatcat:4weel3vnbjc3lgnyv5suey2kxq

Stripped mirroring RAID architecture

Hai Jin, Kai Hwang
2000 Journal of systems architecture  
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID) provide an ecient stable storage system for parallel access and fault tolerance. The most common fault tolerant RAID architecture is RAID-1 or RAID-5.  ...  SMDA stores the original data in two ways, one on a single disk and the other on a plurality of disks in RAID-0 by stripping.  ...  The disk utilization and throughput of parity stripping are similar to that of the mirrored disk, and have cost/GB comparable to RAID-5.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1383-7621(99)00027-2 fatcat:qi4fne6nfngn5ep2z7epzlgbqi

CacheRAID: An Efficient Adaptive Write Cache Policy to Conserve RAID Disk Array Energy

Tseng-Yi Chen, Tsung-Tai Yeh, Hsin-Wen Wei, Yu-Xun Fang, Wei-Kuan Shih, Tsan-sheng Hsu
2012 2012 IEEE Fifth International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing  
Our CacheRAID aims to improve the random access problems that implicitly exist in RAID techniques to create more idle time of hard drives, and conserve RAID disk array energy.  ...  Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disk (RAID) is widely used in modern distributed storage systems.  ...  work reported in this paper was supported by National Science Council under grant NSC100-2221-E-001-011-MY3, NSC101-2631-H-001-011 and NSC101-2221-E-032-067 and Industrial Technology Research Institute of  ... 
doi:10.1109/ucc.2012.26 dblp:conf/ucc/ChenYWFSH12 fatcat:hbrju5pxg5drtm3fmimouc5zoy

Improving reliability and energy efficiency of disk systems via utilization control

Kiranmai Bellam, Adam Manzanares, Xiaojun Ruan, Xiao Qin, Yiming Yang
2008 2008 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications  
We investigate an approach to improving both reliability and energy efficiency of disk systems via utilization control, where disk drives are operated in safe utilization zones to minimize the probability  ...  As disk drives become increasingly sophisticated and processing power increases, one of the most critical issues of designing modern disk systems is data reliability.  ...  Reliability-aware power conservation model RAID 1 is popular and is widely used for disk drives. RAID 1 is implemented with a minimum of two disks, which are the primary and back disks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iscc.2008.4625756 dblp:conf/iscc/BellamMRQY08 fatcat:o6kjwtfjazh4tbc5ftgebe3lyi

Data Allocation in a Heterogeneous Disk Array - HDA with Multiple RAID Levels for Database Applications [article]

Alexander Thomasian, Jun Xu
2015 arXiv   pre-print
HDA saves disk bandwidth, since a single RAID level accommodating the most stringent availability requirements for a small subset of objects would incur an unnecessarily high overhead for updating check  ...  We evaluate single-pass data allocation methods for HDA using a synthetic stream of allocation requests, where each VA is characterized by its RAID level, disk loads and space requirements.  ...  VDs on disk drives, such that the maximum disk bandwidth utilization or capacity utilization at the disks is minimized.  ... 
arXiv:1510.04868v1 fatcat:v37ymqonczbepintndhb5ydp6m

Design of a Fault Tolerant Architecture for Private Cloud Computing Infrastructure

Yugashri Joshi, Deepak Sharma, Urvashi Gaur, Vaibhav Kumar, Rajesh Kalmady
2017 Indian Journal of Science and Technology  
Methods: After exploring various combinations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) and Logical Volume Manager (LVM) techniques, we propose a novel idea of having a fault-tolerant architecture  ...  In this paper, we discuss a novel fault-tolerant scheme from an administration point of view that corresponds to implementation of Redundant Array of Independent Nodes (RAIN) model based architecture for  ...  Total RAID array capacity, and number of disk failures allowed depends upon the type of RAID array built and the number and size of disk drives.  ... 
doi:10.17485/ijst/2017/v10i4/110663 fatcat:6ftericrqndmpjfsdedgc6ma2m

Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

Rob Kooper, Peter Bajcsy, John D. Owens, I-Jong Lin, Yu-Jin Zhang, Giordano B. Beretta
2011 Parallel Processing for Imaging Applications  
pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/  ...  We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data.  ...  Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.872834 dblp:conf/ppia/KooperB11 fatcat:h7tmck6d2fbdhc4dakrc3fdfra

Study of Solid State Drives performance in PROOF distributed analysis system

S Y Panitkin, M Ernst, R Petkus, O Rind, T Wenaus
2010 Journal of Physics, Conference Series  
Its combination of low random access time and relatively high read speed is very well suited for situations where multiple jobs concurrently access data located on the same drive.  ...  Solid State Drives (SSD) is a promising storage technology for High Energy Physics parallel analysis farms.  ...  Single drive vs software RAID performance We compared performance of a single drive with one of the software RAID 0 array. For the SSDs we used two disk array and for the HDDs a 3 disk array.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1742-6596/219/5/052011 fatcat:ayhlq5vg7fhkfczkhrxtmvjlta

The Tail at Store: A Revelation from Millions of Hours of Disk and SSD Deployments

Mingzhe Hao, Gokul Soundararajan, Deepak R. Kenchammana-Hosekote, Andrew A. Chien, Haryadi S. Gunawi
2016 USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies  
We find that storage performance instability is not uncommon: 0.2% of the time, a disk is more than 2x slower than its peer drives in the same RAID group (and 0.6% for SSD).  ...  We study storage performance in over 450,000 disks and 4,000 SSDs over 87 days for an overall total of 857 million (disk) and 7 million (SSD) drive hours.  ...  Bairavasundaram and Shiqin Yan for their initial help and Siva Jayasenan and Art Harkin for their managerial support.  ... 
dblp:conf/fast/HaoSKCG16 fatcat:x646i3ziyndrdnxkhosimyg5bq

Arbitrary dimension Reed-Solomon coding and decoding for extended RAID on GPUs

Matthew L. Curry, Anthony Skjellum, H. Lee Ward, Ron Brightwell
2008 2008 3rd Petascale Data Storage Workshop  
In order to be utilized in a true RAID-like system, it is important to understand how well this computation can scale in the number of data disks supported.  ...  This paper details the performance of a general Reed-Solomon encoding and decoding library that is suitable for use in RAID-like systems.  ...  MOTIVATION: GPU RAID The intended application of this library will be a RAID system which utilizes a GPU to perform parity generation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/pdsw.2008.4811887 fatcat:ig2mxtogrzhwxgegkaqglpf6ym

Hybrid Disk Drive Configuration on Database Server Virtualization

Ferdy Nirwansyah, Suharjito Suharjito
2016 Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science  
The results of this study indicate HDD storage configurations as visual disk drive OS and SSD as visual disk drives database get better performance as OLTP and OLAP database server compared with SSD as  ...  visual disk drive OS and HDD as a visual disk drive database.  ...  RAID 10 as a virtual disk drive for database ORACLE, SQL Server, MySQL and PostgreSQL.  ... 
doi:10.11591/ijeecs.v2.i3.pp720-728 fatcat:zt44hkw2gjfpvpo3y6v7mqylkq
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