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Using background knowledge in case-based legal reasoning: A computational model and an intelligent learning environment

Vincent Aleven
2003 Artificial Intelligence  
CATO's argumentation model and instructional environment are a contribution to the research fields of AI and Law, Case-Based Reasoning, and AI and Education.  ...  Researchers in the field of AI and Law have developed a number of computational models of the arguments that skilled attorneys make based on past cases.  ...  Stefanie Brüninghaus provided advice and assistance related to the evaluation studies reported in the paper and kindly provided new cases for CATO's Case Database.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(03)00105-x fatcat:m5a2di7m6jfijmo264nue6nvva

Intelligence Without Reason

Rodney A. Brooks
1991 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
Computers and Thought are the two categories that together define Artificial Intelligence as a discipline.  ...  Recent work in behavior-based Artificial Intelligence has pro duced new models of intelligence that are much closer in spirit to biological systems.  ...  The specific model of computation used was not orig inally based on biological models.  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/Brooks91 fatcat:iw6qazadu5gtxnkwlawfpiu4u4

Learning to reason

Roni Khardon, Dan Roth
1997 Journal of the ACM  
The Learning to Reason framework combines the interfaces to the world used by known learning models with the reasoning task and a performance criterion suitable for it.  ...  The Learning (in order) to Reason approach developed here views learning as an integral part of the inference process, and suggests that learning and reasoning should be studied together.  ...  We are grateful to Les Valiant for many enjoyable discussions that helped us develop the ideas presented here, and to Joe Halpern for useful comments on an earlier draft.  ... 
doi:10.1145/265910.265918 fatcat:qoudssgpkbdxfea3doncfjxcym

Modeling practical reasoning

Brian R. Gaines
1993 International Journal of Intelligent Systems  
It surveys the general notion of a model and its connotations in information systems science.  ...  Knowledge modeling perspectives on knowledge acquisition suggest that it is reasonable to analyze knowledge bases as collections of models.  ...  I am grateful to Bill Clancey for access to his own research in this area, to Mildred Shaw for critical comments on earlier drafts of this paper, and to colleagues at knowledge acquisition workshops worldwide  ... 
doi:10.1002/int.4550080105 fatcat:xmlaceoqrnd4haaj6gnazo4z3y

Machine Reasoning Explainability [article]

Kristijonas Cyras, Ramamurthy Badrinath, Swarup Kumar Mohalik, Anusha Mujumdar, Alexandros Nikou, Alessandro Previti, Vaishnavi Sundararajan, Aneta Vulgarakis Feljan
2020 arXiv   pre-print
As a field of AI, Machine Reasoning (MR) uses largely symbolic means to formalize and emulate abstract reasoning.  ...  We hereby aim to provide a selective overview of MR explainability techniques and studies in hopes that insights from this long track of research will complement well the current XAI landscape.  ...  [133] Abducibles as explanations are thus largely attributive: given background knowledge KB and a (possibly hypothetical) inference o, the abducible knowledge ab is an explanation for o just in case  ... 
arXiv:2009.00418v2 fatcat:wvx77eo73jeb7eplcpz42lw3zq

Continuous case-based reasoning

A. Ram, J.C. Santamaría
1997 Artificial Intelligence  
This article introduces a new method for continuous case-based reasoning, and discusses its application to the dynamic selection, modification, and acquisition of robot behaviors in an autonomous navigation  ...  Case-based reasoning systems have traditionally been used to perform high-level reasoning in problem domains that can be adequately described using discrete, symbolic representations.  ...  We thank Ron Arkin, Kenny Moot-man, and Russ Clark for their help with the ACBARR system and for their many useful suggestions during the entire course of this research, and Anthony Francis, Mark Devaney  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0004-3702(96)00037-9 fatcat:x3ankozlljbd5gplvrekdqk7l4

Case-Based Reasoning Integrations

Cynthia R. Marling, Mohammed H. Sqalli, Edwina L. Rissland, Héctor Muñoz-Avila, David W. Aha
2002 The AI Magazine  
This article presents an overview and survey of current work in case-based reasoning (CBR) integrations.  ...  There has been a recent upsurge in the integration of CBR with other reasoning modalities and computing paradigms, especially rule-based reasoning (RBR) and constraint-satisfaction problem (CSP) solving  ...  The coauthors are grateful to the workshop participants for their insights and contributions.  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v23i1.1610 dblp:journals/aim/MarlingSRMA02 fatcat:4do4oz7u6regdgz2jpfmogziam

Legal reasoning - a jurisprudential description

P. Wahlgren
1989 Proceedings of the second international conference on Artificial intelligence and law - ICAIL '89  
In the project the model provides a base for further analyses of computational models of legal reasoning. It also provides a structure for discussions and system-design approaches.  ...  This knowledge, in combination with various methods of analysis that are being used and developed in computer science and AI, makes it possible to undertake studies of legal norms from a fairly enlightened  ... 
doi:10.1145/74014.74034 dblp:conf/icail/Wahlgren89 fatcat:jbkr2xb7xfd3xjjskgdw2sz2da

Analogy-Based and Case-Based Reasoning: Two sides of the same coin [article]

Michael Gr. Voskoglou, Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem
2014 arXiv   pre-print
Analogy-Based (or Analogical) and Case-Based Reasoning (ABR and CBR) are two similar problem solving processes based on the adaptation of the solution of past problems for use with a new analogous problem  ...  In this paper we review these two processes and we give some real world examples with emphasis to the field of Medicine, where one can find some of the most common and useful CBR applications.  ...  However, it is the Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach to PS and learning (for computers and people) that has got a lot of attention over the last few years, because as an intelligent-systems method enables  ... 
arXiv:1405.7567v1 fatcat:nxnwn6mainbljoy3lcqeirunr4

From Real-World Regulations to Concrete Norms for Software Agents: A Case-Based Reasoning Approach

Tina Balke, Paulo Novais, Francisco Andrade, Torsten Eymann
2009 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law  
This paper presents a casebased reasoning approach in order to bridge the gap between abstract human regulations and the concrete regulations needed for SAs, by developing and using a knowledge base that  ...  When trying to use software agents (SAs) for real-world business and thereby putting them in a situation to operate under real-world laws, the abstractness of human regulations often poses severe problems  ...  Acknowledgements The work of Paulo Novais and Francisco Andrade described in this paper is included in TIARAC -Telematics and Artificial Intelligence in Alternative Conflict Resolution Project (PTDC/JUR  ... 
dblp:conf/icail/BalkeN0E09 fatcat:a3uns6amqjdaxfdnbwq5fvsz4q

Modelling Value-oriented Legal Reasoning in LogiKEy [article]

Christoph Benzmüller and David Fuenmayor and Bertram Lomfeld
2022 arXiv   pre-print
The logico-pluralist LogiKEy knowledge engineering methodology and framework is applied to the modelling of a theory of legal balancing in which legal knowledge (cases and laws) is encoded by utilising  ...  Modelling value-oriented legal reasoning in that framework, we establish novel bridges between latest research in knowledge representation and reasoning in non-classical logics, automated theorem proving  ...  Acknowledgements We thank the unknown reviewers of our prior paper at the MLR 2020 workshop for their valuable comments and suggestions that have led to significant improvements of this article.  ... 
arXiv:2006.12789v5 fatcat:5hmrok7ls5c6riplcn3v5gvb34

Antitrust and Artificial Intelligence (AAI): Antitrust Vigilance Lifecycle and AI Legal Reasoning Autonomy [article]

Lance Eliot
2020 arXiv   pre-print
There is an increasing interest in the entwining of the field of antitrust with the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), frequently referred to jointly as Antitrust and AI (AAI) in the research literature  ...  Furthermore, a gradual and incremental injection of AI into antitrust vigilance is anticipated to occur as significant advances emerge amidst the Levels of Autonomy (LoA) for AI Legal Reasoning (AILR).  ...  Lance Eliot is the Chief AI Scientist at Techbrium Inc. and a Stanford Fellow at Stanford University in the CodeX: Center for Legal Informatics.  ... 
arXiv:2012.13016v1 fatcat:f2twbu6bbvfjfmccfut6zgm5a4

Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning [chapter]

Giovanni Sartor
1995 Law and Philosophy Library  
I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment.  ...  Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning.  ...  and sociological background-knowledge is to be assumed.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-015-8531-6_4 fatcat:f7c6fo6li5hr5a6iksmbgnplua

Computational Models of Ethical Reasoning: Challenges, Initial Steps, and Future Directions

B.M. McLaren
2006 IEEE Intelligent Systems  
Here, I briefly describe a few of these programs and discuss in detail two programs that I developed, both of which employ techniques from the area of AI known as case-based reasoning and implement aspects  ...  First, ethical reasoning is based on abstract principles that you can't easily apply in a formal, deductive fashion.  ...  US National Science Foundation Learning and Intelligent Systems grant 9720341 partly supported this research.  ... 
doi:10.1109/mis.2006.67 fatcat:zfeaoe4aibea7gglyoy6mmccje

From Visualization to Visually Enabled Reasoning

Joerg Meyer, Jim Thomas, Stephan Diehl, Brian Fisher, Daniel A. Keim, Marc Herbstritt
2010 Dagstuhl Publications  
We present exemplary cases where visualization was successful in enabling human reasoning, and instances where the interaction with data helped in understanding the data and making a better informed decision  ...  knowledge gain through visually enabled reasoning.  ...  Joy, and Daniel A.  ... 
doi:10.4230/dfu.sciviz.2010.227 dblp:conf/dagstuhl/MeyerTDFK10 fatcat:7v3nxoy3lng5jizyuhkyp7bgvq
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