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How should my chatbot interact? A survey on human-chatbot interaction design [article]

Ana Paula Chaves, Marco Aurelio Gerosa
2020 arXiv   pre-print
In this survey, we argue that chatbots should be enriched with social characteristics that cohere with users' expectations, ultimately avoiding frustration and dissatisfaction.  ...  We bring together the literature on disembodied, text-based chatbots to derive a conceptual model of social characteristics for chatbots.  ...  In the field of embodied agents, mind perception theory (Gray, Gray, & Wegner, 2007) has been investigated as a means to improve interactions through agency and emotion (Appel, Izydorczyk, Weber, Mara  ... 
arXiv:1904.02743v2 fatcat:rtncxu6mxjdbnermu6zerb4roq

Multi-Chatbot or Single-Chatbot? The Effects of M-Commerce Chatbot Interface on Source Credibility, Social Presence, Trust, and Purchase Intention

Su-Mae Tan, Tze Wei Liew, Zheng Yan
2022 Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies  
These findings suggest that designating chatbots as product-specific advisers in a multi-chatbot interface without labels to accentuate expertise could not evoke the users to categorize them as product  ...  These findings' theoretical, design, and managerial implications are discussed through the lens of the computers-are-social-actors paradigm, source credibility theory, source specialization, multiple source  ...  This research was supported by the Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education (FRGS/1/2021/SS0/MMU/ 02/8) titled "A Design Framework of E-Commerce Chatbot with Social Cues to Enhance User-Chatbot Experience  ... 
doi:10.1155/2022/2501538 fatcat:yt2ub3x5inhzbeqe4sql4225uy

"I Am Here to Assist You Today": The Role of Entity, Interactivity and Experiential Perceptions in Chatbot Persuasion

Carolin Ischen, Theo Araujo, Guda van Noort, Hilde Voorveld, Edith Smit
2020 Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media  
As social presence gives the user a sense of human warmth and sociabilitywhich in turn can lead to more favorable attitudes ( Figure 1 . Conceptual model.  ...  use of mental shortcuts-heuristics-that enable an effortless assessment and attitude formation, especially in situations in which it is difficult to form evaluations (Sundar, 2008) .  ... 
doi:10.1080/08838151.2020.1834297 fatcat:ww6hodn6nbddzoy2bfcwkfoucu

Artificial intelligence and mobile apps for mental healthcare: a social informatics perspective

Alyson Gamble
2020 Aslib Journal of Information Management  
This paper aims to examine AI chatbots, specifically as offered through mobile applications for mental healthcare (MHapps), with attention to the social implications of these technologies.  ...  study adds to a small but growing body of information science research into the role of AI in the support of mental health.  ...  To analyze the issue of AI in MHapps, the researcher used a borrowed theory approach pairing information science and social work, and a social informatics perspective was applied to interpret the findings  ... 
doi:10.1108/ajim-11-2019-0316 fatcat:sonevagrrfh6fjyh7fc357v2oe

"Like I'm Talking to a Real Person": Exploring the Meaning of Transference for the Use and Design of AI-Based Applications in Psychotherapy

Michael Holohan, Amelia Fiske
2021 Frontiers in Psychology  
Given the speed of research and development trajectories of AI-enabled applications in psychotherapy and the practice of mental healthcare, it is likely that therapeutic chatbots, avatars, and socially  ...  In this article, we begin to address one of these considerations: the role of transference in the psychotherapeutic relationship.  ...  We would also like to thank the editors for convening the research topic "On the Human in Human-Artificial Intelligence Interaction" and including this article.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.720476 pmid:34646209 pmcid:PMC8502869 fatcat:d2lepepwgjdrphpkxkq6pjcjbu

Exploring the Effects of Interactive Dialogue in Improving User Control for Explainable Online Symptom Checkers

Yuan Sun, S. Shyam Sundar
2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Extended Abstracts  
A user study (N = 152) with a text-based chatbot for assessing anxiety levels and presented explanations to participants in one of the three forms-an interactive dialogue providing choice for viewing different  ...  With this in mind, we designed and tested an interactive dialogue interface to afford user control to receive only those explanations that they would like to read.  ...  creating a sense of agency, which is a key driver of user experience in HCI research [26] .  ... 
doi:10.1145/3491101.3519668 fatcat:2vx7w4jbxvcqxjtgqo4y2lwvne

Cybersex with human- and machine-cued partners: Gratifications, shortcomings, and tensions

Jaime Banks, Joris Van Ouytsel
2020 Technology, Mind, and Behavior  
From social-network spambots and forensic chatbots to dating simulation games, sexual communication with machines is not uncommon in contemporary culture-however, it remains effectively a black-box phenomenon  ...  Advancing our understanding of those questions is vital in understanding the potential for machine partners to foster the health and welfare benefits, as well as the potential to have negative impacts.  ...  For more than a decade, sexual chatbots-mostly free and accessible on the web and social networks-have allowed users to engage in cybersex with chatbots (Döring, 2017) .  ... 
doi:10.1037/tmb0000008 fatcat:g5q7wfn7yfeqfkwrubp2ebkh5m

Using Learning Analytics to Understand the Design of an Intelligent Language Tutor – Chatbot Lucy

Yi Fei, Stephen Petrina
2013 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
the goal of this article is to explore how learning analytics can be used to predict and advise the design of an intelligent language tutor, chatbot Lucy.  ...  In this article, we present students' learning journey and data trails, the chatting log architecture and resultantapplications to the design of language learning systems.  ...  We also thank colleagues in the How We Learn Lab for help and support with data collection.  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2013.041117 fatcat:7wtfrqccvjbibh5nxoiu6jvtxi

Increasing customer service efficiency through artificial intelligence chatbot

Ivan Martins De Andrade, Cleonir Tumelero
2022 REGE Revista de Gestão  
line with the evolutionary theory of innovation, the authors concluded that technological scaling in AI allows exponential gains in customer service efficiency and business process management.  ...  The chatbot service reduced the queues of call centers and relationship centers, allowing the human attendant to perform more complex attendances.Research limitations/implicationsThe main limitations of  ...  One specificity of the feedback indicator is to assess, each day, if the virtual assistant's answer helped the user.  ... 
doi:10.1108/rege-07-2021-0120 fatcat:by2fj6dmqrhp7ab4bnvgrif3nq

Mind the Gap! Confronting the Challenges of Translational Communication Research in Entertainment-Education [chapter]

Hua Wang, Arvind Singhal
2021 Entertainment-Education Behind the Scenes  
Translational research in the field of communication involves applying interpersonal and technology-mediated solutions to engage stakeholders from different sectors and disciplines,  ...  In medicine, translational research often involves the process where "basic research" is conducted by scientists in the lab to test out new ideas; then it moves onto "clinical trials" with human subjects  ...  toll-free helpline number to access information on sexual and reproductive health, we were able to work with the team to set up in the SnehAI chatbot analytics database to track the number of unique users  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-63614-2_14 fatcat:bcldhci3qbal3mwxzgww26leyi

The effect of conversational agent skill on user behavior during deception

Ryan M. Schuetzler, G. Mark Grimes, Justin Scott Giboney
2019 Computers in Human Behavior  
However, it is currently unclear how human-like traits in a CA impact the way users respond to questions from the CA. In some applications where CAs may be used, detecting deception is important.  ...  Our results show that cues of deception vary depending on CA conversational skill, and that increased conversational skill leads to users engaging in strategic behaviors that are detrimental to deception  ...  The addition of embodiment with a face and voice could provide a greater sense of social interaction, resulting in even greater social responses.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.chb.2019.03.033 fatcat:xagowtlijnc4tiltvjapbvgaye

Beyond robotic wastelands of time: Abandoned pedagogical agents and new pedalled pedagogies

Maggi Savin-Baden, Gemma Tombs, Roy Bhakta
2015 E-Learning and Digital Media  
Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.  ...  The potential formation of an emotional connection between the user and the agent is affected by the concept of social presence, in which users might feel 'present' in an interaction with a chatbot.  ...  As social theories of learning have come to underpin most pedagogical approaches in the 21st century, the use of pedagogical agents has shifted from predominantly instructional and informational roles  ... 
doi:10.1177/2042753015571835 fatcat:y7re7kumoreovevaz66zvlhtf4

Developing a digital training tool to support oncologists in the skill of information-provision: a user centred approach

Sebastiaan M. Stuij, on behalf of the INSTRUCT project group, Constance H. C. Drossaert, Nanon H. M. Labrie, Robert L. Hulsman, Marie José Kersten, Sandra van Dulmen, Ellen M. A. Smets
2020 BMC Medical Education  
Phase 3 (Design) encompassed an iterative development process, including two user group assessment sessions and 5 individual user sessions in which prototypes were tested.  ...  Based on literature and consultation of the users in the inquiry phase of the development process, and on expert opinion in the value specification phase, relevant (sub) skills and user requirements were  ...  Results Based on the presentation, participants in both user group assessment sessions favored the conventional elearning over the chatbot.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12909-020-1985-0 pmid:32357886 fatcat:viffrlomsfapbjka64os3lbyum

Failure to Launch: Competing Institutional Logics, Intrapreneurship, and the Case of Chatbots

Valerie Belair-Gagnon, Seth C Lewis, Colin Agur
2020 Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication  
These clashing logics limit the adoption and influence of chatbots.  ...  Drawing on interviews with news intrapreneurs developing chatbots in news media organizations, this study shows that innovation can be stymied because of conflicting institutional logics.  ...  Facilitated by developments in automation and artificial intelligence, chatbots have become both socially useful and socially problematic; handy tools for ordering food and getting recommendations, on  ... 
doi:10.1093/jcmc/zmaa008 fatcat:i3hu436dh5dq5evhpvlt2lcxxu

Modelling a socialised chatbot using trust development in children: lessons learnt from Tay

Oliver Bridge, Rebecca Raper, Nicola Strong, Selin E. Nugent
2021 Cognitive Computation and Systems  
Taking inspiration from the theory of morality as cooperation, and the place of trust in the developmental psychology of socialisation, we offer a multidisciplinary and pragmatic approach to build on the  ...  In 2016 Microsoft released Tay.ai to the Twittersphere, a conversational chatbot that was intended to act like a millennial girl.  ...  We would also like to thank the Ethical AI reading group for clarifying various resources used in this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1049/ccs2.12019 fatcat:4dg5xis5yvbpxczlkkksfzebpy
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