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Using Dust Clouds to Enhance Anonymous Communication [chapter]

Richard Mortier, Anil Madhavapeddy, Theodore Hong, Derek Murray, Malte Schwarzkopf
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
dangers to anonymity in Tor remains the shortage of exit nodes and the possibility of malicious snooping on them [13] : a dust cloud would greatly increase their number and help mitigate this problem.  ...  We would like to thank Christian Kreibich, Alastair Beresford and Jon Crowcroft for useful discussions on this paper.  ...  Most anonymous networks act as a mix network, creating hard-to-trace communications by using chains of proxy servers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-45921-8_10 fatcat:ktasr7i6lrcsrmiis4msk4tixe

Quantifying the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds

Damao Zhang, Zhien Wang, Andrew Heymsfield, Jiwen Fan, Dong Liu, Ming Zhao
2012 Geophysical Research Letters  
Here, four years of collocated CALIPSO and CloudSat measurements are used to quantify the impact of dust on heterogeneous ice generation in midlevel supercooled stratiform clouds (MSSCs) over the 'dust  ...  The enhancements are strongly dependent on the cloud top temperature, large dust particle concentration and chemical compositions.  ...  Rasmussen, personal communication, 2011) .  ... 
doi:10.1029/2012gl052831 fatcat:mu2ltenmmjephisf65ktba5adm

Next generation satellite RGB dust imagery leads to op-erational changes at NWS Alburquerque

Kevin Fuell, Brian Guyer, Deirdre Kann, Andrew Molthan, Nicholas Elmer
2016 Journal of Operational Meteorology  
2016: Next generation satellite RGB dust imagery leads to operational changes at NWS Alburquerque.  ...  The primary benefits include improvements in short-term forecasts of ceiling conditions for the aviation community as well as improved decision support services and communication to the general public  ...  In particular, thanks goes to the GOES-R Visiting Scientist Program for providing funds to allow face-to-face collaborations on the application of the Dust RGB product.  ... 
doi:10.15191/nwajom.2016.0406 fatcat:sdxuzgvtjbdzrhomsakndqowqy

Retrieval of mass and sizes of particles in sandstorms using two MODIS IR bands: A case study of April 7, 2001 sandstorm in China

Yingxin Gu, William I. Rose, Gregg J. S. Bluth
2003 Geophysical Research Letters  
used to discriminate the April 07, 2001 dust cloud.  ...  Channels 31 and 32 (centered at 11.03 and 12.02 mm) are used to analyze the dust cloud in this paper.  ...  We know from Okada et al. [2001] that Chinese sandstorm particles have aspect ratios of 1.3 to 1.4.  ... 
doi:10.1029/2003gl017405 fatcat:orxrnxucnvbjjjbix62acpyz3a

Impacts of long-range-transported mineral dust on summertime convective cloud and precipitation: a case study over the Taiwan region

Yanda Zhang, Fangqun Yu, Gan Luo, Jiwen Fan, Shuai Liu
2021 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
The low-altitude dust particles are uplifted to the freezing level by updrafts, which, in turn, enhance the convective cloud development through immersion freezing and convective invigoration.  ...  The differences are partially attributed to the saturation adjustment approach utilized in the bulk scheme, which leads to a stronger enhancement of condensation at midlatitudes to low altitudes and a  ...  The GEOS-Chem model used in this study is a freely accessible community model managed by the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling Group at Harvard University with support from NASA. Financial support.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-21-17433-2021 fatcat:w76owcfh4jh5jndxcdhkgv5wam

DUST-SCATTERED ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND BRIGHT STARS

Jayant Murthy, Richard Conn Henry
2011 Astrophysical Journal  
These halos are due to the scattering of the starlight from nearby thin, foreground dust clouds.  ...  We suggest that these halos are a common feature around bright stars and may be used to explore the scattering function of interstellar grains at small angles.  ...  We thank an anonymous referee for inducing us to clarify the geometrical uncertainty in the model. Greg Schwarz helped us greatly in publishing our data.  ... 
doi:10.1088/0004-637x/734/1/13 fatcat:57p366sdcrhd7lh2flzmvs5dq4

Global modeling studies of composition and decadal trends of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer

Adriana Bossolasco, Fabrice Jegou, Pasquale Sellitto, Gwenaël Berthet, Corinna Kloss, Bernard Legras
2021 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
In this work, we use the Community Earth System Model (CESM 1.2 version) based on the coupling of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the MAM7 (Modal Aerosol Model) aerosol module to simulate the  ...  with convective clouds.  ...  This paper was edited by Gabriele Stiller and reviewed by three anonymous referees.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-21-2745-2021 fatcat:xqdfifi5ebefljxzd5oioq3opy

Impacts of mineral dust on the vertical structure of precipitation

R. Li, Q.-L. Min
2010 Journal of Geophysical Research  
1] Characteristics of precipitation vertical structure in deep convective cloud systems are compared using measurements from sensors on board multiple satellites over the equatorial Atlantic under dust-laden  ...  For similar updraft intensity, the convective rain at and below the dust layer exhibits enhancement of the breakup process of raindrops due to mineral dust and associated warm air with strong wind shear  ...  Constructive suggestions and comments from three anonymous reviewers are acknowledged. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S.  ... 
doi:10.1029/2009jd011925 fatcat:tbbkqhh2n5d6xezfebds3zqnni

Privacy in the Cloud: A Survey of Existing Solutions and Research Challenges

Paulo Silva, Edmundo Monteiro, Paulo Simoes
2021 IEEE Access  
Moreover, this article analyses the applicability of the reviewed privacy mechanisms on today's Cloud Services and identifies the current research challenges to achieve higher privacy levels in the Cloud  ...  An overview of Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs) and a survey of anonymization mechanisms, privacy tools, models, and metrics are presented together with an analysis of respective characteristics and  ...  In the Communications and Networking domain, encryption and even Domain Name Server (DNS) encryption (although with some drawbacks, such as transitive trust and traffic overhead [60] ) are used to enhance  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3049599 fatcat:xo7hvly6mfhw3obudgr3e5eqse

Transport of Mineral Dust and Its Impact on Climate

Kerstin Schepanski
2018 Geosciences  
Satellite data have been used to investigate the atmospheric dust cycle since the mid-1970s when the first satellite observations became available [26] .  ...  Dust source activities are highly sensitive to atmospheric and surface conditions, which both are changing in times of changing land use and changing climate conditions.  ...  Acknowledgments: The author thanks two anonymous reviewers for their valuable input. Conflicts of Interest: The author declares no conflict of interest.  ... 
doi:10.3390/geosciences8050151 fatcat:pllbyphpojbi7e47cosj4sbsue

Mineral dust indirect effects and cloud radiative feedbacks of a simulated idealized nocturnal squall line

R. B. Seigel, S. C. van den Heever, S. M. Saleeby
2013 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
To accomplish these tasks, we use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) set up as a cloud-resolving model (CRM).  ...  Results indicate that RADIATION acts to increase precipitation, intensify the cold pool, and enhance the mesoscale organization of the squall line due to changes in microphysics originating from cloud  ...  The authors wish to thank the two anonymous reviewers, whose thoughtful comments enhanced the quality of this article.  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-13-4467-2013 fatcat:g56na6t4nvgubgzbzwm4qnatky

Cloud ice caused by atmospheric mineral dust – Part 1: Parameterization of ice nuclei concentration in the NMME-DREAM model

Slobodan Nickovic, Bojan Cvetkovic, Fabio Madonna, Marco Rosoldi, Goran Pejanovic, Slavko Petkovic, Jugoslav Nikolic
2016 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics  
Using such parameterizations, we have developed a regional dust-atmospheric modelling system capable of predicting, in real time, dust-induced ice nucleation.  ...  We executed the model with the added ice nucleation component over the Mediterranean region, exposed to moderate Saharan dust transport, over two periods lasting 15 and 9 days, respectively.  ...  Huang Reviewed by: two anonymous referees  ... 
doi:10.5194/acp-16-11367-2016 fatcat:fbwouaclbrg3vbxo2vfmxnpsri

Dust aerosol feedback on the Indian summer monsoon: Sensitivity to absorption property

Sushant Das, Sagnik Dey, S. K. Dash, G. Giuliani, F. Solmon
2015 Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres  
We examine the sensitivity of dust radiative feedback to the dust absorption property during the Indian summer monsoon (June-September) season from 2005 to 2010 using the Regional Climate Model version  ...  Air temperature and cloud fraction change by 20-50% in the lower to middle troposphere as a result of dynamic response due to modification in dust absorptive characteristics.  ...  The first author is thankful to CSIR for providing scholarship to carry out research work in IIT Delhi.  ... 
doi:10.1002/2015jd023589 fatcat:kivaegrn5bhaxlziv5f2msnjum

Global climate modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds

T. Navarro, J.-B Madeleine, F. Forget, A. Spiga, E. Millour, F. Montmessin, A. Määttänen
2014 Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets  
The model also shows for the first time that the scavenging of dust by water ice clouds alone fails to fully account for observed dust detached layers.  ...  We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice.  ...  10.1002/2013JE004550 adapting any GCM to paleoclimates, with warmer and wetter conditions than today and for which radiative effects of clouds have long been neglected in GCM studies.  ... 
doi:10.1002/2013je004550 fatcat:2tpikh4hfbb77htydczfiolyq4

Another Look at the Influence of Absorbing Aerosols in Drops on Cloud Absorption: Large Aerosols

Carynelisa Erlick, Dana Schlesinger
2008 Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences  
) 70% dust/30% soot ZS a using assumption (vi) (70% dust/30% soot) is especially high, ranging from 1.41 to 2.60.  ...  as used in pre- vious studies to represent the “clean” (pure water) clouds.  ... 
doi:10.1175/2007jas2381.1 fatcat:pes3xhx5ijewng75h2jbhsxi34
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