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Using Dafny, an Automatic Program Verifier [chapter]

Luke Herbert, K. Rustan M. Leino, Jose Quaresma
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
These lecture notes present Dafny, an automated program verication system that is based on the concept of dynamic frames and is capable of producing .NET executables.  ...  The key language constructs, and various system limits, are illustrated through the development of a simple Dafny program.  ...  Acknowledgments We are indebted to the reviewers, who gave a lot of themselves to take us through various drafts of these lecture notes. Thank you!  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-35746-6_6 fatcat:haqtso2chjfi7d7aydebidsofy

Automating Induction with an SMT Solver [chapter]

K. Rustan M. Leino
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
I have implemented the technique in the Dafny program verifier [19] 0 and have used it, for example, to automatically prove 45 of the first 47 problems in an evaluation corpus for automatic induction.  ...  The paper describes the tactic and its implementation in a program verifier, and reports on the positive experience with using the tactic.  ...  I appreciate the valuable comments by Jean-Christophe Filliâtre and the referees on an earlier version of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27940-9_21 fatcat:jghhbkqa7reknhxopc37vr5a7i

Dafny Meets the Verification Benchmarks Challenge [chapter]

K. Rustan M. Leino, Rosemary Monahan
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Each of the eight programs is fed to the Dafny verifier, which without further user interaction automatically performs the verification in a few seconds.  ...  This paper presents solutions to these eight benchmarks using the language and verifier Dafny. A Dafny program includes specifications, code, inductive invariants, and termination metrics.  ...  Verify an application program that uses them in conjunction with one of the components from the earlier benchmarks.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15057-9_8 fatcat:bbnuys42ava4jmmt5ru565zhua

A Method to Deduce and Synthesize the Dafny Programs

Changjing WANG, Xilong DING, Jiangfei HE, Xi CHEN, Qing HUANG, Haimei LUO, Zhengkang ZUO
2021 Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences  
Finally, the functional correctness of Dafny program is automatically verified by Dafny verifier or online tool.  ...  Then, the derivation process uses program specification transformation technology to perform equivalent transformation.  ...  Finally, the functional correctness of Dafny program is automatically verified by Dafny verifier or online tool.  ... 
doi:10.1051/wujns/2021266481 fatcat:4d26gyluqrbgffj5erx6v6uvvq

The Dafny Integrated Development Environment

K. Rustan M. Leino, Valentin Wüstholz
2014 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
This paper presents an integrated development environment for Dafny-a programming language, verifier, and proof assistant-that addresses issues present in most state-of-the-art verifiers: low responsiveness  ...  In recent years, program verifiers and interactive theorem provers have become more powerful and more suitable for verifying large programs or proofs.  ...  Acknowledgments We are grateful to Nada Amin and Maria Christakis for providing benchmark programs, and to Michał Moskal for helping with the BVD integration.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.149.2 fatcat:jfjahqdmdjdsfcy3qgryfprlue

Co-induction Simply [chapter]

K. Rustan M. Leino, Michał Moskal
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper shows that an SMT-based program verifier can support reasoning about co-induction-handling infinite data structures, lazy function calls, and user-defined properties defined as greatest fix-points  ...  The paper describes the features for co-induction in the language and verifier Dafny, defines their translation into input for a first-order SMT solver, and reports on some encouraging initial experience  ...  In fact, as a consequence of the automaticinduction heuristic in Dafny [17] , the verifier will automatically verify Theorem_BelowSquare even given an empty body.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-06410-9_27 fatcat:knloumszpbc7bb3scqs5acv46i

From Event-B Models to Dafny Code Contracts [chapter]

Mohammadsadegh Dalvandi, Michael Butler, Abdolbaghi Rezazadeh
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Finally, a tool for automatic generation of Dafny contracts from Event-B formal models is presented.  ...  This approach combines the power of Event-B abstraction and its stepwise refinement with the verification capabilities of Dafny.  ...  Programs written and specified in Dafny can be verified using the Dafny verifier which is based on an SMT-solver.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24644-4_21 fatcat:mt5ms25bn5cj7mjovfmcvby5yu

Dafny: Statically Verifying Functional Correctness [article]

Rachel Gauci
2014 arXiv   pre-print
Examples of Dafny code are provided to illustrate the use of each feature, and an overview of how Dafny translates programming code into a mathematical proof of functional verification is presented.  ...  The report also includes references to useful resources on Dafny, with mentions of related works in the domain of specification languages.  ...  They are more focused on explaining how to build a first-order automatic program verifier, than on how to actually use the Dafny language.  ... 
arXiv:1412.4395v1 fatcat:ej7xuj3vwbh5dfvbnud75z5kxi

Developing Verified Programs with Dafny [chapter]

K. Rustan, M. Leino
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
These tutorial notes give some Dafny programs used as examples in the tutorial.  ...  Dafny is a programming language and program verifier. The language includes specification constructs and the verifier checks that the program lives up to its specifications.  ...  The Dafny verifier is invoked just like the Dafny compiler. That is, the input to the program verifier is the program text itself.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27705-4_7 fatcat:fymrexgexvcxzluw536xlwok24

Developing verified programs with Dafny

K. Rustan M. Leino
2013 2013 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE)  
These tutorial notes give some Dafny programs used as examples in the tutorial.  ...  Dafny is a programming language and program verifier. The language includes specification constructs and the verifier checks that the program lives up to its specifications.  ...  The Dafny verifier is invoked just like the Dafny compiler. That is, the input to the program verifier is the program text itself.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icse.2013.6606754 dblp:conf/icse/Leino04 fatcat:ftnfla2jurfq7hec3vd36x52km

Developing verified programs with Dafny

K. Rustan M. Leino
2012 Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on High integrity language technology - HILT '12  
These tutorial notes give some Dafny programs used as examples in the tutorial.  ...  Dafny is a programming language and program verifier. The language includes specification constructs and the verifier checks that the program lives up to its specifications.  ...  The Dafny verifier is invoked just like the Dafny compiler. That is, the input to the program verifier is the program text itself.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2402676.2402682 dblp:conf/sigada/Leino12 fatcat:wxbefuts2rdl5fvj3xhdinc2p4

DAReing to reduce the annotation overheads of verified programs [article]

Gudmund Grov, Duncan Cameron, Leon McGregor
2017 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we introduce the DARe tool, which automatically removes as much unnecessary guidance as possible for the Dafny program verifier. The tool is integrated with the Dafny IDE.  ...  Modern program verifiers use the same uniform program text to both specify and implement programs.  ...  Finally, we could implement similar tools for other program verifiers and re-do the same experiments for them.  ... 
arXiv:1706.04023v1 fatcat:lk5k3pr2andkpfncqzggf7apr4

Automating Theorem Proving with SMT [chapter]

K. Rustan M. Leino
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For instance, the SMT-based program verifier Dafny supports a number of proof features traditionally found only in interactive proof assistants, like inductive, co-inductive, and declarative proofs.  ...  To show that proof tools rooted in SMT are growing up, this paper presents, using Dafny, a series of examples that illustrate how theorems are expressed and proved.  ...  Acknowledgments I am grateful to Maria Christakis, Sophia Drossopoulou, Peter Müller, and David Pichardie for comments on an earlier draft of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39634-2_2 fatcat:n56eavdz75f6ldiadspg5d36jy

Automated Verification of Nested DFS [chapter]

Jaco C. van de Pol
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
It fits on 4 pages, is verified by Dafny in about 2 minutes, and was developed in a couple of weeks.  ...  The invariants are proved automatically by the SMT solver Z3 underlying Dafny. The global specifications, however, need some inductive reasoning on paths in a graph.  ...  Dafny is an automatic program verifier created by Rustan Leino and relies on the workhorse Z3 as the underlying SMT solver.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-19458-5_12 fatcat:ahgw6v7fcbdehnv4lmfgysenvm

Trigger Selection Strategies to Stabilize Program Verifiers [chapter]

K. R. M. Leino, Clément Pit-Claudel
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
significant predictability and performance gains on both Dafny's test suite and large verification efforts using Dafny.  ...  SMT-based program verifiers often suffer from the so-called butterfly effect, in which minor modifications to the program source cause significant instabilities in verification times, which in turn may  ...  We verified a number of small programs using Dafny with auto-generated triggers, including a Union-Find implementation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-41528-4_20 fatcat:xojvcws5creyjmnvyxxcnabfbu
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