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Using Checksums to Detect Data Corruption [chapter]

Daniel Barbará, Rajni Goel, Sushil Jajodia
2000 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Although detecting an attacker who changes a set of database values at the disk level is a simple task (achievable by attaching signatures to each block of data), a more sophisticated attacker may corrupt  ...  Our algorithm calculates and maintains two levels of signatures (checksum values) on blocks of data.  ...  But the corresponding second-level checksum, on block b 2 , must also be copied to match the corrupted checksum of the data block.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-46439-5_9 fatcat:7n7dqc2kwralropng6pacmtwfe

An analysis of data corruption in the storage stack

Lakshmi N. Bairavasundaram, Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau, Garth R. Goodson, Bianca Schroeder
2008 ACM Transactions on Storage  
We use our observations to derive lessons for corruption-proof system design.  ...  An important threat to reliable storage of data is silent data corruption.  ...  We thank the Autosupport team at NetApp for their help in gathering data.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1416944.1416947 fatcat:qlteuzgiajhhxoarh4wmh44whi

Zettabyte reliability with flexible end-to-end data integrity

Yupu Zhang, Daniel S. Myers, Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau
2013 2013 IEEE 29th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
Z 2 FS provides dynamical tradeoffs between performance and protection and offers Zettabyte Reliability, which is one undetected corruption per Zettabyte of data read.  ...  We introduce flexible end-to-end data integrity for storage systems, which enables each component along the I/O path (e.g., memory, disk) to alter its protection scheme to meet the performance and reliability  ...  To detect such corruption, highlevel (software) checksums are usually applied on top of raw device (henceafter, we will use "checksum" to indicate the high-level checksum).  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2013.6558423 dblp:conf/mss/ZhangMAA13 fatcat:ky5jcx5bhjgcxch2axsk23yudm

Battling Bad Bits with Checksums in the Loris Page Cache

D. C. van Moolenbroek, R. Appuswamy, A. S. Tanenbaum
2013 2013 Sixth Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing  
In particular, we can use checksums to detect memory corruption as well as validate the integrity of the cache's internal state for recovery after a crash.  ...  We consider two reliability threats: memory errors, where bits in DRAM are flipped due to cosmic rays, and software bugs, where programming errors may ultimately result in data corruption and crashes.  ...  The case for checksumming: In order to detect memory corruption in the cached data pages, we propose to use checksums. As we will show in Sec.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ladc.2013.10 dblp:conf/ladc/MoolenbroekAT13 fatcat:65ddmq45brd6jl3mmtpo7cxdei

Crosscheck: Hardening Replicated Multithreaded Services

Arthur Martens, Christoph Borchert, Tobias Oliver Geissler, Daniel Lohmann, Olaf Spinczyk, Rudiger Kapitza
2014 2014 44th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks  
CROSSCHECK is able to detect silent data corruptions ahead of execution, and by crosschecking state changes with co-executing replicas, even ASCs can be detected.  ...  To validate CROSSCHECK we present a replicated multithreaded key-value store that is resilient to state corruptions.  ...  Detecting silent data corruptions As described above, we assume that all in-memory service state that needs to be protected from data corruptions is captured by state objects.  ... 
doi:10.1109/dsn.2014.98 dblp:conf/dsn/MartensBGLSK14 fatcat:kkqr635yhzfopcvynfsxsdc55m

Toward I/O-efficient protection against silent data corruptions in RAID arrays

Mingqiang Li, Patrick P. C. Lee
2014 2014 30th Symposium on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST)  
Although RAID is a well-known technique to protect data against disk errors, it is vulnerable to silent data corruptions that cannot be detected by disk drives.  ...  In view of this, this paper presents a systematic study on I/O-efficient integrity protection against silent data corruptions in RAID arrays.  ...  To protect data against silent data corruptions, we need to add to the RAID layer an integrity protection scheme, which often uses additional integrity metadata (e.g., checksums) to detect and locate stale  ... 
doi:10.1109/msst.2014.6855548 dblp:conf/mss/LiL14 fatcat:nckzkkzkwbdsrixjudpbhhlqju

High Performance Checksum Computation for Fault-Tolerant MPI over Infiniband [chapter]

Alexandre Denis, Francois Trahay, Yutaka Ishikawa
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we present checksum mechanisms to detect data corruption.  ...  We study the impact of checksums on network communication performance and we propose a mechanism to amortize their cost on InfiniBand.  ...  Experiments presented in this paper were carried out using the Grid'5000 experimental testbed, being developed under the INRIA ALADDIN development action with support from CNRS, RENATER and several Universities  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33518-1_23 fatcat:au4ejunbqfbvhnbmivbtdcnss4

Pangolin: A Fault-Tolerant Persistent Memory Programming Library [article]

Lu Zhang, Steven Swanson
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Pangolin uses a combination of checksums, parity, and micro-buffering to protect an application's objects from both media errors and corruption due to software bugs.  ...  It provides these protections for objects of any size and supports automatic, online detection of data corruption and recovery.  ...  Pangolin uses a novel, spaceefficient layout of data and parity to protect arbitrary-sized NVMM objects combined with per-object checksums to detect corruption.  ... 
arXiv:1904.10083v2 fatcat:hegvc4wqqnh3hhwidvc744stiy

Partial CRC Checksum of SCTP for Error Control over Wireless Networks

Lin Cui, Seok Joo Koh
2008 Wireless personal communications  
By referring to these partial checksums, the receiver can discard only the corrupted data chunks, whereas the other available data chunks can be recovered.  ...  This paper proposes a new error control scheme of SCTP using a partial Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) checksum to enhance the throughput performance, in which a new 'checksum chunk' is introduced to effectively  ...  The authors also would like to sincerely thank R. Prasad, the editor in chief, and the anonymous reviewers for their careful reviews and useful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11277-008-9520-3 fatcat:vw5otffcerf7voabtavc36z6fe

Tvarak: Software-managed hardware offload for DAX NVM storage redundancy [article]

Rajat Kateja, Nathan Beckmann, Gregory R. Ganger
2019 arXiv   pre-print
This system-level redundancy enables detection of and recovery from data corruption due to device firmware bugs (e.g., reading data from the wrong physical location).  ...  Production storage systems complement device-level ECC (which covers media errors) with system-checksums and cross-device parity.  ...  System-checksums for detection: Production storage systems maintain per-page system-checksums to detect firmwarebug-induced data corruption.  ... 
arXiv:1908.09922v1 fatcat:ydfy6gak3zhlhe2wpwiifyy4pe

Ensuring data integrity in storage

Gopalan Sivathanu, Charles P. Wright, Erez Zadok
2005 Proceedings of the 2005 ACM workshop on Storage security and survivability - StorageSS '05  
We describe how logical redundancy can be used in today's systems to perform efficient and seamless integrity assurance.  ...  Data integrity is a fundamental aspect of storage security and reliability.  ...  For example, if checksumming is used to detect integrity violations in file data, a checksum mismatch can only detect an integrity violation, but could not provide information whether the data is corrupted  ... 
doi:10.1145/1103780.1103784 dblp:conf/storagess/SivathanuWZ05 fatcat:mjrbcrxos5g4fnwokfcya5fqqu

An oblique-matrix technique for data integrity assurance

J.A. Ghaeb, J. Chebil
2009 Computers & security  
This paper proposes a new technique for improving the detection of data integrity violations. The method is based on check determinant approach.  ...  Data integrity is insuring that the data retrieved is the same as the data stored or transmitted.  ...  It detects the integrity violation due to data corruption but can not mark which copy has been corrupted.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cose.2008.10.003 fatcat:apk6ng3jhvcq5dynsxopxu6sde

Integrity Protection for Scientific Workflow Data

Mats Rynge, William L. Poehlman, F. Alex Feltus, Karan Vahi, Ewa Deelman, Anirban Mandal, Ilya Baldin, Omkar Bhide, Randy Heiland, Von Welch, Raquel Hill
2019 Proceedings of the Practice and Experience in Advanced Research Computing on Rise of the Machines (learning) - PEARC '19  
not cover a workflow from end-to-end, leaving gaps in which data corruption can occur undetected.  ...  Technologies such as TCP checksums, encrypted transfers, checksum validation, RAID and erasure coding provide integrity assurances at different levels, but they may not scale to large data sizes and may  ...  This research was done using resources provided by the Open Science Grid [27] [28] , which is supported by the National Science Foundation award 1148698, and the U.S.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3332186.3332222 dblp:conf/xsede/RyngeVDMBBHWHPF19 fatcat:qibvfgo5hzbbxncte2gan5eitq

Dealing with Driver Failures in the Storage Stack

Jorrit N. Herder, David C. van Moolenbroek, Raja Appuswamy, Bingzheng Wu, Ben Gras, Andrew S. Tanenbaum
2009 2009 Fourth Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing  
The filter uses checksumming and mirroring in order to achieve end-toend integrity and provide hard guarantees for detection of silent data corruption and recovery of lost data.  ...  On the one hand, even though block I/O is idempotent and can be retried, the lack of end-to-end integrity for filesystem data means that user data may be corrupted silently.  ...  detection of data corruption.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ladc.2009.12 dblp:conf/ladc/HerderMAWGT09 fatcat:g7ku5m662rfr7cpqlxacqxzdji

802.11 MAC Protocol with Selective Error Detection for Speech Transmission [chapter]

Antonio Servetti, Juan Carlos De Martin
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
are detected in the most perceptually sensitive bit class.  ...  More specifically, we introduce QoS support for sensitive multimedia transmissions by differentiating the scope of the standard MAC error detection step in order to discard multimedia packets only if errors  ...  percentage of corrupted data.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30573-6_40 fatcat:4u26mhahazd4nncipxmbkp4hba
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