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Unfair coin tossing

Gregory Demay, Ueli Maurer
2013 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory  
Unfair Coin Tossing Resource Unfair Coin Tossing Resource αB βB X ∈R {0, 1} committed Y ∈R {0, 1} Y open X X ⊕ Y X ⊕ Y UCT a toss C ∈R {0, 1} δ ∈ [0, a] (b, C ) b := 1 δ =0 C := C ⊕ N, where N ∼ Ber (δ  ...  Simulator βB committed Y ∈ R {0, 1} X X ⊕ Y sim C ∈ R {0, 1} C C ≈ ε Blum's Coin Tossing Protocol -Security Simulator βB X ∈R {0, 1} committed Y ∈R {0, 1} Y open X X ⊕ Y sim C ∈R {0, 1} C C ≈ ε αB βB X  ... 
doi:10.1109/isit.2013.6620488 dblp:conf/isit/DemayM13 fatcat:yhh4tl6gx5gffggzw6dtejfjba

Aggregation and Numbers

2004 Utilitas  
On the face of it, the coin-tossing seems a fair device.  ...  In the original Rescue Case, if we choose the least unfair device, i.e. the coin-tossing, we will save either one life or five lives.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0953820803001067 fatcat:3yu3opjhf5brxcccvzewzdxudu

Computational Hardness of Collective Coin-Tossing Protocols

Hemanta K. Maji
2020 Entropy  
In particular, it elaborates on a new proof technique that identifies the minimum insecurity incurred by any coin-tossing protocol and, simultaneously, constructs the coin-tossing protocol achieving that  ...  The combinatorial perspective into this new proof-technique yields new coin-tossing protocols that are more secure than well-known existing coin-tossing protocols, leading to new isoperimetric inequalities  ...  This coin-tossing protocol is the well-known fair coin-tossing protocol [45] . A fair coin-tossing protocol is ε-unfair if it is ε-insecure.  ... 
doi:10.3390/e23010044 pmid:33396773 fatcat:3jjfwa2mj5gsteomwlmaapptoa

Computational Hardness of Optimal FairComputation: Beyond Minicrypt [article]

Hemanta K. Maji, Mingyuan Wang
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Maji and Wang (CRYPTO-2020) proved that any coin-tossing protocol using one-way functions in a black-box manner is at least 1/ √ r-unfair.  ...  We prove that any coin-tossing protocol using public-key encryption (or, multi-round key agreement protocols) in a black-box manner must be 1/ √ r-unfair.  ...  They showed that any r-message coin-tossing protocol in the random oracle model must be Ω(1/ √ r)-unfair.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/MajiW21 fatcat:cht6ua6g2fd3tar3ljftmyqeie

How to make the toss fair in cricket? [article]

Haris Aziz
2022 arXiv   pre-print
In the sport of cricket, the side that wins the toss and has the first choice to bat or bowl can have an unfair or a critical advantage.  ...  In this article, I outline a method to make the toss fair in cricket. The method is based on ideas from the academic fields of game theory and fair division.  ...  There is no doubt that the outcome of a cricket match can be affected by the toss of a coin (Monga, 2018) .  ... 
arXiv:2201.04767v1 fatcat:rynooqigenfnlp3bs5uuttzm2e

Fairness Norms and Theory of Mind in an Ultimatum Game: Judgments, Offers, and Decisions in School-Aged Children

Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Cristina Bicchieri, Alex Chavez, Antonella Marchetti, Pablo Brañas-Garza
2014 PLoS ONE  
from the coin toss), supporting the existence of an outcome bias effect.  ...  Playing as Responders, they show a remarkable discrepancy between their normative judgment about fair procedures (a coin toss to determine the offer) and their behavior (rejection of an unfair offer derived  ...  Adults, as found by Biccheri & Chavez [1] , are more consistent, as they rarely refuse an unfair outcome resulting from a coin toss.  ... 
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105024 pmid:25118863 pmcid:PMC4132049 fatcat:7kno75nhxngirit7mk22kujtia

Are withholding and withdrawing therapy always morally equivalent? A reply to Sulmasy and Sugarman

J. Harris
1994 Journal of Medical Ethics  
The doctors toss a coin and allocate the respirator to Prima.  ...  One method of doing this is of course by tossing a coin.  ...  of a coin.  ... 
doi:10.1136/jme.20.4.223 pmid:11644646 pmcid:PMC1376559 fatcat:xwosxl2wdnd4dmn2jlq6jaxjji

How random is the toss of a coin?

M. P.A. Clark, B. D. Westerberg
2009 CMAJ - Canadian Medical Association Journal  
Coins have different raised profiles on each side. In theory, one side could be more weighted, thus making the coin toss unfair. This could be achieved by tampering with a coin.  ...  Coin tossing becomes physics rather than a random event.  ... 
doi:10.1503/cmaj.091733 pmid:19969575 pmcid:PMC2789164 fatcat:pr32omcsrrhhffiteu2xmhvvw4

You Can Load a Die, But You Can't Bias a Coin

Andrew Gelman, Deborah Nolan
2002 American Statistician  
A coin tossing is basically deterministic.  ...  The simple toss of a coin offers opportunities for learning many lessons in statistics and probability. For example, we ask our students, How is a coin toss random? and What makes a coin fair?  ... 
doi:10.1198/000313002605 fatcat:ydcw2zyhwbflda5hle6crd6kna

Design Schemes for Fair Dice [article]

Tomoko Taniguchi, Ryuhei Uehara
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We also have a familiar fair device; a coin. That is, a fair coin can be seen as a fair die with 2 faces. However, a real coin has a thickness, and hence it is, in fact, an unfair die with 3 faces.  ...  Figure 7 : 7 Deformed and unfair dice.  ...  That is, when we toss a coin of uniform density, we consider that the probabilities of head and tail are equal. However, a coin has another side out of head and tail in the real world.  ... 
arXiv:1810.12108v1 fatcat:q2wz6js2uzgojmvmbks6ocwkoq

Five Years of Phase Space Dynamics of the Standard & Poor's 500

Veniamin Smirnov, Dimitri Volchenkov
2019 Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences  
Relations between information components in Standard & Poor's 500 phase space resemble of those in unfair coin tossing.  ...  to the a.) b.) c.) d.) marginal values p > ∼ 0, or p < ∼ 1 for the probability to repeat a symbol in unfair coin tossing.  ...  The state diagram for tossing a unfair coin, in which each state ('heads' or 'tails') repeats itself with the probability 0 ≤ p ≤ 1. b.)  ... 
doi:10.2478/amns.2019.1.00019 fatcat:fv3bldg7j5gihnftjwbgvvvpwe


1854 The Assurance Magazine and Journal of the Institute of Actuaries  
A hundred and one dynamically true coins are fairly tossed, and then one of them is covered.  ...  We must, I think, allow it to be theoretically possible that a dynamically true coin, when tossed, may turn up head a hundred times successively, although on the other hand it must be admitted that the  ... 

Page 33 of Quiver Vol. 59, Issue [page]

1923 Quiver  
He wanted to toss a coin which of us went, which of us carried on, But I in sisted, and we applied for ul uggle seemed commissions loge the I ‘“ They turned me down, Alice.  ...  Aobey sii and said that settled it without the tossing And a coin. Well, you know what he did, all he did. His men called him ‘ Three Star’ Hennessey, you know. The famous brand.  ... 

Making the Unfair Fair

Robert W. Vallin
2020 Recreational Mathematics Magazine  
Making Things Fair Now we wish to look at unfair coins where p(T ), the probability that the coin lands on Tails, is p ∈ [0, 1[.  ...  An umpire then tosses the coin until one of the two sequences appears as a consecutive subsequence of the coin flips. The player whose sequence appears first is the winner.  ...  We know the second player's choice if the coin is fair. If the coin is unfair, with p being the probability of Tails Penney's Game Let p be the probability that the coin lands on Tails.  ... 
doi:10.2478/rmm-2020-0002 fatcat:cnz3my5sindxlmfci3igvpr7vy

The Results to be looked for on Tossing a dynamically true Coin

W. J. Reynolds
1854 The Assurance Magazine and Journal of the Institute of Actuaries  
A hundred and one dynamically true coins are fairly tossed, and then one of them is covered.  ...  THE RESULTS TO BE LOOKED FOR ON TOSSING A DYNA-MICALLY TRUE COIN. To the Editor of the Assurance Magazine.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s2046165800022401 fatcat:um45m4grxrg5vinmhrpoo23kxy
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