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Undersensitivity in Neural Reading Comprehension [article]

Johannes Welbl, Pasquale Minervini, Max Bartolo, Pontus Stenetorp, Sebastian Riedel
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Current reading comprehension models generalise well to in-distribution test sets, yet perform poorly on adversarially selected inputs.  ...  In this work we focus on the complementary problem: excessive prediction undersensitivity, where input text is meaningfully changed but the model's prediction does not, even though it should.  ...  In this work, we instead focus on undersensitivity of neural RC models to semantic perturbations of the input.  ... 
arXiv:2003.04808v1 fatcat:kbrm7tzazrhahj7g4xahn4v3iu

Undersensitivity in Neural Reading Comprehension

Johannes Welbl, Pasquale Minervini, Max Bartolo, Pontus Stenetorp, Sebastian Riedel
2020 Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020   unpublished
Current reading comprehension methods generalise well to in-distribution test sets, yet perform poorly on adversarially selected data.  ...  : they are less prone to overly rely on shallow predictive cues present only in the training set, and outperform a conventional model by as much as 10.9% F 1 .  ...  (Ebrahimi * Now at DeepMind. et al., 2018) , semantically invariant reformulations (Ribeiro et al., 2018b; Iyyer et al., 2018a) orspecifically in Reading Comprehension (RC) -adversarial text insertions  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/2020.findings-emnlp.103 fatcat:eapjx7rcn5avljlul3u3gkwom4

Towards Verified Robustness under Text Deletion Interventions

Johannes Welbl, Po-Sen Huang, Robert Stanforth, Sven Gowal, Krishnamurthy (Dj) Dvijotham, Martin Szummer, Pushmeet Kohli
2020 International Conference on Learning Representations  
Neural networks are widely used in Natural Language Processing, yet despite their empirical successes, their behaviour is brittle: they are both over-sensitive to small input changes, and under-sensitive  ...  This paper aims to tackle under-sensitivity in the context of natural language inference by ensuring that models do not become more confident in their predictions as arbitrary subsets of words from the  ...  Such under-sensitivity is problematic: neural models can 'solve' NLP tasks without task-relevant textual comprehension skills, but instead fit spurious cues in the data that suffice to form correct predictions  ... 
dblp:conf/iclr/WelblHSGDSK20 fatcat:mpqxcodn6bb55m6evlp5txvmfm

A survey of methods for revealing and overcoming weaknesses of data-driven Natural Language Understanding

Viktor Schlegel, Goran Nenadic, Riza Batista-Navarro
2022 Natural Language Engineering  
This structured survey provides an overview of the evolving research area by categorising reported weaknesses in models and datasets and the methods proposed to reveal and alleviate those weaknesses for  ...  Undersensitivity in neural reading comprehen- sion. In Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020, Stroudsburg, PA, USA.  ...  MultiQA: An empirical investigation of generalization and transfer in reading comprehension.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1351324922000171 fatcat:tq6p3w6cordcbb2g4o2iyr6acy

Problems for Judgment and Decision Making

R. Hastie
2001 Annual Review of Psychology  
This review examines recent developments during the past 5 years in the field of judgment and decision making, written in the form of a list of 16 research problems.  ...  Others are derived from descriptive algebraic modeling approaches or from recent developments in cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience.  ...  the context of alternative courses of action than when made in isolation (Hsee et al 1999 , Read et al 1999 .  ... 
doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.653 pmid:11148321 fatcat:ntfwwzxynjgblkc4kqwm6n55ju

The top and the bottom of ADHD: a neuropsychological perspective

Joseph A Sergeant, Hilde Geurts, Stephan Huijbregts, Anouk Scheres, Jaap Oosterlaan
2003 Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews  
A widely distributed neural network involving frontal, basal ganglia, limbic and cerebellar loci seem implicated in ADHD. q  ...  It is argued that a refined and conceptually comprehensive neuropsychological battery is needed to advance research in ADHD.  ...  Sonuga-Barke in discussing their work in relation to this review.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2003.08.004 pmid:14624803 fatcat:xbsnefjbs5f7zo64g7jj7oqdlq

AES Systems Are Both Overstable And Oversensitive: Explaining Why And Proposing Defenses [article]

Yaman Kumar Singla, Swapnil Parekh, Somesh Singh, Junyi Jessy Li, Rajiv Ratn Shah, Changyou Chen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
., large change in output score with a little change in input essay content) and overstability i.e., little change in output scores with large changes in input essay content) of AES.  ...  In this paper, we explore the reason behind their surprising adversarial brittleness.  ...  (RC = Reading Comprehension).  ... 
arXiv:2109.11728v3 fatcat:ylkw4ryvpvblxfjwdabctkdyra

Developmental Trajectories of Early Life Stress and Trauma: A Narrative Review on Neurobiological Aspects Beyond Stress System Dysregulation

Agorastos Agorastos, Panagiota Pervanidou, George P. Chrousos, Dewleen G. Baker
2019 Frontiers in Psychiatry  
In addition, alterations in emotional and autonomic reactivity, circadian rhythm disruption, functional and structural changes in the brain, as well as immune and metabolic dysregulation have been lately  ...  psychoneurobiological alterations as sequelae of early life stress (ELS) could represent a developmental risk factor and mediate risk for disease, leading to higher physical and mental morbidity rates in  ...  All authors have contributed to, read, and approved the final version of the manuscript. in reactivity to acute stress. Neuroendocrinology. BS.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00118 pmid:30914979 pmcid:PMC6421311 fatcat:mc6sqdnzerdy5ip56opgpklsli

Reasoning about causal relationships: Inferences on causal networks

Benjamin Margolin Rottman, Reid Hastie
2014 Psychological bulletin  
In this review, we provide a tutorial for how normatively to calculate these inferences.  ...  One condition involved a chain C¡M 1 ¡M 2 ¡E, such that Alien E read the mind of Alien M 2 , who read the mind of M 1 , who read the mind of C.  ...  Similar to the results for the C¡E structure, this result implies undersensitivity to the base rates.  ... 
doi:10.1037/a0031903 pmid:23544658 pmcid:PMC3988659 fatcat:677e452ipngphisgwtr7v2kmlm

Premenstrual syndrome in context [article]

Jessica McFarlane
Indeed, 74% of all participants in this study(including 73% of the men) had one or more diagnosed cyclic patterns in at least one of the three (menstrual, day of week, lunar) cycles studied.  ...  The greater proportion of diagnosable downs in phases other than the premenstrual phase calls into question the appropriateness of a singular focus on PMS rather than on general cyclicity in adults' day-to-day  ...  BE SURE TO READ ALL THE STATEMENTS IN EACH GROUP BEFORE MAKING YOUR CHOICE.  ... 
doi:10.14288/1.0098916 fatcat:kz2omczw4rhnneo3sl2ckp6r54