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Since we experienced an extremely rare case of metastatic basal cell carcinoma, the details of the case and literary considerations were described in this paper.doi:10.2739/kurumemedj.21.83 fatcat:wmtwkg2t45hs7cgqtshnetmbyy
Propagating waves of cAMP, periodically initiated in the aggregation centre, are known to guide the chemotactic aggregation of hundreds of thousands of starving individual Dictyostelium discoideum cells into multicellular aggregates. Propagating optical density waves, reflecting cell periodic movement, have previously been shown to exist in streaming aggregates, mounds and migrating slugs. Using a highly sensitive cAMP-FRET reporter, we have now been able to measure periodically propagatingdoi:10.1038/s42003-019-0371-0 pmid:31924971 fatcat:buxseox2brei3i3f4n5qtcdqeq
more »... waves directly in these multicellular structures. In slugs cAMP waves are periodically initiated in the tip and propagate backward through the prespore zone. Altered cAMP signalling dynamics in mutants with developmental defects strongly support a key functional role for cAMP waves in multicellular Dictyostelium morphogenesis. These findings thus show that propagating cAMP not only control the initial aggregation process but continue to be the long range cell-cell communication mechanism guiding cell movement during multicellular Dictyostelium morphogenesis at the mound and slugs stages.
Genes to Cells
STATc is activated by either hyperosmotic stress or ligand stimulation (Fukuzawa, Araki, Adrian, Williams, 2001; Araki et al., 2003; Na, Tunggal, & Eichinger, 2007) , where the ligand is differentiation-inducing ... | The mechanism of DrkA in STATa activation STATa is known to be activated in response to extracellular cAMP in a buffered suspension culture (Araki et al., 1998) . ...doi:10.1111/gtc.12686 fatcat:g4vtxu7prndh7ievbe2ewguxwy
Background The reactive hyperemia index (RHI), which is obtained from the measurement of peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), is highly associated with the percentage change in the end-diastolic arterial diameter (%flow-mediated dilatation) at reactive hyperemia. Low RHI is reported to be a mortality risk in patients with a high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. CV events are thought to be induced by physical and mental stress, including long-term fatigue and lack of sleep. However, thedoi:10.1186/s12872-021-02277-y pmid:34579658 pmcid:PMC8474775 fatcat:tvcdvlnagndndhlrvwmqhk3mo4
more »... ionship between fatigue, lack of sleep, and endothelial function has not yet been established. Methods Healthy hospital workers (n = 13, 6 men and 7 women) with an average age of 31.6 years were assigned to this study after they provided written informed consent. During the study period, we conducted 72 measurements of reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) in the morning before or after their duty. At each measurement of the RH-PAT, we recorded the participants' hours of sleep and evaluated their degree of fatigue using a visual analog scale (VAS). Results Although the VAS was significantly less (36 ± 16% and 64 ± 12%, p < 0.001) and the hours of sleep were longer (6.0 ± 1.1 h and 2.3 ± 1.0 h, p < 0.001) before duty compared to those after duty, the RHI was comparable between them (2.12 ± 0.53 vs. 1.97 ± 0.50, p = 0.21). The VAS score was significantly higher in participants with low RHI (< 1.67) than in those with normal RHI (≥ 2.07) (59 ± 13% and 46 ± 21%, respectively, p < 0.05). However, binary logistic regression showed no significant association between low RHI and the VAS when adjusted for systemic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate variability (HRV). In a simple regression analysis, the RHI was significantly correlated with the VAS score but not with sleep duration. A multiple linear regression analysis also showed no significant association between the RHI and VAS scores after adjustment for SBP and HRV. Conclusions Vascular endothelial function was not associated with overnight duty, hours of sleep, or degree of fatigue in healthy young adults. Since the RHI may be decreased in severe fatigue conditions through autonomic nerve activity, one should consider the physical and mental conditions of the examinee when evaluating the RH-PAT results.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are not only harmful to cell survival but also essential to cell signaling through cysteine-based redox switches. In fact, ROS triggers the potential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), one of the downstream mediators of the MAPK pathway, is implicated in various cellular processes through phosphorylating different substrates. As such, RSK1 associates with and phosphorylates neuronal nitric oxide (NO)doi:10.3390/ijms21228750 pmid:33228180 fatcat:zoi3xk7ya5cjpmkyuc3l7qbcza
more »... thase (nNOS) at Ser847, leading to a decrease in NO generation. In addition, the RSK1 activity is sensitive to inhibition by reversible cysteine-based redox modification of its Cys223 during oxidative stress. Aside from oxidative stress, nitrosative stress also contributes to cysteine-based redox modification. Thus, the protein kinases such as Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) and II (CaMKII) that phosphorylate nNOS could be potentially regulated by cysteine-based redox modification. In this review, we focus on the role of post-translational modifications in regulating nNOS and nNOS-phosphorylating protein kinases and communication among themselves.
Frontiers in Network Physiology
The excellence of the brain is its robustness under various types of noise and its flexibility under various environments. However, how the brain works is still a mystery. The critical brain hypothesis proposes a possible mechanism and states that criticality plays an important role in the healthy brain. Herein, using an electroencephalography dataset obtained from patients with psychotic disorders (PDs), ultra-high risk (UHR) individuals and healthy controls (HCs), and its dynamical networkdoi:10.3389/fnetp.2021.755685 fatcat:shddeyugrzg4vhbkqbcwffke4i
more »... lysis, we show that the brain of HCs remains around a critical state, whereas that of patients with PD falls into more stable states. Meanwhile, the brain of UHR individuals is similar to that of PD in terms of entropy but is analogous to that of HCs in causality patterns. These results not only provide evidence for the criticality of the normal brain but also highlight the practicability of using an analytic biophysical tool to study the dynamical properties of mental diseases.
Geometric frustration, in which competing interactions give rise to degenerate ground states, potentially induces various exotic quantum phenomena in magnetic materials. Minimal models comprising triangular units, such as triangular and Kagome lattices, have been investigated for decades to realize novel quantum phases, such as quantum spin liquid. A pentagon is the second-minimal elementary unit for geometric frustration. The realization of such systems is expected to provide a distinctdoi:10.1038/srep15327 pmid:26468930 pmcid:PMC4606929 fatcat:biigrlohezbvzonquctcrujjqu
more »... m for studying frustrated magnetism. Here, we present a spin-1/2 quantum pentagonal lattice in the new organic radical crystal α-2,6-Cl 2 -V [=α-3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,5-diphenylverdazyl]. Its unique molecular arrangement allows the formation of a partially corner-shared pentagonal lattice (PCPL). We find a clear 1/3 magnetization plateau and an anomalous change in magnetization in the vicinity of the saturation field, which originate from frustrated interactions in the PCPL. Closed loop lattice systems with an odd number of antiferromagnetic (AFM) bonds induce frustration through competing exchange interactions that cannot be simultaneously satisfied. Pentagonal lattices can therefore induce frustration in analogy with systems based on triangular lattice, which have been investigated extensively 1-7 . Quantum pentagonal systems have yet to be realized experimetaly however. Regular pentagons cannot tile a plane because of the crystallographic restriction theorem, such that distortion and/ or additional shapes are necessary     . The Cairo pentagonal lattice-a two-dimensional plane consisting of distorted pentagons with two inequivalent sites 8 -has attracted considerable attention since its recent realization in iron-based compounds with classical spins 12,13 . Although the lattice systems in iron-based compounds differ somewhat from the regular Cairo pentagonal lattice, their realizations have inspired further theoretical studies on quantum cases 14-17 , where the emergence of a spin-nematic phase and a 1/3 magnetization plateau are predicted. These specific quantum phases originate from the two types of inequivalent sites and the six spins in the magnetic unit cell, important characteristics that are common to the Cairo pentagonal lattice and the partially corner-shared pentagonal lattice (PCPL) investigated here. Here, we introduce the basic properties of the PCPL. It contains two inequivalent sites, α and β, with coordination numbers 2 and 4, respectively, as shown in Fig. 1(a) . The α site has two β neighbors, whereas each β site is connected to one α and three β sites. One ferromagnetic (FM) interaction J 1 and two AFM interactions J 2 and J 3 form a twisted pentagonal unit consisting of J 1 -J 3 -J 2 -J 3 -J 1 and induce frustration. The unit cell of the PCPL contains two α and four β sites (see Supplementary Information) . The six spins in the unit cell and the observed 1/3 magnetization plateau suggest the existence of a nonmagnetic singlet state with an excitation energy gap formed by the AFM interactions J 2 and/or J 3 between the β sites. The residual α-site spins interact with one another through the triplet excited states of such singlet state. The symmetry and shape of electron orbitals make crystals based on pentagonal lattices difficult to form in inorganic materials. In fact, there are few examples in the history of condensed matter physics. Unconventional lattice system should however be realizable with organic radical materials in diverse molecular arrangements. We recently established synthetic techniques for the preparation of high-quality verdazyl radical crystals 18 . In contrast to other conventional radicals such as nitroxide and nitronyl
Tsuyoshi Sekitani received a B.S. degree from Osaka University, Osaka, Japan in 1999, and a Ph.D. degree in applied physics from The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan in 2003. ...doi:10.1587/elex.14.20172003 fatcat:3fj42txqxbeuvbivdplywwmlj4
Araki is Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. We thank Dr. J. Williams of University College London for kindly providing pEcmA-Gal and Dr. T. ... Our previous data have showed that synchronized T1 cells and T7 cells interchange their relative positions in a cell mass during tip formation (Araki et al., 1994) . ... is specifically reinitiated in prespore cells (Durston and Vork, 1978; Zimmerman and Weijer, 1993) , and that the cell division actually occurs around the mound stage (Zada-Hames and Ashworth, 1978; Araki ...doi:10.2108/zsj.15.77 pmid:9615620 fatcat:sqkdw5me6fcehpgi7vf25yypxq
The scale bar represents 10 m. level and activation is maintained for as long as sorbitol is present (Araki et al., 2003) . ... Also, cAMP does not induce activation of STATc (Araki et al., 2003) but it does cause translocation of GbpC to the cortex (Kortholt et al., 2012) . ...doi:10.1016/j.ejcb.2012.01.002 pmid:22365144 pmcid:PMC3315007 fatcat:dp4smbbsq5fclmrpwhamyvjfsu
Our results indicate that the difference in perceived luminance between the amblyopic and fellow eyes that is present under dichoptic viewing conditions does not affect the perceived speed of suprathreshold motion stimuli. This finding provides a new insight into suprathreshold perception in amblyopia.doi:10.1097/opx.0000000000001381 pmid:31107841 pmcid:PMC6581295 fatcat:uaenrg6osjhp7dak7ctuealnj4
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a widely used biological marker for schizophrenia research. Previous studies reported that MMN amplitude was reduced in schizophrenia and that reduced MMN amplitude was associated with cognitive impairments and poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the reduced MMN amplitude remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that reduced MMN amplitude may reflect altered predictive coding in schizophrenia. In this paper, wedoi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00660 pmid:32733298 pmcid:PMC7360815 fatcat:juoyq2h3uzeq3hrhhmmccm4xbe
more »... eviewed MMN studies that used new paradigms and computational modeling to investigate altered predictive coding in schizophrenia. Studies using the roving oddball paradigm and modified oddball paradigm revealed that the effects of conditional probability were impaired in schizophrenia. Studies using omission paradigms and many-standards paradigms revealed that prediction error, but not adaptation, was impaired in schizophrenia. A study using a local-global paradigm revealed that hierarchical structures were impaired at both local and global levels in schizophrenia. Furthermore, studies using dynamic causal modeling revealed that neural networks with hierarchical structures were impaired in schizophrenia. These findings indicate that altered predictive coding underlies the reduced MMN amplitude in schizophrenia. However, there are several unsolved questions about optimal procedures, association among paradigms, and heterogeneity of schizophrenia. Future studies using several paradigms and computational modeling may solve these questions, and may lead to clarifying the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and to the development of individualized treatments for schizophrenia.
Table 1 1 Reported Cases of 5 Patients (Drug Eruption Induced by Zonisamide) in Japan from 1991 through 1996 A Case of Drug Eruption Induced by Zonisamide Keishi Araki, Tatsuya Horikawa, Tsuyoshi ...doi:10.11340/skinresearch1959.39.260 fatcat:xepsb6kdizbqhfnnbf6nfpz2ma
As shown on Figure 5B , these two drugs led to the activation of STATc as previously described by Araki and Williams on starved cells  . ... Data from Araki and colleagues  established that STATc is not essential for stress resistance as assayed by regrowth on Klebsiella after 2 h-exposure to 200 mM sorbitol. ...doi:10.1186/1478-811x-11-91 pmid:24267687 pmcid:PMC3879092 fatcat:6vun2hafbfa63al2cmugy55ugy
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