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### Translating First-Order Causal Theories into Answer Set Programming [chapter]

2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Norman McCain and Paolo Ferraris showed how to embed propositional causal theories into logic programming, and this work paved the way to the use of answer set solvers for answering queries about actions  ...  In this paper we generalize these embeddings to first-order causal logic-a system that has been used to simplify the semantics of variables in action descriptions.  ...  For instance, McCain's translation turns causal theory (1) into p ← not q ¬q ← not ¬p. (4) The only answer set of this program is {p, ¬q}.  ...

### Representing first-order causal theories by logic programs

PAOLO FERRARIS, JOOHYUNG LEE, YULIYA LIERLER, VLADIMIR LIFSCHITZ, FANGKAI YANG
2011 Theory and Practice of Logic Programming
McCain's embedding of definite propositional causal theories into logic programming paved the way to the use of answer set solvers for answering queries about actions described in such languages.  ...  In this paper we extend this embedding to nondefinite theories and to the first-order causal logic.  ...  For instance, McCain's translation turns causal theory (1) into p ← not q ¬q ← not ¬p. (4) The only answer set of this program is {p, ¬q}.  ...

### A Formalism for Causal Explanations with an Answer Set Programming Translation [chapter]

Yves Moinard
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
We examine the practicality for a user of using Answer Set Programming (ASP) for representing logical formalisms.  ...  Our example is a formalism aiming at capturing causal explanations from causal information. We show the naturalness and relative efficiency of this translation job.  ...  The generating part: getting the relevant explanation atoms The "answer" of an ASP program is a set of answer sets, that is a set of concrete literals satisfying the rules (see e. g.  ...

### Representing the Language of the Causal Calculator in Answer Set Programming

Michael Casolary, Joohyung Lee, Marc Herbstritt
2011 International Conference on Logic Programming
This thesis describes the language of CCalc in terms of answer set programming (ASP), based on the translation of nonmonotonic causal logic to formulas under the stable model semantics.  ...  Using the combination of system F2LP and answer set solvers, this method achieves functionality close to that of CCalc while taking advantage of answer set solvers to yield efficient computation that is  ...  The Causal Calculator The Causal Calculator was originally created by McCain (1997) Answer Set Programming Answer set programming is a declarative programming paradigm that is oriented towards difficult  ...

### Reformulating the Situation Calculus and the Event Calculus in the General Theory of Stable Models and in Answer Set Programming

J. Lee, R. Palla
2012 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research
We also present a translation that turns the reformulations further into answer set programs, so that efficient answer set solvers can be applied to compute the situation calculus and the event calculus  ...  Circumscription and logic programs under the stable model semantics are two well-known nonmonotonic formalisms.  ...  Representing Causal Action Theories by Answer Set Programs The following theorem shows how to turn causal action theories into answer set programs.  ...

### Cplus 2ASP: Computing Action Language ${\cal C}$ + in Answer Set Programming [chapter]

Joseph Babb, Joohyung Lee
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Its input language is fully compatible with the language of the Causal Calculator Version 2, but the new system is significantly faster thanks to modern answer set solving techniques.  ...  Under the incremental execution mode, the system translates a C+ description into the input language of iclingo, exploiting its incremental grounding mechanism.  ...  This work was partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant IIS-0916116 and by the South Korea IT R&D program MKE/KIAT 2010-TD-300404-001.  ...

### Representing Transition Systems by Logic Programs [chapter]

1999 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
The translations from C into logic programming that we investigate serve as a basis for the use of systems for computing answer sets to reason about action domains described in C and to generate plans  ...  We show here that many of the ideas developed in that work can be formulated in terms of logic programs under the answer set semantics, without mentioning causal theories.  ...  One such translation can be obtained by composing the translation from C into the language of causal theories de ned in 7] with the translation from causal theories into logic programs given by Proposition  ...

### From Causal Theories to Logic Programs (Sometimes) [chapter]

Fangzhen Lin, Kewen Wang
1999 Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Our main result is a theorem that shows how action precondition and fully instantiated successor state axioms can be computed from the answer sets of the translated logic program.  ...  In this paper, we shall provide a translation of a class of causal theories in (Lin 3]) to Gelfond and Lifschitz's disjunctive logic programs with classical negation 1].  ...  For instance, the causal theory given in Example 1 is a clausal causal theory. We now proceed to translate a clausal causal theory T into an extended disjunctive logic program T.  ...

### Using ASP with recent extensions for causal explanations [article]

Yves Moinard
2010 arXiv   pre-print
We examine the practicality for a user of using Answer Set Programming (ASP) for representing logical formalisms.  ...  We choose as an example a formalism aiming at capturing causal explanations from causal information.  ...  Introduction We examine a few difficulties encountered when trying to translate a logical formalism into a running answer set programming (ASP) program, showing how recent developments in ASP systems are  ...

### Embedding revision programs in logic programming situation calculus

Chitta Baral
1997 The Journal of Logic Programming
., 1997 <3 1. [20, 21, 22] to specify revision/change in knowledge bases (databases) and belief sets.  ...  Unlike earlier approaches in belief revision where "updates" were represented by classical theories, revision programs are a collection of rules, similar to rules in logic programs, and have a nonclassical  ...  We need to show that A is an answer set of YI(P, DI), i.e., we need to show that A is the smallest set of literals that satisfies (1-I(P, Dz)) A.  ...

### Editorial

Salem Benferhat, Enrico Giunchiglia
2004 Artificial Intelligence
order logic.  ...  A weighted base is a set of 0004-3702/\$ -see front matter   ...  The paper by Fangzhen Lin and Yuting Zhao describes an answer set solver based on a novel translation from answer set programs to (classical) propositional logic.  ...

### Handling Defeasibilities in Action Domains [article]

Yan Zhang
2002 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we develop a prioritized logic programming approach to handle defeasibilities in reasoning about action.  ...  These action languages inherit the simple syntax of A language but their semantics is developed in terms of transition systems where transition functions are defined based on prioritized logic programs  ...  Translating AT 0 into PLP We first propose a translation from a domain description D of AT 0 into a PLP, and our transition function will be defined based on this translated PLP.  ...

### Structure-Based Causes and Explanations in the Independent Choice Logic [article]

Alberto Finzi, Thomas Lukasiewicz
2012 arXiv   pre-print
This mapping also adds first-order modeling capabilities and explicit actions to the structural-model approach.  ...  We show how probabilistic theories in the independent choice logic can be mapped to probabilistic causal models.  ...  TRANSLATIONS In this section, we first give a translation of PICL-theories into probabilistic causal models.  ...

### Specifying causality in action theories: a default logic approach

Yan Zhang
1999 Theoretical Computer Science
We also describe a logic programming approximation to compute causal theories of actions which provides an implementational basis for our approach.  ...  It turns out that a causal theory in our formalism can be specified by using Reiter's default logic.  ...  Translating causal theory into extended logic program Given sets of domain constraints and causal relations 93 and V, an initial state S, an action act with post-condition Post(act), and A4ax(S,act) as  ...

### Forthcoming Papers

2004 Artificial Intelligence
Early models have dealt with unconditional acceptance and integration of potentially belief-contravening pieces of information into the existing corpus.  ...  Revision by comparison Since the early 1980s, logical theories of belief revision have offered formal methods for the transformation of knowledge bases or "corpora" of data and beliefs.  ...  Zhao, ASSAT: computing answer sets of a logic program by SAT solvers We propose a new translation from normal logic programs with constraints under the answer set semantics to propositional logic.  ...
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