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Transformation of path information for WCET analysis during compilation

R. Kirner, P. Puschner
Proceedings 13th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems  
In this paper we present an approach for the program code compilation that integrates the transformation of program path information into the compiler.  ...  Path information is transformed through all compiler stages to the adequate path information for the corresponding assembly code level.  ...  Summary and Conclusion We described a technique for compiling programs with path information for WCET analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1109/emrts.2001.933993 dblp:conf/ecrts/KirnerP01 fatcat:6amzhjlctfgqthqxqxb7sqnzse

Accelerating WCET-driven optimizations by the invariant path paradigm

Paul Lokuciejewski, Fatih Gedikli, Peter Marwedel
2009 Proceedings of th 12th International Workshop on Software and Compilers for Embedded Systems - SCOPES '09  
To keep path information valid, WCET optimizations typically perform a time-consuming static WCET analysis after each code modification to ensure that subsequent optimization steps operate on the critical  ...  Its reduction is the objective of a WCET optimization.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank AbsInt Angewandte Informatik GmbH for their support concerning WCET analysis using the aiT framework.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1543820.1543823 fatcat:aasxiv24zzhs3aw3zg5skjicvi

Design of a WCET-Aware C Compiler

Heiko Falk, Paul Lokuciejewski, Henrik Theiling
2006 2006 IEEE/ACM/IFIP Workshop on Embedded Systems for Real Time Multimedia  
The concepts for extending the compiler infrastructure are kept very general so that they are not limited to WCET information.  ...  Previous publications mainly used self-written WCET estimators with very limited functionality and preciseness during compilation.  ...  [12] presents techniques for transforming program path information during compiler optimization.  ... 
doi:10.1109/estmed.2006.321284 dblp:conf/estimedia/FalkLT06 fatcat:gwwwsls7xzbkljj5x7k55jeuim

A Flexible Tradeoff Between Code Size and WCET Using a Dual Instruction Set Processor [chapter]

Sheayun Lee, Jaejin Lee, Chang Yun Park, Sang Lyul Min
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
program compiled into the full instruction set.  ...  Embedded systems are often constrained in terms of both code size and execution time, due to a limited amount of available memory and real-time nature of applications.  ...  That is, whenever the compiler performs a code enhancing transformation, the information needed to search for the longest execution path is updated accordingly, and then used for the WCET analysis of the  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30113-4_18 fatcat:umqh2hlhd5fxbdfqfswkrr25se

The W-SEPT Project: Towards Semantic-Aware WCET Estimation

Maiza Claire, Raymond Pascal, Parent-Vigouroux Catherine, Bonenfant Armelle, Carrier Fabienne, Hugues Cassé, Philippe Cuenot, Denis Claraz, Nicolas Halbwachs, Erwan Jahier, Hanbing Li, Marianne De Michiel (+8 others)
2017 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
This paper presents the results of this project : a semantic-aware WCET estimation workflow for high-level designed systems.  ...  The W-SEPT project, for "WCET, Semantics, Precision and Traceability", has been carried out to study and exploit the influence of program semantics on the WCET estimation.  ...  Semantic information is initially read from a file in the FFX format, and then represented internally in the LLVM compiler, and finally transformed jointly with the code transformations.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2017.9 dblp:conf/wcet/MaizaRPBCCCCHJL17 fatcat:qoobg54nkrb7zhauujzgws7xlu

Improving WCET by applying worst-case path optimizations

Wankang Zhao, William Kreahling, David Whalley, Christopher Healy, Frank Mueller
2006 Real-time systems  
Compiler writers in recent years have used profile information to detect the frequently executed paths in a program and there has been considerable effort to develop compiler optimizations to improve these  ...  It is advantageous to perform compiler optimizations that attempt to lower the worst-case execution time (WCET) of an embedded application since tasks with lower WCETs are easier to schedule and more likely  ...  Acknowledgements We thank StarCore for providing the software (assembler, linker, simulator, etc.) and documentation that were used in this project.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11241-006-8643-4 fatcat:rlaxftf4cffydcukolxpyohxhy

A compiler framework for the reduction of worst-case execution times

Heiko Falk, Paul Lokuciejewski
2010 Real-time systems  
There is almost no tool support that assists the designer in automatically deriving safe bounds of the worst-case execution time (WCET) of a system during code generation and in systematically optimizing  ...  This article presents concepts and infrastructures for WCET-aware code generation and optimization techniques for WCET reduction.  ...  The final publication is available at Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank AbsInt Angewandte Informatik GmbH for their support related to WCET analysis using the aiT framework  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11241-010-9101-x fatcat:atxsoqt32zga7mwlplsnydkj2a

Combining Worst-Case Timing Models, Loop Unrolling, and Static Loop Analysis for WCET Minimization

Paul Lokuciejewski, Peter Marwedel
2009 2009 21st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems  
Compilers aim at their aggressive transformation to achieve large improvements of the program performance.  ...  Our novel optimization is driven by worst-case execution time (WCET) information to effectively minimize the program's worst-case behavior.  ...  Within a WCET-aware compiler, the results of the WCET analysis are imported into the compiler back-end and exploited for WCET optimizations.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ecrts.2009.9 dblp:conf/ecrts/LokuciejewskiM09 fatcat:ed5c7ckgg5bnzebs3ke5fyvtsm

Program Semantics in Model-Based WCET Analysis: A State of the Art Perspective

Mihail Asavoae, Claire Maiza, Pascal Raymond, Marc Herbstritt
2013 Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis  
Under this setting, the application exists at several levels of description, as the result of a sequence of transformations.  ...  This paper overviews, in the context of WCET analysis, what are the existing techniques to extract, express and exploit the program semantics along the model-based development workflow.  ...  Nevertheless, an implicit path enumeration technique (IPET) formulation of the path analysis is the most popular approach for WCET analysis.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2013.32 dblp:conf/wcet/AsavoaeMR13 fatcat:oabyuwtwmvdkhakzwq5dgzmkee

Tracing Flow Information for Tighter WCET Estimation: Application to Vectorization

Hanbing Li, Isabelle Puaut, Erven Rohou
2015 2015 IEEE 21st International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications  
Standard static WCET estimation techniques establish a WCET bound from an analysis of the machine code, taking into account additional flow information provided at source code level, either by the programmer  ...  However, flow information is difficult to maintain consistent through the dozens of optimizations applied by a compiler, and the majority of real-time systems simply do not apply any optimization.  ...  Then, the final flow information can be conveyed to WCET analysis tools and used for the WCET calculation.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtcsa.2015.18 dblp:conf/rtcsa/LiPR15 fatcat:py5wc54y4zg7ro26odypbrwwce

Worst-Case Execution Time Based Optimization of Real-Time Java Programs

Stefan Hepp, Martin Schoeberl
2012 2012 IEEE 15th International Symposium on Object/Component/Service-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing  
In this paper we present and explore WCET driven inlining of Java methods. We use the WCET analysis tool for the Java processor JOP to guide to optimization along the worst-case path.  ...  Standard compilers optimize execution time for the average case. However, in hard real-time systems the worst-case execution time (WCET) is of primary importance.  ...  We also would like to thank Benedikt Huber for his help on integrating JCopter with the WCET analysis tool WCA.  ... 
doi:10.1109/isorc.2012.17 dblp:conf/isorc/HeppS12 fatcat:5x2xa7fsyfcutoa5v3inntfwke

Patmos: a time-predictable microprocessor

Martin Schoeberl, Wolfgang Puffitsch, Stefan Hepp, Benedikt Huber, Daniel Prokesch
2018 Real-time systems  
The compiler also plays a central role in optimizing the application for the WCET instead of average-case performance.  ...  A method cache serves as the cache for the instructions and a split cache organization simplifies the WCET analysis of the data cache.  ...  We would like to thank Florian Brandner for discussions on the Patmos instruction set, the initial implementation of the software simulator of Patmos, and the initial port of LLVM for Patmos.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11241-018-9300-4 fatcat:werexvn555bz5mhw7o2fia2abu

Scalable and precise estimation and debugging of the worst-case execution time for analysis-friendly processors: a comeback of model checking

Martin Becker, Ravindra Metta, R. Venkatesh, Samarjit Chakraborty
2018 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
We define and identify such processors, and then we propose an automated tool set which estimates a precise WCET without unsafe manual inputs, and also reconstructs a maximum-detail view of the WCET path  ...  In this article we show how all of these issues can be significantly mitigated or even solved, if we use processors that are amenable to WCET analysis.  ...  In general, compiler transformations are a common problem for all WCET techniques.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10009-018-0497-2 fatcat:nb4pxjkybnbifo32gobb2so3my

Influence of procedure cloning on WCET prediction

Paul Lokuciejewski, Heiko Falk, Martin Schwarzer, Peter Marwedel, Henrik Theiling
2007 Proceedings of the 5th IEEE/ACM international conference on Hardware/software codesign and system synthesis - CODES+ISSS '07  
Our results also show that these WCET reductions only implied small overhead during WCET analysis.  ...  For the worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis, especially loops are an inherent source of unpredictability and loss of precision.  ...  Another reason for the success of this compiler transformation was the fact that the specialized functions were part of the WC path.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1289816.1289852 dblp:conf/codes/LokuciejewskiFSMT07 fatcat:wzukjafibbdkxo665syahorxa4

Traceability of Flow Information

Hanbing Li, Isabelle Puaut, Erven Rohou
2014 Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems - RTNS '14  
For this reason, many WCET tools for real-time systems turn off compiler optimizations when computing WCET.  ...  To be useful, WCET estimates have to be as tight as possible. Information on possible flows of control (the so-called flow information) improves the tightness of WCET estimates.  ...  Acknowledgments The research was funded by W-SEPT 5 , a collaborative research project focusing on identification and traceability of semantic information for worst-case execution time estimation.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2659787.2659805 dblp:conf/rtns/LiPR14 fatcat:h2t3e5lgmnaatlsoqa7sl74zke
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