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Data movement in nearly all modern imperative languages is based on a single primitive: traditional assignment. (With traditional assignment, data are moved between variables by copying.) ... Unfortunately, traditional assignment poses many known software engineering drawbacks with respect to efficiency for value types, and with respect to modular reasoning for reference types. ... ., traditional preserving assignment). ...doi:10.1145/1639950.1640056 dblp:conf/oopsla/PikeHABKW09 fatcat:qn5rd4ac2jgq3hoyutbh4qybz4
Analysis of Zelen trials compares outcomes according to original assignment, regardless of any refusal to accept or participate in the assigned treatment. ... Because investigators must consider how exposure to treatments or interventions might bias ascertainment of outcomes, assessment of outcomes from routinely created records is often necessary. ... Alternatives to traditional methods of patient-level recruitment and random assignment include cluster-level random assignment, stepped-wedge designs, and Zelen designs [9, 10] . ...doi:10.1186/s13063-021-05517-w fatcat:us4mvt3k4fftbjgcx5ilmsz4fq
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice
Among the scenario vari- ables, the relative harm produced by the offense, the offender’s and victim’s gender, and offender’s previous criminal record were considered control variables. ... Among the respondent characteristics, because both traditional gender- role attitudes and tolerance toward male violence against women vary consider- ably by social group (e.g., Burt, 1980; Marciniak, ...
Journal of Clinical Oncology
irreversible morbidity, disability, or other substantial harms; suffer reversible but serious harm; or suffer severe discomfort Conclusion We conclude that placebo-controlled oncology trials are scientifically ... If a trial meets these methodologic criteria, it must then fulfill additional criteria to be considered ethical. ...
Researches in recent years led to the criticism about the framework of traditional financial reporting and its ability to provide a complete list of company activities and its accountability. ... Given the importance of environmental costs, one can consider them as a parts of final cost of products or services in business units , so failure to report these costs in financial statements cause to ... The factors considered in environmental accounting reporting are: 1. Incoming harms to environment; 2. The responsibilities of companies towards these harms; 3. ...doi:10.6007/ijarafms/v5-i1/1412 fatcat:6sf7mftjyfdpnpcmodz3xwn3pa
U-metrics correctly measure and predict the performance benefits of snoozing, whereas traditional metrics do not. ... Compared to traditional measures, u-metrics more accurately reflect the real world costs and benefits of a predictor operating in a live clinical context. The improvement can be significant. ... All false positives were considered to be equally harmful, since each one could trigger a new response. ...arXiv:2102.05691v3 fatcat:wstvd2zqmrbfreu45ipsccwxuy
Our proposed algorithm is an adaptive algorithm that is to be periodically conducted over time to consider the changes of the channel and interference conditions. ... Cognitive radio (CR) technology, enabled by software-defined radios, is considered one of the main IoT-enabling technologies that can provide opportunistic wireless access to a large number of connected ... Fair channels assignment and energy optimization are considered in  . ...doi:10.11591/ijece.v10i4.pp3854-3861 fatcat:vvkozu7torfwzmiqcwgbuqqptu
The approaches in two relevant research traditions are considered: population surveys on alcohol problems, and economic cost of alcohol studies. ... The paper considers conceptual and methodological issues in studying the scope of alcohol's harm to others. Reasons are suggested for the relative neglect of the topic. ... Room, Thinking about measuring alcohol's harm to others, presented at the 34th Annual Alcohol Epidemiology Symposium of the Kettil Bruun Society, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2-6 June 2008. ...doi:10.3390/ijerph7041855 pmid:20617064 pmcid:PMC2872341 fatcat:r27rtaoekreexioubycdjlbvna
The traditional 12-step treatment for substance use disorders does not allow the individual to relapse, lest it is considered the treatment has failed. ... Different from the traditional choice of treatment, abstinence, harm reduction is designed to meet people "where they are at". ... homework assignments. ...doi:10.1037/h0100995 fatcat:ktb7znhc5zaqtlscb3fpa3rwiu
It suggests that a racialised understanding of genital mutilation, cosmetic surgery on the vulva and the vagina, as well as gender assignment surgery on intersexual minors, predetermines policy decisions ... as harmful traditional practices. ... of what is called 'harmful traditional practices' by the UN (UNHCR 1995). ...doi:10.31165/nk.2014.73.341 fatcat:nukkswp5fveojppery2bxbl7iu
I consider alternative decrees. ... When the harmful practice was racial assignment, or the segregation caused by racial assignment, the remedial costs were essentially non-allowable. ...doi:10.2307/1191118 fatcat:pdozkceoqbcatkzt66425phyiq
Social epidemiological traditions of asking about problems related to drinking are considered. ... Most items measuring social harm asked of the drinker him/herself are concerned with major social roles, and problems in the particular life area of the role (work, family, friendships, etc.). ... This paper considers some of the traditions of measurement of social harm in population surveys, aiming to further the development of common approaches on an international basis. ...doi:10.1016/s0899-3289(00)00043-2 pmid:11288477 fatcat:y5ajybpporcylhuor7tgoxmbm4
Proceedings of the 2022 ACM Conference on International Computing Education Research V.1
This integrated assignment evaluated 120 students' understanding of the limitations and assumptions of standard graph search algorithms, and required students to consider human impacts to propose appropriate ... We created an AI assignment with a human context, asking students to find the safest path rather than the shortest path. ... A successful student is able to consider various technical choices while minimizing any harm to Jessie. ...doi:10.1145/3501385.3543978 fatcat:3aeksgqadjdj5ohrhaz245almu
I'll argue in this piece that reducing the harms of capitalist-based writing and knowledge requires considered attention to the ways we are lured toward production (what we might even call "deliverables ... In this essay, I bring together two spaces—street needle exchange and the university classroom—to explore harm reduction as an epistemological model that can be adapted pedagogically in our rhetoric, communications ... While the Mixtape assignment helps first-year students think beyond the scripts of traditional research papers, the purposes of the project are multiple and adaptable. ...doi:10.5744/rhm.2021.4e1 fatcat:kaxf5ff6gfc6bobwomxhrpri2y
The experiments adopted a 3 (traditional health harms of smoking or vaping: three harms, one harm, absent) × 2 (COVID-19 harms: one harm, absent) between-subjects design. ... However, including both traditional and COVID-19 harms in smoking messages had no benefit beyond including either alone. ... Message condition assignment in one experiment was independent of assignment in the other. ...doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2020-055956 pmid:33188150 pmcid:PMC7669534 fatcat:qkq3rglhqfbcnpgofhafcail44
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