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Statistical models of appearance for eye tracking and eye-blink detection and measurement

Ioana Bacivarov, Mircea Ionita, Peter Corcoran
2008 IEEE transactions on consumer electronics  
A statistical Active Appearance Model (AAM) is developed to track and detect eye blinking. The model has been designed to be robust to variations of head pose or gaze.  ...  This global model is further extended using a series of sub-models to enable independent modeling and tracking of the two eye regions.  ...  In summary, traditional image-based eye tracking approaches track the eyes and detect eventual blinking by exploiting the differences between frames and making use of special characteristics of the eye  ... 
doi:10.1109/tce.2008.4637622 fatcat:hsjzftii4rgg5hlunjjlgwjce4

Rendering synthetic ground truth images for eye tracker evaluation

Lech Świrski, Neil Dodgson
2014 Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications - ETRA '14  
We describe a computer graphics approach to creating realistic synthetic eye images, using a 3D model of the eye and head and a physically correct rendering technique.  ...  When evaluating eye tracking algorithms, a recurring issue is what metric to use and what data to compare against.  ...  In this paper, we describe existing approaches to eye tracker evaluation, and present our own approach based on rendered images.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2578153.2578188 dblp:conf/etra/SwirskiD14 fatcat:2jxqii6k2jcnnaiixhqul26qlm

Modeling of an eye-imaging system for optimizing illumination schemes in an eye-tracked head-mounted display

Hong Hua, Craig W. Pansing, Jannick P. Rolland
2007 Applied Optics  
While the augmentation of head-mounted displays (HMDs) with eye-tracking (ET) capabilities adds challenges to designing compact and portable displays, a systematic approach to integration offers opportunities  ...  To investigate the design and optimization of illumination schemes in an ET-HMD system, we present a simulated eye illumination and imaging system, which allows us to explore the critical parameters that  ...  This research is supported by the National Science Foundation grants IIS-03-07227͞04-11578 and 03-07189.  ... 
doi:10.1364/ao.46.007757 pmid:17973021 fatcat:mryrjtas5rcbzetglr2bqqnuuy

Natural Pursuits for Eye Tracker Calibration

Michaela Murauer, Michael Haslgrübler, Alois Ferscha
2018 Proceedings of the 5th international Workshop on Sensor-based Activity Recognition and Interaction - iWOAR '18  
In this thesis, Natural Pursuit Calibration is presented, which is a comfortable, unobtrusive technique enabling ongoing attention detection and eye tracker calibration within an off-screen context.  ...  A two-stage evaluation process is conducted to (i) optimize parameter settings in a first setup and (ii) compare the accuracy as well as the user acceptance of the proposed procedure to prevailing calibration  ...  In order to identify and track points of interest, either an optical flow [HS81] based approach, which will be described in detail in a following subsection, or visual marker tracking is applied.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3266157.3266207 dblp:conf/iwoar/MurauerHF18 fatcat:cjsaa6ge2zaybipccacirsupri

Rendering refraction and reflection of eyeglasses for synthetic eye tracker images [article]

Thomas C. Kübler and Tobias Rittig and Judith Ungewiss and Christina Krauss and Enkelejda Kasneci
2015 arXiv   pre-print
While for the evaluation of robustness of eye tracking algorithms the use of real-world data is essential, there are many applications where simulated, synthetic eye images are of advantage.  ...  We show how a polynomial function fitting calibration performs equally well with and without eyeglasses, and how a geometrical eye model behaves when exposed to glasses.  ...  This will have an effect on detection rate and accuracy. Figure 1 : 1 Rendered image of an eye with a coated lens of -1 diopters.  ... 
arXiv:1511.07299v2 fatcat:pvjdcy4f4zfytbqm5lxjshtqgu

Robust Real-Time Multi-View Eye Tracking [article]

Nuri Murat Arar, Jean-Philippe Thiran
2018 arXiv   pre-print
, illumination and eye type variations, remains a major challenge in eye tracking.  ...  First, differently from previous work, we design a multi-view tracking setup that allows for acquiring multiple eye appearances simultaneously.  ...  SDM method assumes that an accurate final face shape with 66 landmarks can be estimated with a cascade of regression models given an initial shape.  ... 
arXiv:1711.05444v2 fatcat:kyb2hdh5rzhcxfmr326did3gze

Bionic Tracking: Using Eye Tracking to Track Biological Cells in Virtual Reality [article]

Ulrik Günther, Kyle I.S. Harrington, Raimund Dachselt, Ivo F. Sbalzarini
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We detail the interaction design of our approach and explain the graph-based algorithm used to connect different time points, also taking occlusion and user distraction into account.  ...  In our Bionic Tracking approach, we substitute the usual 2D point-and-click annotation to track cells with eye tracking in a virtual reality headset, where users simply have to follow a cell with their  ...  Acknowledgements The authors thank all participants of the user study. Thanks to Mette Handberg-Thorsager for providing the Platynereis dataset and for feedback on the manuscript.  ... 
arXiv:2005.00387v2 fatcat:5vzwpfxjzfdnfibwzdfcl3rtty

Evaluating an eye tracking interface for a two-dimensional sketch editor

Iestyn Jowers, Miquel Prats, Alison McKay, Steve Garner
2013 Computer-Aided Design  
Research Highlights • Explores the potential of eye tracking as an interface for computer aided-design • Describes methods for inferring user intent with respect to digital shape manipulation, based on  ...  The results are positive and indicate the potential for eye tracking as an interface for supporting shape exploration in CAD.  ...  Acknowledgements The research reported in this paper was carried out as part of the Designing with Vision project, and the prototype described is available on the project website 3 .  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cad.2013.01.006 fatcat:melgeogd7vax3cnjdf66xjw3eu

HUMAN EYE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR RECOGNIZE EYE DISEASES USING IMAGE PROCESSING

Dr. Nandhagopal N
2021 Zenodo  
HUMAN EYE DETECTION SYSTEM FOR RECOGNIZE EYE DISEASES USING IMAGE PROCESSING: D.Sc Thesis.  ...  the most popular methods in tracking an eye is tracking the pupil of an eye based on video, shortly known as (VOG) which records the eye rotations in terms of digital video cameras shown in the figure  ...  Despite the shape of the pupil, the pupil detection algorithm is an economical and accurate approach to pupil border detection.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5148811 fatcat:4pzov2mwtzd2hbgqsxib46snae

Ongoing eye movements constrain visual perception

Ziad M Hafed, Richard J Krauzlis
2006 Nature Neuroscience  
In several active conditions, the spot, occluder and shape translated such that when subjects tracked the spot, they experienced the same retinal stimulus as during fixation.  ...  To test this possibility, we used a perceptually ambiguous stimulus composed of four line segments, consistent with a shape whose vertices were occluded.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Sloan-Swartz Center for Theoretical Neurobiology and the US National Institutes of Health (grant EY12212  ... 
doi:10.1038/nn1782 pmid:17028586 fatcat:os4ovjxfnzh5fnzeg2w4zhst7q

Eye Ball Movement based Cursor using Raspberry PI

T. H. Feiroz Khan
2018 International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology  
Some peoples cannot able to operate computers because of an illness. The idea of eye controls of great use to not only the future of natural input but more importantly the handicapped and disabled.  ...  While this is not a problem for a healthy individual, this may be an insurmountable bound for people with limited freedom of movement of their limbs.  ...  Thus, vision-based approach is taken into account an effective technique to develop human computer interface systems. For vision-based human computer interaction, eye tracking is a hot issue.  ... 
doi:10.22214/ijraset.2018.4552 fatcat:35ta5wc5qfbmtb2nnarvri6akm

Visual Analytics Methodology for Eye Movement Studies

G. Andrienko, N. Andrienko, M. Burch, D. Weiskopf
2012 IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics  
We have performed an extensive empirical evaluation of a broad range of visual analytics methods used in analysis of geographic movement data.  ...  Abstract-Eye movement analysis is gaining popularity as a tool for evaluation of visual displays and interfaces.  ...  INTRODUCTION Eye tracking is the process of measuring and recording gaze positions and eye movements of an individual.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvcg.2012.276 pmid:26357198 fatcat:taa57fseyzhcbbnsggq6abbuz4

45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors

William S. Rabinovich
2007 Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE  
We describe a new kind of MQW MRR that uses a cat's-eye retroreflector with the MQW in the focal plane of the cat's-eye.  ...  Modulating retroreflectors ͑MRRs͒ couple passive optical retroreflectors with electro-optic modulators to allow free-space optical communication with a laser and pointing-acquisition-tracking system required  ...  Acknowledgments We acknowledge the support of the Office of Naval Research. We acknowledge the optical design support of Jay Kumler of Coastal Optics Corporation.  ... 
doi:10.1117/1.2789634 fatcat:trfmvfbeqvfepg4t2lnvztpzhu

Robust tracking and remapping of eye appearance with passive computer vision

Carlo Colombo, Dario Comanducci, Alberto Del Bimbo
2007 ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications, and Applications (TOMCCAP)  
A single-camera iris-tracking and remapping approach based on passive computer vision is presented. Tracking is aimed at obtaining accurate and robust measurements of the iris/pupil position.  ...  In particular, an evaluation method for the choice of layout of both hardware components and calibration points is described.  ...  IRIS TRACKING The overall tracking approach can be described in terms of an automaton composed of two main states: iris localization and iris tracing (see Figure 1 ).  ... 
doi:10.1145/1314303.1314305 fatcat:7zlse6ummvcn5ehkpjjhieiesu

Integratring Service Design and Eye Teacking Insight for Designing Smart TV User Interfaces

Sheng-Ming Wang
2015 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
This research proposes a process that integrate service design method and eye tracking insight for designing a Smart TV user interface.  ...  Scientific evidences, which include the effectiveness and efficiency testing data obtained from eye tracking experiments with six participants, are provided the information for analysing the affordance  ...  The QFD matrix is a systematic design approach based on an in-depth awareness of customer desires, coupled with integrated corporate functional groups.  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2015.060722 fatcat:m6gusfxlozflfbtxtchxqe7k5a
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