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Towards network triangle inequality violation aware distributed systems

Guohui Wang, Bo Zhang, T. S. Eugene Ng
2007 Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement - IMC '07  
Many distributed systems rely on neighbor selection mechanisms to create overlay structures that have good network performance.  ...  These neighbor selection mechanisms often assume the triangle inequality holds for Internet delays. However, the reality is that the triangle inequality is violated by Internet delays.  ...  We believe these findings serve as a first step towards building robust TIV-aware distributed systems.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1298306.1298331 dblp:conf/imc/WangZN07 fatcat:pxwwa73g5bek5e2oturw3aujfm

Towards a Two-Tier Internet Coordinate System to Mitigate the Impact of Triangle Inequality Violations [chapter]

Mohamed Ali Kaafar, Bamba Gueye, Francois Cantin, Guy Leduc, Laurent Mathy
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In network coordinate systems, such Triangle Inequality Violations (TIVs) will introduce inaccuracy, as nodes in this particular case could not be embedded into any metric space.  ...  Routing policies or path inflation can give rise to violations of the Triangle Inequality with respect to delay (RTTs) in the Internet.  ...  The triangle inequality is violated because d(A, B) + d(B, C) < d(A, C). Such violations make coordinates embedding of network distances less accurate.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79549-0_35 fatcat:tpyn6yeg75brzfbgdiiovfebzi

The Interdomain Connectivity of PlanetLab Nodes [chapter]

Suman Banerjee, Timothy G. Griffin, Marcelo Pias
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We note that about 85 percent of the hosts are located within what we call the Global Research and Educational Network (GREN) -an interconnected network of high speed research networks such as Internet2  ...  Thanks to Jose Augusto Suruagy Monteiro of UNIFACS, Sidney Lucena and Ari Frazao Jr. of RNP Brazil for helping us better understand the connectivity of the Brazilian research networks.  ...  There are many applications that can leverage such an Internet Coordinate System, e.g. topologically-aware construction of peer-to-peer systems [5] , network latency estimation tools [16] , and distributed  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24668-8_8 fatcat:ttus2tnsefc57dktvblodeaaby

On the treeness of internet latency and bandwidth

Venugopalan Ramasubramanian, Dahlia Malkhi, Fabian Kuhn, Mahesh Balakrishnan, Archit Gupta, Aditya Akella
2009 Proceedings of the eleventh international joint conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems - SIGMETRICS '09  
Triangle inequality violations It is crucial for Sequoia to be resilient to triangle inequality violations.  ...  , triangle inequality violations, and the need to scale.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1555349.1555357 dblp:conf/sigmetrics/RamasubramanianMKBGA09 fatcat:p76v7oe2lne6hngrby4uguawy4

A Self-Organized Clustering Scheme for Overlay Networks [chapter]

Francois Cantin, Bamba Gueye, Mohamed Ali Kaafar, Guy Leduc
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
of Triangle Inequality Violations (TIVs) on the distance predictions, and hence offer more accurate internet latency estimations.  ...  Hierarchical approaches, where nodes are clustered based on their network distances, have been shown to allow for robust and scalable topology-aware overlays.  ...  It is also important to note that in churn situations, ping and message rates would be moderate, and that considering a non-dynamic network in our simulations gives us a worst-case of the cost of the system  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92157-8_6 fatcat:hpenlmmz5vgafjduyjntbybtpq

A Survey on Network Coordinates Systems, Design, and Security

Benoit Donnet, Bamba Gueye, Mohamed Ali Kaafar
2010 IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials  
During the last decade, a new class of largescale globally-distributed network services and applications have emerged.  ...  To overcome this issue, Network Coordinates Systems (NCS) have been proposed.  ...  Content distribution systems would construct network-aware trees to minimize dissemination times [10] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/surv.2010.032810.00007 fatcat:3npinpryvnaxnpwdvajuwvippm

Misunderstanding geographical distances: two errors and an issue in the interpretation of violations of triangle inequality

Alain L'Hostis
2016 CyberGeo  
From this observation she deduced that “in time units, triangle inequality is violated”.  ...  This means that developing spaces that violate triangle inequality implies creating links between locations that are not minimum path; as an example of distance violating triangle inequality, Smith introduces  ... 
doi:10.4000/cybergeo.27810 fatcat:4bnqljuvmjf5fegcblakdi35s4

Detecting Triangle Inequality Violations for Internet Coordinate Systems

M. A. Kaafar, F. Cantin, B. Gueye, G. Leduc
2009 2009 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops  
Index Terms-Internet delay measurements, Internet Coordinate Systems, Performance, Triangle inequality violations.  ...  Actually Triangle Inequality Violations (TIVs) are frequent and are likely to remain a property of the Internet due to routing policies or path inflation.  ...  The triangle inequality is violated because d(A, C) + d(C, B) < d(A, B) end ABC is called a TIV (Triangle Inequality Violation).  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccw.2009.5207998 fatcat:jdxgxzfx25d6pkzqun2wua5ygy

Phoenix: Towards an Accurate, Practical and Decentralized Network Coordinate System [chapter]

Yang Chen, Xiao Wang, Xiaoxiao Song, Eng Keong Lua, Cong Shi, Xiaohan Zhao, Beixing Deng, Xing Li
2009 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Unfortunately, the accuracy of predicted distances is largely hurt by the persistent occurrence of Triangle Inequality Violation (TIV) in measured Internet distances.  ...  Network coordinate (NC) system allows efficient Internet distance prediction with scalable measurements. Most of the NC systems are based on embedding hosts into a low dimensional Euclidean space.  ...  Related Work Euclidean Distance Based Network Coordinates and Triangle Inequality Violation (TIV) Suppose there are N Internet hosts. Let S be the set of these N hosts.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-01399-7_25 fatcat:6fyotrmqvvep5o32cpjmctrdyq

Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

James Schneeloch, P. Ben Dixon, Gregory A. Howland, Curtis J. Broadbent, John C. Howell
2013 Physical Review Letters  
In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous variable (CV) systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details  ...  We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC).  ...  -Upon completion of this work, we became aware of similar results obtained without using steering inequalities [20] .  ... 
doi:10.1103/physrevlett.110.130407 pmid:23581303 fatcat:iixaqilw4nd65m7ub7fr7jxjgu

Modeling of Measurement-based Quantum Network Coding on IBM Q Experience Devices [article]

Poramet Pathumsoot, Takaaki Matsuo, Takahiko Satoh, Michal Hajdušek, Sujin Suwanna, Rodney Van Meter
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Quantum network coding has been proposed to improve resource utilization to support distributed computation but has not yet been put in to practice.  ...  We compare the performance of quantum network coding with entanglement swapping and entanglement distribution via linear cluster states.  ...  The two data points do not have sufficiently high fidelity to violate the CHSH inequality.  ... 
arXiv:1910.00815v2 fatcat:s645kbejxbeqvg6prs4atkqfay

PIC: practical Internet coordinates for distance estimation

M. Costa, M. Castro, R. Rowstron, P. Key
2004 24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 2004. Proceedings.  
Network distance estimation is important in many applications, for example, network-aware overlay construction and server selection.  ...  We present PIC's design, experimental evaluation, and an application to network-aware overlay construction and maintenance.  ...  An attacker that lies about its coordinates or its distance to the joining node is likely to violate triangle inequality.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdcs.2004.1281582 dblp:conf/icdcs/CostaCRK04 fatcat:pmz42n4ydnc3tcctp65dz3g7bi

Location verification on the Internet: Towards enforcing location-aware access policies over Internet clients

AbdelRahman M. Abdou, Ashraf Matrawy, Paul C. van Oorschot
2014 2014 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security  
Over the Internet, location-sensitive content/service providers are those that employ location-aware authentication or location-aware access policies in order to prevent fraud, comply with media streaming  ...  IP-address based geolocation is circumvented when the adversary's device employs a nonlocal IP address, which is easily achievable through third party proxy and Virtual Private Network providers.  ...  Finally, as shown in Algorithm 2, CPV holds the number of TIVs (Triangle Inequality Violations) against the client (the condition D i = NIL in line 7 means D i must not violate the triangle inequality  ... 
doi:10.1109/cns.2014.6997484 dblp:conf/cns/AbdouMO14 fatcat:rm7m557j7farzkwl6r4we7qdmq

Violating Consumer Anonymity: Geo-Locating Nodes in Named Data Networking [chapter]

Alberto Compagno, Mauro Conti, Paolo Gasti, Luigi Vincenzo Mancini, Gene Tsudik
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
It emphasizes efficient content distribution, achieved via in-network caching and collapsing of closely-spaced content requests.  ...  NDN also offers strong security and explicitly decouples content from entities that distribute it.  ...  In both cases, 8% of landmarks provided an incorrect distance, likely due to violation of triangle inequality.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28166-7_12 fatcat:smyjo2skfnathlyjm33utr5rj4

Vivaldi

Frank Dabek, Russ Cox, Frans Kaashoek, Robert Morris
2004 Proceedings of the 2004 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications - SIGCOMM '04  
Vivaldi is fully distributed, requiring no fixed network infrastructure and no distinguished hosts.  ...  An evaluation of Vivaldi using a simulated network whose latencies are based on measurements among 1740 Internet hosts shows that a 2-dimensional Euclidean model with height vectors embeds these hosts  ...  For = 5ms, we find that 4.5% of the triples in the King data set violate the triangle inequality. x i − x j + x k − x j > x i − x j + .  ... 
doi:10.1145/1015467.1015471 dblp:conf/sigcomm/DabekCKM04 fatcat:y4okbb5prfaavercvcs3jn5gam
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