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Towards network triangle inequality violation aware distributed systems

2007
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Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement - IMC '07
*

Many

doi:10.1145/1298306.1298331
dblp:conf/imc/WangZN07
fatcat:pxwwa73g5bek5e2oturw3aujfm
*distributed**systems*rely on neighbor selection mechanisms to create overlay structures that have good*network*performance. ... These neighbor selection mechanisms often assume the*triangle**inequality*holds for Internet delays. However, the reality is that the*triangle**inequality*is*violated*by Internet delays. ... We believe these findings serve as a first step*towards*building robust TIV-*aware**distributed**systems*. ...##
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Towards a Two-Tier Internet Coordinate System to Mitigate the Impact of Triangle Inequality Violations
[chapter]

2008
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

In

doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79549-0_35
fatcat:tpyn6yeg75brzfbgdiiovfebzi
*network*coordinate*systems*, such*Triangle**Inequality**Violations*(TIVs) will introduce inaccuracy, as nodes in this particular case could not be embedded into any metric space. ... Routing policies or path inflation can give rise to*violations*of the*Triangle**Inequality*with respect to delay (RTTs) in the Internet. ... The*triangle**inequality*is*violated*because d(A, B) + d(B, C) < d(A, C). Such*violations*make coordinates embedding of*network*distances less accurate. ...##
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The Interdomain Connectivity of PlanetLab Nodes
[chapter]

2004
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Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

We note that about 85 percent of the hosts are located within what we call the Global Research and Educational

doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24668-8_8
fatcat:ttus2tnsefc57dktvblodeaaby
*Network*(GREN) -an interconnected*network*of high speed research*networks*such as Internet2 ... Thanks to Jose Augusto Suruagy Monteiro of UNIFACS, Sidney Lucena and Ari Frazao Jr. of RNP Brazil for helping us better understand the connectivity of the Brazilian research*networks*. ... There are many applications that can leverage such an Internet Coordinate*System*, e.g. topologically-*aware*construction of peer-to-peer*systems*[5] ,*network*latency estimation tools [16] , and*distributed*...##
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On the treeness of internet latency and bandwidth

2009
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Proceedings of the eleventh international joint conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems - SIGMETRICS '09
*

*Triangle*

*inequality*

*violations*It is crucial for Sequoia to be resilient to

*triangle*

*inequality*

*violations*. ... ,

*triangle*

*inequality*

*violations*, and the need to scale. ...

##
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A Self-Organized Clustering Scheme for Overlay Networks
[chapter]

2008
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

of

doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92157-8_6
fatcat:hpenlmmz5vgafjduyjntbybtpq
*Triangle**Inequality**Violations*(TIVs) on the distance predictions, and hence offer more accurate internet latency estimations. ... Hierarchical approaches, where nodes are clustered based on their*network*distances, have been shown to allow for robust and scalable topology-*aware*overlays. ... It is also important to note that in churn situations, ping and message rates would be moderate, and that considering a non-dynamic*network*in our simulations gives us a worst-case of the cost of the*system*...##
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A Survey on Network Coordinates Systems, Design, and Security

2010
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IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
*

During the last decade, a new class of largescale globally-

doi:10.1109/surv.2010.032810.00007
fatcat:3npinpryvnaxnpwdvajuwvippm
*distributed**network*services and applications have emerged. ... To overcome this issue,*Network*Coordinates*Systems*(NCS) have been proposed. ... Content*distribution**systems*would construct*network*-*aware*trees to minimize dissemination times [10] . ...##
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Misunderstanding geographical distances: two errors and an issue in the interpretation of violations of triangle inequality

2016
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CyberGeo
*

From this observation she deduced that “in time units,

doi:10.4000/cybergeo.27810
fatcat:4bnqljuvmjf5fegcblakdi35s4
*triangle**inequality*is*violated*”. ... This means that developing spaces that*violate**triangle**inequality*implies creating links between locations that are not minimum path; as an example of distance*violating**triangle**inequality*, Smith introduces ...##
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Detecting Triangle Inequality Violations for Internet Coordinate Systems

2009
*
2009 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops
*

Index Terms-Internet delay measurements, Internet Coordinate

doi:10.1109/iccw.2009.5207998
fatcat:jdxgxzfx25d6pkzqun2wua5ygy
*Systems*, Performance,*Triangle**inequality**violations*. ... Actually*Triangle**Inequality**Violations*(TIVs) are frequent and are likely to remain a property of the Internet due to routing policies or path inflation. ... The*triangle**inequality*is*violated*because d(A, C) + d(C, B) < d(A, B) end ABC is called a TIV (*Triangle**Inequality**Violation*). ...##
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Phoenix: Towards an Accurate, Practical and Decentralized Network Coordinate System
[chapter]

2009
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

Unfortunately, the accuracy of predicted distances is largely hurt by the persistent occurrence of

doi:10.1007/978-3-642-01399-7_25
fatcat:6fyotrmqvvep5o32cpjmctrdyq
*Triangle**Inequality**Violation*(TIV) in measured Internet distances. ...*Network*coordinate (NC)*system*allows efficient Internet distance prediction with scalable measurements. Most of the NC*systems*are based on embedding hosts into a low dimensional Euclidean space. ... Related Work Euclidean Distance Based*Network*Coordinates and*Triangle**Inequality**Violation*(TIV) Suppose there are N Internet hosts. Let S be the set of these N hosts. ...##
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Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

2013
*
Physical Review Letters
*

In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering

doi:10.1103/physrevlett.110.130407
pmid:23581303
fatcat:iixaqilw4nd65m7ub7fr7jxjgu
*inequality*for continuous variable (CV)*systems*using only experimentally measured discrete probability*distributions*and details ... We use this*inequality*to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). ... -Upon completion of this work, we became*aware*of similar results obtained without using steering*inequalities*[20] . ...##
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Modeling of Measurement-based Quantum Network Coding on IBM Q Experience Devices
[article]

2019
*
arXiv
*
pre-print

Quantum

arXiv:1910.00815v2
fatcat:s645kbejxbeqvg6prs4atkqfay
*network*coding has been proposed to improve resource utilization to support*distributed*computation but has not yet been put in to practice. ... We compare the performance of quantum*network*coding with entanglement swapping and entanglement*distribution*via linear cluster states. ... The two data points do not have sufficiently high fidelity to*violate*the CHSH*inequality*. ...##
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PIC: practical Internet coordinates for distance estimation

2004
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24th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, 2004. Proceedings.
*

*Network*distance estimation is important in many applications, for example,

*network*-

*aware*overlay construction and server selection. ... We present PIC's design, experimental evaluation, and an application to

*network*-

*aware*overlay construction and maintenance. ... An attacker that lies about its coordinates or its distance to the joining node is likely to

*violate*

*triangle*

*inequality*. ...

##
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Location verification on the Internet: Towards enforcing location-aware access policies over Internet clients

2014
*
2014 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security
*

Over the Internet, location-sensitive content/service providers are those that employ location-

doi:10.1109/cns.2014.6997484
dblp:conf/cns/AbdouMO14
fatcat:rm7m557j7farzkwl6r4we7qdmq
*aware*authentication or location-*aware*access policies in order to prevent fraud, comply with media streaming ... IP-address based geolocation is circumvented when the adversary's device employs a nonlocal IP address, which is easily achievable through third party proxy and Virtual Private*Network*providers. ... Finally, as shown in Algorithm 2, CPV holds the number of TIVs (*Triangle**Inequality**Violations*) against the client (the condition D i = NIL in line 7 means D i must not*violate*the*triangle**inequality*...##
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Violating Consumer Anonymity: Geo-Locating Nodes in Named Data Networking
[chapter]

2015
*
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
*

It emphasizes efficient content

doi:10.1007/978-3-319-28166-7_12
fatcat:smyjo2skfnathlyjm33utr5rj4
*distribution*, achieved via in-*network*caching and collapsing of closely-spaced content requests. ... NDN also offers strong security and explicitly decouples content from entities that*distribute*it. ... In both cases, 8% of landmarks provided an incorrect distance, likely due to*violation*of*triangle**inequality*. ...
Vivaldi is fully

doi:10.1145/1015467.1015471
dblp:conf/sigcomm/DabekCKM04
fatcat:y4okbb5prfaavercvcs3jn5gam
*distributed*, requiring no fixed*network*infrastructure and no distinguished hosts. ... An evaluation of Vivaldi using a simulated*network*whose latencies are based on measurements among 1740 Internet hosts shows that a 2-dimensional Euclidean model with height vectors embeds these hosts ... For = 5ms, we find that 4.5% of the triples in the King data set*violate*the*triangle**inequality*. x i − x j + x k − x j > x i − x j + . ...
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