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Origins of Answer-Set Programming - Some Background And Two Personal Accounts [article]

Victor W. Marek, Ilkka Niemela, Miroslaw Truszczynski
2011 arXiv   pre-print
We discuss the evolution of aspects of nonmonotonic reasoning towards the computational paradigm of answer-set programming (ASP).  ...  We give a general overview of the roots of ASP and follow up with the personal perspective on research developments that helped verbalize the main principles of ASP and differentiated it from the classical  ...  Acknowledgments The work of the second author was partially supported by the Academy of Finland (project 122399). The work of the third author was partially supported by the NSF grant IIS-0913459.  ... 
arXiv:1108.3281v1 fatcat:kioh3cangrchbnkk5heilbhloi

Prospects for Preferences

Jon Doyle
2004 Computational intelligence  
We seek to understand the nature and representation of preferences by examining the roles, origins, meaning, structure, evolution, and application of preferences.  ...  broader interplay between reasoning and rationality considered in philosophy, psychology, and artificial intelligence.  ...  Reasoning toward preferences thus can resemble reasoning toward belief.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.0824-7935.2004.00233.x fatcat:rpempubyrnbqbbhewwf2nfwb6i

Why the Creative Process is Not Darwinian [article]

Liane Gabora
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Simonton (2006) makes the unwarranted assumption that nonmonotonicity supports a Darwinian view of creativity.  ...  To describe a process of cumulative change in which acquired traits are retained is outside of the scope of the theory of natural selection.  ...  Progress toward the final outcome can thus be described as a sequence of nonmonotonic variants.  ... 
arXiv:1310.1668v2 fatcat:27btew7mo5ekzc3h7rwgjcfyn4

Effects of the resonant modes on the magnetic footprint patterns in a tokamak wall

Elton C. da Silva, Marisa Roberto, Iberê L. Caldas, Ricardo L. Viana
2006 Physics of Plasmas  
The formation of magnetic footprints using a nontwist symplectic mapping for a nonmonotonic safety factor radial profile is investigated numerically.  ...  Magnetic footprints, or deposition patterns of chaotic magnetic field lines in a tokamak wall, are studied for a configuration with resonant modes due to an ergodic limiter.  ...  To understand the reason for this behavior one has to take into account that the number and the width of the intervals at which a chaotic region intercepts the tokamak wall depends on two basic factors  ... 
doi:10.1063/1.2186047 fatcat:qyo4qu7gorgvnbedkkjnmehiim

Too Much of a Good Thing

Adam M. Grant, Barry Schwartz
2011 Perspectives on Psychological Science  
We conclude that for psychology in general and positive psychology in particular, Aristotle's idea of the mean may serve as a useful guide for developing both a descriptive and a prescriptive account of  ...  In stark contrast to this assertion that virtues have costs at high levels, a wealth of psychological research has focused on demonstrating the well-being and performance benefits of positive traits, states  ...  Declaration of Conflicting Interests The authors declared that they had no conflicts of interest with respect to their authorship or the publication of this article.  ... 
doi:10.1177/1745691610393523 pmid:26162116 fatcat:v5622u6iardevh626ygi7r7qbm

Impediments to universal preference-based default theories

Jon Doyle, Michael P. Wellman
1991 Artificial Intelligence  
logic of nonmonotonic reasoning.  ...  Though researchers have noted some cases of apparent con ict between the preferences supported by di erent theories, it has been hoped that these special theories of reasoning may b e combined into a universal  ...  The comments of the anonymous referees helped identify some minor errors and suggested clari cations of several issues.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0004-3702(91)90007-7 fatcat:ibxm3mwea5ejzckrelw2mj356e

Reasoning from inconsistency: a field exploration

Kristien Dieussaert, Walter Schaeken
2005 Psychologica Belgica  
With his pleasurable character and bright mind he could easily stimulate people to start and to keep working in the domain of the psychology of reasoning.  ...  We hope to show in this issue a sample of the diversity of research related to reasoning to consistency, the topic of Paolo Legrenzi's most recent research and a topic that has drawn the attention of researchers  ...  The crossfertilization between logic and psychology, also present in the other papers of this issue, leads towards a better understanding of common sense reasoning, i.e., reasoning in a complex world,  ... 
doi:10.5334/pb-45-1-1 fatcat:q54u7olgmje6zmknuqqnwt3szq

Forthcoming Papers

2005 Artificial Intelligence  
Using a penalty formulation of a MINLP where the constraint functions of the MINLP are transformed into non-negative functions, we present a necessary and sufficient extended saddle-point condition (ESPC  ...  When the penalties are larger than some thresholds, our theory shows a one-to-one correspondence between a constrained local minimum of the MINLP and an extended saddle point of the penalty function.  ...  reasoning with RCC8.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.artint.2005.10.015 fatcat:7sswomco75efrm4xo3e573t7xi

Whose morality? Which rationality? Challenging artificial intelligence as a remedy for the lack of moral enhancement

Silviya Serafimova
2020 Humanities and Social Sciences Communications  
Those are Powers' prospect for a Kantian machine, Anderson and Anderson's reinterpretation of act utilitarianism and Howard and Muntean's prospect for a moral machine based on a virtue ethical approach  ...  Moral implications of the decision-making process based on algorithms require special attention within the field of machine ethics.  ...  The risk of intermingling computational errors with moral mistakes has a deeper origin.  ... 
doi:10.1057/s41599-020-00614-8 fatcat:wdkij2ttjzfczfkrd3y5hr5vwm

Mechanics and Mental Change [chapter]

Jon Doyle
2013 Evolution of Semantic Systems  
This paper examines some theories of mental change with an eye to assessing their adequacy for characterizing realistic limits on change and uses a simple kind of reasoning system from artificial intelligence  ...  do not deter action, and learning takes time and slows with time.  ...  With such interpretations, one can use sets of reasons as a fairly general way of describing the origins of degrees of difficulty of change [7] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34997-3_7 fatcat:crb5qz3ogfcvjlaq7bkherod64

Reasoning dynamically about what one says

Nicholas Asher, Alex Lascarides
2011 Synthese  
We extend PAL with a particular variety of default reasoning suited to reasoning about discourse-this default reasoning being an essential component of inferring the pragmatic effects of one's dialogue  ...  This allows us to model a dialogue agent's understanding of what the update of the semantic representation of the dialogue would be after his next contribution, including the effects of the rhetorical  ...  Asher and Lascarides [2008] , Asher et al. [2010] provide the first steps towards this major task, but further progress requires a deeper understanding of human decision making in a wide variety of cooperative  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11229-011-0016-4 fatcat:opgoxg5kibhwne43zdfl43warm

Minimizers of the Empirical Risk and Risk Monotonicity [article]

Marco Loog, Tom Viering, Alexander Mey
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Studying such curves on one or more data sets is a way to get to a better understanding of the generalization properties of this learner.  ...  Plotting a learner's average performance against the number of training samples results in a learning curve.  ...  Degrees of Monotonicity The basic definition is the following.  ... 
arXiv:1907.05476v4 fatcat:4arzn5ntfjadhmkbbpkkuxridu

What Do Bargainers' Preferences Look Like? Experiments with a Convex Ultimatum Game

James Andreoni, Marco Castillo, Ragan Petrie
2003 The American Economic Review  
We explore a game that convexifies the decisions, allowing us a better look at the indifference curves of bargainers while maintaining the subgame-perfect equilibrium.  ...  Money-maximization is the sole concern for about half of the subjects, while the other half reveal a preference for fairness.  ...  Conclusion Our goal has been to reach a deeper understanding of bargainers' preferences.  ... 
doi:10.1257/000282803322157034 fatcat:adlecwmhunabtcrdyswt5ehwxa

Précis of Bayesian Rationality: The Probabilistic Approach to Human Reasoning

Mike Oaksford, Nick Chater
2009 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
from a probabilistic point of view.  ...  connections that hold with certainty between propositions.  ...  a deeper understanding of discovery.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x09000284 pmid:19210833 fatcat:oi3zstx57jgcrf3ma5bcnhrj64

Popper's Severity of Test as an intuitive probabilistic model of hypothesis testing

Fenna H. Poletiek
2009 Behavioral and Brain Sciences  
from a probabilistic point of view.  ...  connections that hold with certainty between propositions.  ...  a deeper understanding of discovery.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0140525x09000454 fatcat:qe5blgi54jct3jaap7p3wgc5cy
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