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Towards a Common WCET Annotation Language: Essential Ingredients

Raimund Kirner, Albrecht Kadlec, Adrian Prantl, Markus Schordan, Jens Knoop, Marc Herbstritt
2008
In this paper we present a list of essential ingredients for a common WCET annotation language.  ...  The Annotation Language Challenge for WCET analysis has been proposed in line with these ambitions in order to push the development of common interfaces also to the level of annotation languages, which  ...  Ingredients of the WCET Annotation Language In the following we describe essential ingredients for a WCET annotation language.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2008.1657 fatcat:3zicgkc33vgr7kh7ock3qwcstu

Beyond loop bounds: comparing annotation languages for worst-case execution time analysis

Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Adrian Prantl, Markus Schordan, Albrecht Kadlec
2010 Journal of Software and Systems Modeling  
Worst-case execution time (WCET) analysis is concerned with computing a precise-as-possible bound for the maximum time the execution of a program can take.  ...  Starting with the initial works of Chen, Mok, Puschner, Shaw, and others in the mid and late 1980s, WCET analysis turned into a well-established and vibrant field of research and development in academia  ...  Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments of the anonymous referees and the feedback of the participants of the WCET'07 workshop.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10270-010-0161-0 fatcat:gzexuwk7l5hv7n7g3psastxvla

Giotto: A Time-Triggered Language for Embedded Programming [chapter]

Thomas A. Henzinger, Benjamin Horowitz, Christoph Meyer Kirsch
2001 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The annotations are directives for the Giotto compiler, but they do not alter the functionality and timing of a Giotto program.  ...  Giotto can be annotated with platform constraints such as task-to-host mappings, and task and communication schedules.  ...  We thank Edward Lee and Xiaojun Liu for help with implementing Giotto as a "model of computation" in Ptolemy II [DGH + 99].  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45449-7_12 fatcat:rswb25psifffbpg4hznstfn5ea

Giotto: a time-triggered language for embedded programming

T.A. Henzinger, B. Horowitz, C.M. Kirsch
2003 Proceedings of the IEEE  
The annotations are directives for the Giotto compiler, but they do not alter the functionality and timing of a Giotto program.  ...  Giotto can be annotated with platform constraints such as task-to-host mappings, and task and communication schedules.  ...  We thank Edward Lee and Xiaojun Liu for help with implementing Giotto as a "model of computation" in Ptolemy II [DGH + 99].  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2002.805825 fatcat:mcoexrypsngvvcku6y24d6oqr4

Towards a verified transformation from AADL to the formal component-based language FIACRE

Jean-Paul Bodeveix, Mamoun Filali, Manuel Garnacho, Régis Spadotti, Zhibin Yang
2015 Science of Computer Programming  
Then, we investigate how to prove the correctness of the transformation from AADL into Fiacre and present related elementary ingredients: the semantics of aadl and Fiacre subsets expressed in a common  ...  Then, we investigate how to prove the correctness of the toolchain and present related elementary ingredients: the semantics of aadl and Fiacre subsets expressed in a common framework, namely timed transition  ...  Its input is an aadl model annotated with dependability-related information (through the aadl error model annex), and its output is a dependability evaluation model in the form of a Generalized Stochastic  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.scico.2015.03.003 fatcat:ryab3bfujjdbhpg4zya36rv33e

Automating sized-type inference for complexity analysis

Martin Avanzini, Ugo Dal Lago
2017 Proceedings of the ACM on Programming Languages  
This paper introduces a new methodology for the complexity analysis of higher-order functional programs, which is based on three ingredients: a powerful type system for size analysis and a sound type inference  ...  This style of results is quite common in similar kinds of type systems.  ...  First-and Second-order Constraint Problems As a first step towards inference, we introduce metavariables to our index language.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3110287 dblp:journals/pacmpl/AvanziniL17 fatcat:mm4f3mt7obbevi2dbzn3syr2jy

Components, platforms and possibilities

Ethan K. Jackson, Eunsuk Kang, Markus Dahlweid, Dirk Seifert, Thomas Santen
2010 Proceedings of the tenth ACM international conference on Embedded software - EMSOFT '10  
In this paper we describe the formula framework as a novel approach towards general automation for MDA.  ...  Model-driven architecture (MDA) is a model-based approach for engineering complex software systems.  ...  Essentially, the components execute at different rates, so the least common multiple (lcm) of module periods must be used to compare modules.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1879021.1879027 dblp:conf/emsoft/JacksonKDSS10 fatcat:v2ad4i45srbjlmvldpkc6zvrv4

Optimization [chapter]

Peter Marwedel
2021 Embedded Systems  
Only a small subset of those can be mentioned in this book. In this chapter, we will present a selected set of such optimizations.  ...  Toward this end, the source code typically has to be annotated.  ...  Energy models are very essential ingredients of all energy optimizations. Energy models were presented in Chap. 5.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-60910-8_7 fatcat:igk27foxkzbxzp2tzp2gf4xcb4

From Control Loops to Real-Time Programs [chapter]

Paul Caspi, Oded Maler
2005 Handbook of Networked and Embedded Control Systems  
From a mathematical standpoint, this architecture posed no conceptual problems. The underlying model of the plant and of the analog computer were of the same nature.  ...  The former was a continuous dynamical system with evolution defined by the differential equations of the corresponding physical theory (mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.), and the latter consisted of an  ...  common divisor and the least common multiple of the task periods.  ... 
doi:10.1007/0-8176-4404-0_17 fatcat:h4zfp3rnrfgcdjnzyqpllatrfa

Model-based run-time monitoring of end-to-end deadlines

Jaswinder Ahluwalia, Ingolf H. Krüger, Walter Phillips, Michael Meisinger
2005 Proceedings of the 5th ACM international conference on Embedded software - EMSOFT '05  
The correct interplay among components in a distributed, reactive system is a crucial development task, particularly for embedded systems such as those in the automotive domain.  ...  Model-based development is a promising means for capturing key structural and behavioral requirements before implementing code.  ...  The common library contains project-specific code, declarations, utilities and data structures that are common to all components of a project.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1086228.1086248 dblp:conf/emsoft/AhluwaliaKPM05 fatcat:ujr4z6e6prcetp7ldk5sfqv4p4

Efficient Analysis and Synthesis of Complex Quantitative Systems [article]

Peter Gjøl Jensen
2018 PhD series, Technical Faculty of IT and Design, ˜Aalborg=ålborgœ University  
Common for many of the application areas is the criticality of timing; airbags, pacemakers and traffic-lights have timing constraints that should never be violated.  ...  We show that integration between Uppaal and a plethora of other tools is possible via the Function Mockup Interface standard and demonstrate that Uppaal can be used as the driving tool for a so-called  ...  In the first stage we compute an annotated program (e.g., a CFG and the set of variables needed to generate the annotated language L a H (P)) by using pre-analysis.)  ... 
doi:10.5278/vbn.phd.tech.00043 fatcat:fq4x5hnl5rgdzdtolcimzbonxm

Improving interrupt response time in a verifiable protected microkernel

Bernard Blackham, Yao Shi, Gernot Heiser
2012 Proceedings of the 7th ACM european conference on Computer Systems - EuroSys '12  
One drawback of this approach is that it is difficult to reason about or formally model the kernel's behavior for verification, especially when written in a low-level language such as C.  ...  By combining short predictable interrupt latencies with formal verification, a design such as seL4's creates a compelling platform for building mixed-criticality real-time systems.  ...  WCET for each kernel entry-point in seL4, before and after our changes to reduce WCET. Computed results are a safe upper bound on execution time.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2168836.2168869 dblp:conf/eurosys/BlackhamSH12 fatcat:y4cvpfafljhi3m6id4vermmi5q

WCET 2008 -- Report from the Tool Challenge 2008 -- 8th Intl. Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) Analysis

Niklas Holsti, Jan Gustafsson, Guillem Bernat, Clément Ballabriga, Armelle Bonenfant, Roman Bourgade, Hugues Cassé, Daniel Cordes, Albrecht Kadlec, Raimund Kirner, Jens Knoop, Paul Lokuciejewski (+8 others)
2008
The WCET Tool Challenge 2008 (WCC'08) provides benchmark programs and poses a number of "analysis problems" about the dynamic, runtime properties of these programs.  ...  Most participants found WCC'08 to be a useful test of their tools.  ...  Such a language has been demanded by our WCET'07 contribution on the "WCET Annotation Language Challenge" [20, 38] , and a proposal on essential ingredients of such a language was contributed to the WCET  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2008.1663 fatcat:4w2yb7g7yrbdjjhgdlctiacipe

OASIcs, Volume 8, WCET'08, Complete Volume [article]

Raimund Kirner
2012
OASIcs, Volume 8, WCET'08, Complete Volume  ...  In this paper we present a list of essential ingredients for a common WCET annotation language.  ...  Ingredients of the WCET Annotation Language In the following we describe essential ingredients for a WCET annotation language.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2008 fatcat:gohrtwqyzbfwdckw3fryeikrge

OASIcs, Volume 63, WCET'18, Complete Volume [article]

Florian Brandner
2018
OASIcs, Volume 63, WCET'18, Complete Volume  ...  For example, the key ingredient towards the construction of a convenient architecture model -point (1) is to enable nondeterministic choices as a standard method to compactly encode system behaviors.  ...  In addition, a WCET-annotated version can be created when the corresponding WCET results are provided. This presents the functionality to generate annotated features for training sets.  ... 
doi:10.4230/oasics.wcet.2018 fatcat:i5xqd4wxijaqzhniiulyp64nju
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