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Towards Safer Smart Contracts: A Sequence Learning Approach to Detecting Security Threats [article]

Wesley Joon-Wie Tann, Xing Jie Han, Sourav Sen Gupta, Yew-Soon Ong
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We propose the approach of sequential learning of smart contract weaknesses using machine learning—long-short term memory (LSTM)—that allows us to be able to detect new attack trends relatively quickly  ...  , leading to safer smart contracts.  ...  CONCLUSION We have presented a scientific work-based on machine learning towards safer smart contracts-that is able to effectively comb through a large number of contracts for security threats.  ... 
arXiv:1811.06632v3 fatcat:4zs2m5uprvcsbmjbvyn7f3bbx4

AN EXPLORATIVE PAPER ON SPECULATIVE APPROACHES TO SMART CONTRACTS

Sanel Halilbegovic, Necip Ertem
2020 Prague Economic Papers  
This approach probes the feasibility of introducing smart contracts to everyday financial transactions and settlements.  ...  This research puts forth an argumentative approach to the applicability of blockchain technology and specifically studies the prospect of utilizing smart contracts.  ...  Towards Safer Smart Contracts: A Sequence Learning Approach to Detecting Vulnerabilities (Tann et al., 2018) Solution proposal Web archive Proposition of a sequential learning method, which involves  ... 
doi:10.18267/j.pep.742 fatcat:3vnitvst4bgstgz5e4hqm62d5q

A Survey of Smart Contract Formal Specification and Verification [article]

Palina Tolmach, Yi Li, Shang-Wei Lin, Yang Liu, Zengxiang Li
2021 arXiv   pre-print
A smart contract is a computer program which allows users to automate their actions on the blockchain platform.  ...  In this survey, we investigate formal models and specifications of smart contracts presented in the literature and present a systematic overview in order to understand the common trends.  ...  The adoption of formally verified libraries is another step towards safer smart contract development.  ... 
arXiv:2008.02712v3 fatcat:ltkckg4eivdhtppaebnlis3tci

A Survey on Security Verification of Blockchain Smart Contracts

Jing Liu, Zhentian Liu
2019 IEEE Access  
method to validate whether a smart contract is credible and accurate.  ...  So, we further present representative studies of formal verification of smart contracts in detail to demonstrate that using a formal method to validate blockchain smart contracts must have a promising  ...  Simultaneously they suggested that using the OYENTE tool to detect smart contracts was a perfect solution. 2) SECURE DATA SOURCE Smart contracts usually need to interact with external data sources, but  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2921624 fatcat:zueabcowrjhhfefk3khj5by2hu

Understanding Risk Assessment in the Context of Fractional Ownership using Ethereum Smart Contract

Mohamed Laarabi, Abdelilah Maach
2020 Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems  
Ethereum smart contract system has seen a steady adoption as it continues to support tens of thousands of contracts.  ...  This feature has evolved to give a practical shape to the ideas leading up to fractional ownership transfer, using advanced smart contracts such as ERC-981.  ...  research aiming to provide a safer template to transfer non fungible assets using smart contracts.  ... 
doi:10.25046/aj0505126 fatcat:55ry7j4civabxhx4rr6t6lv4vy

Pace of dental contract reform could accelerate

Adrian O'Dowd
2019 British Dental Journal  
work on smart home technology including detecting falls and sending alerts to family members. 68 © Crown copyright 2018 Published to GOV.UK in pdf format only.  ...  reduce emissions. • There needs to be a fresh approach to national and local controls.  ... 
doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2019.19 fatcat:xvqmfnstnrgn7nfiloqacbcpra

IEEE Access Special Section Editorial: Artificial Intelligence (AI)-Empowered Intelligent Transportation Systems

Edith Ngai, Chao Chen, Amr M. Tolba, Mohammad S. Obaidat, Fanzhao Wang
2021 IEEE Access  
Researchers around the world have been working on new automotive applications to create a comfortable and safer driving environment.  ...  In the article "nLSALog: An anomaly detection framework for log sequence in security management," by Yang et al., a general anomaly detection framework is proposed.  ...  He was a recipient of the Best Paper Runner-Up Award at MobiQuitous 2011.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3074996 fatcat:dfyrghfswff6vmdlpa55jxtkjm

A Survey on Recent Advanced Research of CPS Security

Zhenhua Wang, Wei Xie, Baosheng Wang, Jing Tao, Enze Wang
2021 Applied Sciences  
Finally, we also perform a statistical analysis in terms of paper publication times, author institutes, countries, and sponsors to show the current worldwide CPS security research situation.  ...  , smart transportation, smart homes, and general grids); and (3) MADC (Measure, Attack, Defense, and Control) types.  ...  [69] proposed an initial approach to coordinate the usage of CPS elements from UML statecharts with generating smart contracts.  ... 
doi:10.3390/app11093751 fatcat:fxby2wjzpnchrfshvilxalmptm

PLIERS: A Process that Integrates User-Centered Methods into Programming Language Design [article]

Michael Coblenz, Gauri Kambhatla, Paulette Koronkevich, Jenna L. Wise, Celeste Barnaby, Joshua Sunshine, Jonathan Aldrich, Brad A. Myers
2020 arXiv   pre-print
However, existing HCI methods can be impractical to apply to programming languages: they have high iteration costs, programmers require significant learning time, and user performance has high variance  ...  We integrated these methods into a new process, PLIERS, for designing programming languages in a user-centered way. We evaluated PLIERS by using it to design two new programming languages.  ...  More generally, the authors of Solidity [36] , a commonly-used smart contract language, observed that many contracts implement state machines [35] .  ... 
arXiv:1912.04719v4 fatcat:hyuhqikplbgcln5awlrsamptwm

Blockchain and Autonomous Vehicles: Recent Advances and Future Directions

Saurabh Jain, Neelu Jyothi Ahuja, P. Srikanth, Kishor V. Bhadane, Bharathram Nagaiah, Adarsh Kumar, Charalambos Konstantinou
2021 IEEE Access  
Smart contracts represent an entirely new approach to contracts.  ...  Blockchain can be used to track drone maintenance and defects. When a flaw is detected, a smart contract will need to be signed using a technician's private key before it can continue flying.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3113649 fatcat:js3fseq3d5g7zbjkaop2tl3t7m

CAVs Cybersecurity threats digest and analysis

S. Steinhorst, J. Lauinger, N.A. Nijdam, A. Collen, A. Zacharaki, M. Aslam
2019 Zenodo  
research relating to the particular topic of cybersecurity in CAVs, autonomous vehicles, and smart-city infrastructures.Moreover, the limitations of state-of-the-art cybersecurity systems and the constantly  ...  Within the first task a systematic analysis of the cybersecurity landscape will be performed with a focus on digital security of CAVs.  ...  smart contracts.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4728214 fatcat:fonojcfo6fdzbnc7oz6w66zoh4

Guest Editorial Special Issue on Intent-Based Networking for 5G-Envisioned Internet of Connected Vehicles

Sahil Garg, Mohsen Guizani, Ying-Chang Liang, Fabrizio Granelli, Neeli Prasad, Ranga Rao Venkatesha Prasad
2021 IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print)  
By offering a wide variety of infotainment services, fleet operations, and invehicle applications, IoCV has gained the tremendous capacity to provide a safer and sustainable transportation system to the  ...  However, as we are moving towards the 5G communication era, the data generated by connected vehicles are expected to grow exponentially; which in turn brings significant challenges to 5G.  ...  The article "Towards federated learning in UAV-enabled Internet of Vehicles: A multi-dimensional contract-matching approach," by Lim et al., proposes the adoption of a Federated Learning (FL) based approach  ... 
doi:10.1109/tits.2021.3101259 fatcat:gwasd62i7jdkfn4vjkvtenqejm

A survey on blockchain‐enabled smart grids: Advances, applications and challenges

Chao Liu, Xiaoshuai Zhang, Kok Koeng Chai, Jonathan Loo, Yue Chen
2021 IET Smart Cities  
Furthermore, the security threat issues in smart grids, Ethereum Virtual Machine (i.e. the operating environment of consensus mechanisms), and smart contracts are analysed, with a brief conclusion to manifest  ...  Here, the aim is to provide a multi-dimensional review on the technological advances of the blockchain in smart grids.  ...  Leaking and suicidal A smart contract is considered to have a leak vulnerability if it leaks ether to attackers.  ... 
doi:10.1049/smc2.12010 fatcat:dhoeqf3kfraz5lpby4bclkyqpq

Common Factors in Effective HIV Prevention Programs

Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, Dallas Swendeman, Diane Flannery, Eric Rice, David M. Adamson, Barbara Ingram
2008 Aids and Behavior  
To stimulate discussion among prevention researchers, we propose a set of common factors at the highest level of abstraction that describe what all effective programs do: (1) establish a framework to understand  ...  implementing health behaviors; and (5) provide tools to develop ongoing social and community support for healthy actions.  ...  First, it moves the focus away from particular theoretical models of behavior change and EBI activity sequences toward a focus on effective practices.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10461-008-9464-3 pmid:18830813 pmcid:PMC2819809 fatcat:d6t5nb2kejfahaafpz3fvxzbvm

Artificial Intelligence-Driven Digital Technologies to the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals: A Perspective from Brazil and Portugal

Angélica Pigola, Priscila Rezende da Costa, Luísa Cagica Carvalho, Luciano Ferreira da Silva, Cláudia Terezinha Kniess, Emerson Antonio Maccari
2021 Sustainability  
At the end, a closing discussion is provided about the key guidelines and prospects that could be adopted to keep a strong and positive shift of AI-Driven DT developments and applications towards fully  ...  for potential technologies that could receive more attention and investments in both regions to make emergent digital technologies succeed, with a particular emphasis on cleaner production.  ...  In a sequence, we present a panorama of Brazil and Portugal and their efforts to achieve SDGs.  ... 
doi:10.3390/su132413669 fatcat:oqaaxnebjze47m5rcrbopk4g3m
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