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Towards Practical Defeasible Reasoning for Description Logics

Giovanni Casini, Thomas Meyer, Kody Moodley, Ivan Varzinczak
unpublished
The formalisation of defeasible reasoning in automated systems is becoming increasingly important. Description Logics (DLs) are nowadays the main logical formalism in the field of formal ontologies.  ...  Our focus in this paper is to devise a practical implementation for prior work that formalises a version of Rational Closure (an important type of defeasible reasoning) for DLs.  ...  LoDEN stands for Low complexity Description Logics with Non-monotonic features.  ... 
fatcat:bvaxab6qgvhrve6frucm77jue4

A Normative Argument Against Explosion

Mark Pinder
2017 Thought: A Journal of Philosophy  
One strategy for defending paraconsistent logics involves raising 'normative arguments' against the inference rule explosion.  ...  I argue that, for one such formulation, Steinberger's criticisms fail. I then sketch an argument, available to those who deny dialetheism, in defence of the formulation in question.  ...  Then, it seems to straightforwardly follow from our description that Sandy has no reason whatsoever to believe R: her beliefs do not tell for or against R, and she has no other practical, epistemic or  ... 
doi:10.1002/tht3.234 fatcat:n26qfnlnpngo7g3ms2wbdh6f2y

The RatioLog Project: Rational Extensions of Logical Reasoning

Ulrich Furbach, Claudia Schon, Frieder Stolzenburg, Karl-Heinz Weis, Claus-Peter Wirth
2015 Künstliche Intelligenz  
In this context, we work toward the application of techniques from human reasoning: We employ defeasible reasoning to compare the answers w.r.t. specificity, deontic logic, normative reasoning, and model  ...  Higher-level cognition includes logical reasoning and the ability of question answering with common sense.  ...  These normative statements enable the system to reason in a rational way. Since deontic logic can be translated into description logics, Hyper can be used to reason on such knowledge bases.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s13218-015-0377-9 fatcat:w6mqqrmhmnerzjircnw4ktodwa

Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning [chapter]

Giovanni Sartor
1995 Law and Philosophy Library  
Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning.  ...  I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment.  ...  Various logical approaches have been devised for modelling defeasible reasoning-default logic, autoepistemic logic, circumscription, preferential logics, metalogics-and they can be shown to converge towards  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-015-8531-6_4 fatcat:f7c6fo6li5hr5a6iksmbgnplua

Semantic Knowledge Transformation for Context-aware Heterogeneous Formalisms

Hafiz Mahfooz Ul Haque, Sajid Ullah, Ibrar Hussain
2019 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
This paper presents the semantic knowledge transformation techniques for ontology-driven context-aware formalisms to model heterogeneous systems.  ...  We propose theoretical as well as practical approaches to transform semantic knowledge into firstorder Horn-clause rules format which can be used by contextaware multi-agent systems to achieve their desired  ...  Contextual defeasible reasoning has been emerged from defeasible logic and multicontext system.  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2019.0101285 fatcat:qfjemwjrg5deflvc7jvghr3vca

Rule-based approaches for energy savings in an ambient intelligence environment

Thanos G. Stavropoulos, Efstratios Kontopoulos, Nick Bassiliades, John Argyriou, Antonis Bikakis, Dimitris Vrakas, Ioannis Vlahavas
2015 Pervasive and Mobile Computing  
Section 3 presents the basic principles of defeasible logics, its main characteristics, its syntax and operational semantics as well as the motivation for applying defeasible reasoning in AmI and Smart  ...  The second approach is, instead, based on a deliberative agent that incorporates a defeasible logic reasoner, greatly enhancing the expressiveness of the committed rule set.  ...  Defeasible Logics This section describes the basic characteristics of defeasible logic, its syntax and operational semantics as well as the underlying motivation for applying defeasible reasoning in the  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.pmcj.2014.05.001 fatcat:gqvmzpnzvjhxdca62bmjfn4xuq

Towards AI Logic for Social Reasoning [article]

Huimin Dong, Réka Markovich, Leendert van der Torre
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The discussion of the four challenges leads to a research program for argumentation-based social AI logic, contributing towards the future development of AI logic.  ...  Fourth, we discuss how to argue about the freedom to act for intelligent agents. Examples from social, legal and ethical reasoning highlight the challenges in developing social AI logic.  ...  Fragments of first-order logic have been developed in much detail, in particular description logics to represent and reason about ontologies. 2.  ... 
arXiv:2110.04452v1 fatcat:2qnco6ytwve4rao2hrfsdcsiju

A review of current defeasible reasoning implementations

Daniel Bryant, Paul Krause
2008 Knowledge engineering review (Print)  
This article surveys existing practical implementations of both defeasible and argumentationbased reasoning engines and associated literature.  ...  An important goal of this paper is to argue for the need for well designed empirical evaluations, as well as formal complexity analysis, in order to justify the practical applicability of a reasoning engine  ...  Much like defeasible logic, a plausible reasoning situation is defined by a plausible description, which consists of a set of facts, plausible rules and defeasible rules.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0269888908001318 fatcat:wnrfzrfocnfa3dk5luuvdwsjcy

EMERALD: A Multi-Agent System for Knowledge-Based Reasoning Interoperability in the Semantic Web [chapter]

Kalliopi Kravari, Efstratios Kontopoulos, Nick Bassiliades
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
One of the main problems in agent interoperation is the great variety in reasoning formalisms, as agents do not necessarily share a common rule or logic formalism.  ...  More specifically, a multi-agent system was developed on top of JADE, featuring trusted, third party reasoning services, a reusable agent prototype for knowledge-customizable agent behavior, as well as  ...  In practice, the SW serves as the framework infrastructure. Reasoning Services EMERALD integrates a number of reasoning engines that use various logics.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12842-4_21 fatcat:wsyqt56jyba7zecmqeb5p344q4

Visual Stratification of Defeasible Logic Rule Bases

Efstratios Kontopoulos, Nick Bassiliades, Grigoris Antoniou
2007 19th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence(ICTAI 2007)  
Defeasible reasoning is a useful tool towards the development of the Logic layer of the Semantic Web architecture.  ...  This paper presents a stratification algorithm for visualizing defeasible logic rule bases that query and reason about RDF data as well as a tool that applies this algorithm.  ...  connection types for each rule type in defeasible logic and for superiority relationships.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ictai.2007.39 dblp:conf/ictai/KontopoulosBA07 fatcat:yasdyjcfffdtnisfpllhgjrup4

Towards Defeasible Mappings for Tractable Description Logics [chapter]

Kunal Sengupta, Pascal Hitzler
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We provide the formal semantics for the defeasible mappings and show that reasoning under such a setting is decidable even when the defeasible axioms apply to unknowns.  ...  Furthermore, we show that this semantics actually is strongly related to the idea of answer sets for logic programs.  ...  : GeoLink-Leveraging Semantics and Linked Data for Data Sharing and Discovery in the Geosciences."  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25007-6_14 fatcat:j6rmhqfifbbgbio46ld4vpyvja

The "Logic" of Informal Logic [chapter]

J. Anthony Blair
2011 Argumentation Library  
Are there any logical norms for argument evaluation besides soundness and inductive strength?  ...  The paper will look at several concepts or models introduced over the years, including those of Wisdom, Toulmin, Wellman, Rescher, defeasible reasoning proponents and Walton to consider whether there is  ...  Rescher and the most defeasible reasoning theorists, in contrast, do think there can be a logic (or logics) of defeasible reasoning, and various such logics have been proposed (default logic, non-monotonic  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2363-4_9 fatcat:h2n2nost2jevdakn4rk4i4wbku

Introducing Defeasibility into OWL Ontologies [chapter]

Giovanni Casini, Thomas Meyer, Kody Moodley, Uli Sattler, Ivan Varzinczak
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
for evaluating our reasoner DIP (Defeasible-Inference Platform).  ...  The price one pays for such capabilities, in terms of practical performance, is an important factor that is yet to be quantified comprehensively.  ...  We then give a concise description of RC for this logic and sketch the algorithms for computing the construction.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-25010-6_27 fatcat:5ts7zrktnjcffmcivuwylrohrm

Defeasible reasoning in Description Logics: an overview on DL^N [article]

Piero A. Bonatti, Iliana M. Petrova, Luigi Sauro
2020 arXiv   pre-print
DL^N is a recent approach that extends description logics with defeasible reasoning capabilities.  ...  In fact, the underlying descriptions logics (DLs), which are based on the monotonic semantics of FOL, do not allow to express and reason on defeasible knowledge and exceptions.  ...  (¬C 2 ⊔ D 2 )), respectively. 3 The defeasible logic DL N Given a classical description logic language DL, let DL N be the extension of DL with a new concept name NC for each DL concept C.  ... 
arXiv:2009.04978v2 fatcat:ppf7mbzloba6xlnnf4k6dh6bmy

Defeasible Reasoning and Argument-Based Systems in Medical Fields: An Informal Overview

Luca Longo, Pierpaolo Dondio
2014 2014 IEEE 27th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems  
It then describes argumentation theory, a paradigm for implementing defeasible reasoning in practice as well as the common multilayer schema upon which argument-based models are usually built.  ...  The first aim of this article is to provide readers informally with the basic notions of defeasible and non-monotonic reasoning, logics borrowed from artificial intelligence.  ...  Pietro Baroni for his feedback.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cbms.2014.126 dblp:conf/cbms/LongoD14 fatcat:5zv7pkwyunfvzassja4yn5n4ra
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