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Towards the use of entropy as a measure for the reliability of automatic MT evaluation metrics

Michal Munk, Dasa Munkova, Lubomir Benko, David Pinto, Vivek Kumar Singh, Aline Villavicencio, Philipp Mayr-Schlegel, Efstathios Stamatatos
2018 Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems  
Reliability is an indicator of accuracy, the reliability of measuring, in our case, measuring the accuracy and error rate of MT output based on automatic metrics (precision, recall, f-measure, Bleu-n,  ...  The experiment showed metrics (Bleu-4 and WER) that reduce the overall reliability of the automatic evaluation of accuracy and error rate using entropy.  ...  Several metrics of automatic MT evaluation were developed and applied to a large amount of data.  ... 
doi:10.3233/jifs-169505 fatcat:5b5vv5fwrjbfzhaqj2sphq4yti

Complexity trade-offs do not prove the equal complexity hypothesis

Gertraud Fenk-Oczlon, August Fenk
2014 Poznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics  
The present paper recalls, in a first step, our previously found significant negative cross-linguistic correlations between syllable complexity and number of syllables per clause and per word, as well  ...  as an almost significant negative correlation between syllable complexity and number of morphological cases.  ...  significant and mutually dependent cross-linguistic correlations (Fenk and Fenk-Oczlon 1993) and has a counterpart at the single-language level, i.e. a law originally found in German (Menzerath 1954  ... 
doi:10.1515/psicl-2014-0010 fatcat:oequegf5t5dfdobazfgbrdroou

An Analysis Of Translational Complexity In Two Text Types [chapter]

Martha Thunes
2017 Zenodo  
The study compares two text types, fiction and law text, in order to see how these differ with respect to the question of automatisation.  ...  This article presents an empirical study where translational complexity is related to a notion of computability.  ...  Acknowledgments I thank the numerous authors and translators who produced the investigated texts, and for assistance in gaining lawful access to the texts, I am grateful to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1019695 fatcat:xkbmvmdlzfhifemghlv6eilhka

Phonotactic Complexity and Its Trade-offs

Tiago Pimentel, Brian Roark, Ryan Cotterell
2020 Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics  
We present methods for calculating a measure of phonotactic complexity—bits per phoneme— that permits a straightforward cross-linguistic comparison.  ...  This simple measure allows us to compare the entropy across languages, giving insight into how complex a language's phonotactics is.  ...  Blasi for his feedback on previous versions of this paper and the anonymous reviewers, as well as action editor Eric Fosler-Lussier, for their constructive and detailed comments-the paper is much improved  ... 
doi:10.1162/tacl_a_00296 fatcat:mc7k7kqm7jabfhr6dqsvytgy4m

The Structure and Dynamics of Linguistic Networks [chapter]

Monojit Choudhury, Animesh Mukherjee
2009 Dynamics On and Of Complex Networks  
POS induction in English, Finnish and German, very recently which has also been applied to Bengali [66] .  ...  Complex networks provide a suitable framework to model and study the structure and dynamics of linguistic systems from a mesoscopic perspective.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-0-8176-4751-3_9 fatcat:wn2uhou55bd3bciccdonu2sioa

Productivity and Predictability for Measuring Morphological Complexity

Ximena Gutierrez-Vasques, Victor Mijangos
2019 Entropy  
Our approach is corpus-based and it does not require the use of linguistic annotated data.  ...  We use a language model that predicts the probability of sub-word sequences within a word; we calculate the entropy rate of this model and use it as a measure of predictability of the internal structure  ...  Complexity Measures for JW300 Corpus  ... 
doi:10.3390/e22010048 pmid:33285823 fatcat:u4yllhitbfbu3jrmviegl4zvby

AI and the Conquest of Complexity in Law

L. Wolfgang Bibel
2004 Artificial Intelligence and Law  
I am grateful to a number of people for their help in the preparation of the material in this paper and for their comments, including Tom Gordon, Raoul Kneucker, Friedrich Lachmayer, Sonia Miller, Filippo  ...  I am deeply indebted to him, while, of course, all possibly remaining aws in the text are my responsibility. I also thank the organizers of  ...  makes up only a small fraction of German law.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10506-005-6742-5 fatcat:tewwotrwa5b5deigogr4afzgxm

The dynamics of gender complexity [chapter]

Bernhard Wälchli, Francesca Di Garbo
2019 Zenodo  
In this chapter we view grammatical gender as a category type that emerges, evolves and disappears in languages as a result of diachronic processes and whose complex- ity grows and diminishes through time  ...  Agreement is fuzzy as its prototypical non-noun targets gradually develop by way of decate- gorialization from nouns, and controllers and targets are not always simple words, but can be complex (consist  ...  We are also grateful to Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm and Björn Wiemer for answering our questions about Slavic languages, and to Sebastian Nordhoff, Felix Kopecky and Martin Haspelmath for their advice and  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3462784 fatcat:2vkl7oq3tnhgjcx7xnbckygucq

Invariant syllable skeleton, complex segments and word edges

TOBIAS SCHEER
2012 Journal of Linguistics  
Of special interest here are : the genesis and management of linearity in complex segments, the place of analogy (or paradigm uniformity) in grammar, the role of morphology in accounting for phonological  ...  patterns, the balance of static (distributional patterns) and dynamic (phonological processes) evidence for syllable structure, the role of stress in syllabification, and the import of corpus-based data  ...  verse), and (iii) the measurement of duration.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0022226712000205 fatcat:rzpjf32hxzgkldjjv4nyq62rdu

The complexity of knowledge sharing in multilingual corporations: evidence from agent-based simulations

Marco Civico
2019 Empirica  
This article discusses the possibility of adopting a complexity theory approach to the study of language policy and planning (LPP).  ...  To provide justification for the use of ABMs in LPP, I show how language issues display the typical traits of complex systems and how ABMs can easily translate ideas and notions from the literature into  ...  accumulation 21 The Greenberg index is one of the simplest metrics used to compute the degree of linguistic diversity.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10663-019-09435-8 fatcat:kppajo6kujdjhb45qun2ryokoi

The physician: From certainty to complexity

Nicola Dioguardi
2007 Theoria et Historia Scientiarum  
bearers of a precious patrimony of science and wisdom destined to be passed on to others and further enriched over time.  ...  The concept that complexity is not a level of complication has demolished many beliefs and generated a need to extend our investigations beyond the boundaries of deterministic canons.  ...  means of Euclidean geometry and measured using a metric system, and had its apogee with the invention of the steam engine.  ... 
doi:10.12775/ths.2002.029 fatcat:nyzpbj6ywngvlaaqloaarlbvwe

Structural nativization, typology and complexity: noun phrase structures in British, Kenyan and Singaporean English

THOMAS BRUNNER
2014 English Language and Linguistics  
The second part of the study shows that the NPs from the three varieties also differ in terms of variables which can be viewed as measures of NP complexity.  ...  Two much-cited explanations for linguistic innovations in varieties of New Englishes are cross-linguistic influence (see Gut 2011) and simplification (see Schneider 2007: 82).  ...  can be viewed as metrics of NP complexity under a very basic definition of complexity: according to Givón (2009: 2) , complexity is to be understood as 'increased hierarchic organization; that is, an  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1360674313000269 fatcat:fwfed73hlvfexpni4btiehwxs4

Health—exploring complexity: an interdisciplinary systems approach HEC2016

Eva Grill, Martin Müller, Ulrich Mansmann
2016 European Journal of Epidemiology  
Linguistic and semantic analysis are applied on user queries in order to improve translation quality.  ...  Furthermore, an obligation to record and report adverse drug reactions in NIS is regulated according to section 63b of the 12th amendment of the German drug law in 2012.  ...  With the crawled data it is possible to extract the structure of the GHW for (i)-(iii) and to provide access to huge amounts of health-related text material for linguistic analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10654-016-0183-1 pmid:27522353 fatcat:dcl3nbpygvh5fg7keri74h55ie

Multilingual Development - a Longitudinal Study

Ingrid Gogolin, Throsten Klinger, Birger Schnoor, Irina Usanova
2021 Revista Investigación Educativa  
The project is based on data of receptive (reading) and productive (writing) language skills in German (the language of schooling), Russian and Turkish as immigrants' heritage languages, English (the first  ...  This is the first interdisciplinary study worldwide which includes the complexity of multilingual development on the basis of a substantial sample of respondents, measured language data a wide range of  ...  Linguistic diversity thus has become a key environmental condition of education. According to German basic law, the linguistic decent of a person shall not be a cause of disadvantage.  ... 
doi:10.6018/rie.454271 fatcat:5tflr75kpzf5vki2mfwqzfn3h4

Learning in and about complex systems

John D. Sterman
1994 System Dynamics Review  
The more rigorously we apply the principles discussed here to our own theories and our own practices, the faster we will learn how to learn in and about complex systems. 6.  ...  I argue that successful approaches to learning about complex dynamic systems require (1) tools to articulate and frame issues, elicit knowledge and beliefs, and create maps of the feedback structure of  ...  Depending on the time delays and other elements of dynamic complexity in the system, these examples may not converge.  ... 
doi:10.1002/sdr.4260100214 fatcat:uf42vmiuxzgyjfuiho3m4spngu
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