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ToonTalkTM—An Animated Programming Environment for Children

Ken Kahn
1996 Journal of Visual Languages and Computing  
This paper describes ToonTalk, a general-purpose concurrent programming system in which the source code is animated and the programming environment is a video game.  ...  The design objectives of ToonTalk were to create a self-teaching programming system for children that was also a very powerful and flexible programming tool. A ..  ...  I am very grateful to Greg Sayoia for the wonderful artwork and animation he contributed to ToonTalk.  ... 
doi:10.1006/jvlc.1996.0011 fatcat:pml22oal45eo5mrjyctypfuvfi

Towards a specification of the ToonTalk language

Leonel Morgado, Ken Kahn
2008 Journal of Visual Languages and Computing  
ToonTalk is a child-oriented programming language whose environment is an animated virtual world, with objects that children can pick up and use as in a game, such as birds, trucks, and robots, providing  ...  However, there is not a specification of ToonTalk, for ready implementation in other environments.  ...  Also, we would like to thank members of the ToonTalk mailing list for theirs comments and insights, particularly Gordon Simpson, Jack Waugh, Jakob Tholander, Lennart Mogren, Mikael Kindborg, Richard Noss  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jvlc.2007.10.002 fatcat:7nizyfx55bednf7nlnokfpcmga

Should LOGO Keep Going FORWARD 1?

2007 Informatics in Education. An International Journal  
Some dimensions represent major alternatives for syntax, others for dealing with concurrency, others for the underlying computational models, and others for features of the programming environment.  ...  What can we learn from other programming systems for children? Alan Kay is leading a new project entitled, "Steps toward the Reinvention of Programming". What are its strengths and weaknesses?  ...  For example, a sensor for the horizontal position of a picture appears just as numbers do (except it has an animated marquee to indicate its special status).  ... 
doi:10.15388/infedu.2007.20 fatcat:dvsanqultffpreqricifsetjgm

Preschool cookbook of computer programming topics

Leonel Morgado, Maria Cruz, Ken Kahn
2010 Australasian Journal of Educational Technology  
Having worked for 4 years with over 150 children, aged 3 to 5, we present age-appropriate computer programming activities involving different computer programming techniques, from the basic (computer language  ...  <span>A common problem in computer programming use for education in general, not simply as a technical skill, is that children and teachers find themselves constrained by what is possible through limited  ...  Amongst existing programming systems for children, we chose ToonTalk, which is an animated, action-based programming system and programming language (Morgado & Kahn, 2008) .  ... 
doi:10.14742/ajet.1077 fatcat:h2bbvydikbgqbg4ejjtuxaun7e

Time travelling animated program executions

Ken Kahn
2006 Proceedings of the 2006 ACM symposium on Software visualization - SoftVis '06  
Here we report on an implementation of time travel that combines the best of both techniques. In ToonTalk both the construction and execution of programs are animated.  ...  Visualizations of program executions are often generated on the fly. This has many advantages relative to off-line generation of animated video files.  ...  Unlike a VCR this implementation scheme for time travel does not allow animated playback in reverse or fast forward.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1148493.1148536 dblp:conf/softvis/Kahn06 fatcat:unlaubmivvaqzfxgshvkgihjgi

Face-to-face and online collaboration: appreciating rules and adding complexity

Richard Noss, Celia Hoyles, Jean-Luc Gurtner, Ross Adamson, Sarah Lowe
2002 International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning  
This paper reports how 6-8 year-old children build, play and share video-games in an animated programming environment.  ...  Children program their games using rules as creative tools in the construction process.  ...  Acknowledgement The Playground Project is funded by the EU Esprit/Experimental Schools Environments program, Grant #29329  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijceell.2002.002149 fatcat:6z2k4lgtzbdzjpayepkqemxkay

Guess my X and other Techno-pedagogical Patterns

Yishay Mor
2008 European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs  
Consequently, creating technology-enhanced environments and activities for learning mathematics is a challenging domain.  ...  This paper presents a set of patterns derived from a study on designing collaborative learning activities in mathematics for children aged 10-14, and a set of tools to support them.  ...  ToonTalk is an animated language and a programming environment designed to be accessible by children of a wide range of ages, without compromising computational and expressive power.  ... 
dblp:conf/europlop/Mor08 fatcat:57dedrrnjzfojdcgsfbi5gumm4


Mikael Kindborg, Robert Scholz
2006 Proceeding of the 2006 conference on Interaction design and children - IDC '06  
This paper presents a design and technology demonstration that illustrates: (1) how high-level behaviours expressed as contextual words can be used for visual programming of graphical characters, and (  ...  2) the possible application of this programming technique to a language learning software toy.  ...  This paper demonstrates a way of programming using contextual words, that is meant to be suitable for openended creative learning environments, e.g. for language learning, where children work in an explorative  ... 
doi:10.1145/1139073.1139076 dblp:conf/acmidc/KindborgS06 fatcat:lv4cyunj3zcinhxlbkotivht6m

Child-Friendly Programming Interfaces to AI Cloud Services [chapter]

Ken Kahn, Niall Winters
2017 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We have developed new blocks for speech input and output and image recognition. Learning materials have been developed and preliminarily trialed with a small number of children.  ...  We describe the addition of new programming blocks to the Snap! visual programming language [1] that provide easy-to-use interfaces to these services.  ...  Creating Child-friendly Programming Interfaces Our goal is not to create a new programming environment for children, but instead to enhance existing ones.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-66610-5_64 fatcat:jqejiunm2ff4poqdenbyqbdvdu

Lessons Learned from Designing a Programming System to Support Middle School Girls Creating Animated Stories

C. Kelleher, R. Pausch
2006 Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing (VL/HCC'06)  
We present lessons we learned about what supports are necessary to enable girls to program animated movies and describe the kinds of programming tasks that arise in girls' stories.  ...  Our hypothesis is that presenting computer programming as a means to the end of storytelling will help motivate girls to learn to program, a traditional gateway to computer science.  ...  In the programming systems for 2D animation, children create animations that move or change the appearance of 2D sprites.  ... 
doi:10.1109/vlhcc.2006.30 dblp:conf/vl/KelleherP06 fatcat:t5nnqcoeyvbeles76lkdxev45q

Lowering the barriers to programming

Caitlin Kelleher, Randy Pausch
2005 ACM Computing Surveys  
The paper explains all categories in the taxonomy, provides a brief description of the systems in each category, and suggests some avenues for future work in novice programming environments and languages  ...  The systems are organized by their primary goal, either to teach programming or to use programming to empower their users, and then by the authors' approach to making learning to program easier for novice  ...  Caitlin Kelleher was supported by an NSF graduate fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1089733.1089734 fatcat:2rmbqulfdrerdaxhwbwjjo2hwi

Designing a programming-based approach for modelling scientific phenomena

Gordon Simpson, Celia Hoyles, Richard Noss
2005 Journal of Computer Assisted Learning  
We describe an iteratively designed sequence of activities involving the modelling of 1dimensional collisions between moving objects based on programming in ToonTalk.  ...  classes, rather than a different model for each class.  ...  Figure 2 2 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 8 8 Figure 8 Figure 9 9 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 . 1 A snapshot of the ToonTalk programming environment.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00121.x fatcat:3dflcezl3rbgjf6hqcn3uuq5bq

Physical programming

Jaime Montemayor, Allison Druin, Allison Farber, Sante Simms, Wayne Churaman, Allison D'Amour
2002 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems Changing our world, changing ourselves - CHI '02  
Given these creative limitations, the goal of our research has been to develop programming tools for physical interactive environments that are appropriate for use by young children (ages 4-6).  ...  Recently we began focusing on a "physical programming" approach and developed a wizard-of-oz prototype for young children.  ...  Two strong examples for children are ToonTalk and KidSim (the commercial product now called StageCast Creator).  ... 
doi:10.1145/503376.503430 dblp:conf/chi/MontemayorDFSCD02 fatcat:lqwkg4yvundn5bn7tzv6t3h5yq

Young Students Exploring Cardinality by Constructing Infinite Processes

Ken Kahn, Evgenia Sendova, Ana Isabel Sacristán, Richard Noss
2011 Technology, Knowledge and Learning  
We focus on a subset of the work in which students explored concepts of cardinality of infinite sets by interpreting and constructing computer programs in ToonTalk, a programming language and environment  ...  that is especially well-suited for young students.  ...  We wish to thank the European Union for funding this project.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10758-011-9175-0 fatcat:3e5evg6pcbh6biwuhkg6cwjutu

The craft of computer programming

Donald H. House, Brian A. Malloy, Cory Buckley
2010 Proceedings of the International Academic Conference on the Future of Game Design and Technology - Futureplay '10  
We present the conceptual design and first-phase implementation of an approach to computer programming instruction that has been designed to exploit the attractive force of video games.  ...  Our approach is intended to foster a conceptual understanding of the internal representation of data, and the underlying operations being performed on the data by an instruction sequence.  ...  One of the most important features of Logo was the turtle graphics that enabled children and novice programmers to control a virtual turtle moving around an environment using simple function calls that  ... 
doi:10.1145/1920778.1920789 dblp:conf/fplay/HouseMB10 fatcat:ywc7pjyzbje4tb6fl35onrfgei
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