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The aim of this paper is to analyse the quantitative impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulphur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higherdoi:10.4271/2012-01-0366 fatcat:5ybyq5ismzfevoaxea4jp7qemu
more »... ulphur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulphur level. The Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC. Conversely, FSC did not have major effects on the soot particle number reduction efficiency of the POC. Soot and other exhaust compounds accumulated within the POC during this phase, gradually built a pressure drop across the POC. The final mass of collected matter in the POC differed significantly according to the sulphur content. The efficiency of removal of gaseous pollutants by the POC was found to be markedly worse for the fuels with higher sulphur content, although this deterioration was observed to be non-linear. Following the accumulation phase, a duty cycle was applied that caused the POC to commence passive regeneration. The time taken for the POC to cleanse itself of accumulated matter and thereby eliminate the pressure drop was observed to increase with increasing fuel sulphur content. The proportion of NO x leaving the POC in the form of NO 2 was also found to vary as a strong function of fuel sulphur content.
This paper describes and analyses the overall impact of fuel sulphur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) performance, focusing mainly on particulates emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were carried out for diesel fuels containing different levels of sulphur, covering the range from 6 to 340 parts per million. The results presented in this paper give an outlook on specific issues and problems associated with POC application when running on fuels containing highdoi:10.19206/ce-117042 fatcat:am6syaninvc6pmhpp6k5hbgx6u
more »... sulphur level. The test methodology was experimentally established and then applied for POC catalysts to run on different sulphur level fuels. Each fuel was tested on an identical fresh POC sample. It was observed that the Fuel Sulphur Content (FSC) significantly affects catalyst conversion efficiency, as well as the particle size distribution. It also has a remarkable influence on particulate matter (PM) mass accumulation inside the POC and on the ability of the POC to regenerate passively. Regarding the latter aspect, NO2 formation was also determined. Extended test results and analyses presented in this paper are presented in SAE technical paper 2012-01-0366 .
This paper puts sub-Saharan Africa's economic development into perspective. While much did not go as hoped for at independence, much of the region has been on a more promising development trajectory since the mid-1990s, as we illustrate using growth, poverty, and human development indicators. We identify key weaknesses, including lack of structural transformation and the slow rate of employment growth. We refer to global shocks that have played a critical role in sub-Saharan Africa's economicfatcat:dhley7vqd5fvdnxiprhoc3uawq
more »... rformance alongside domestic events, policies, and governance. Finally, we discuss a set of critical challenges requiring effective management for sub-Saharan Africa to realize its considerable development potential.
SAE Technical Paper Series
The coming Euro 6 emission regulation includes particle number (PN) limit for gasoline engines as well.doi:10.4271/2013-01-0839 fatcat:tudnownldbesjlmsqenp45dzp4
(Tony 9th May 2014) Tony's design and craft product Aerila, Rönkkö & Grönman, S. (2016). Almost Like Us -Getting familiar with another historical period in a pre-school group. ... The design stage distinguishes the holistic craft from the ordinary craft (Pöllänen, 2011; Rönkkö 2011) . ...doi:10.18844/ijlt.v8i3.707 fatcat:zgtaxjuxjnbxjbbeqoo2hiosv4
Vuosien 1980-2010 välisenä aikana maaseudun joukkoliikenne on supistunut merkittävästi (Rönkkö 2010) . ... Seinäjoen PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE TONI KOTNIK TONI KOTNIK sekä Kuvio 3. Vastaajien tärkeinä pitämät palvelut taajaman keskustassa (n=1034). ... PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE TONI KOTNIK PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE TONI KOTNIK ...doi:10.37457/arf.113264 fatcat:ebleav5znnf4bhhzrnqf3aj4ly
., (Balka, 2006; Loi, 2008; Rönkkö, Hellman, Kilander, & Dittrich, 2004) . ... Rönkkö, et al., (2004) stress the importance of addressing specifically what it is that prohibits the dissemination of participatory methods into industrial practice. ...doi:10.1145/1900441.1900447 dblp:conf/pdc/HagenR10 fatcat:7gm7srna45a7ngn5xjkjcilbvq
We would also like to acknowledge Tony Hansen of Magee Scientific, US and Beijing staff of TSI and Beijing staff of Vaisala for technical assistance. We also appreciated the help from Dr. ... Ronkko et al. (2007 Ronkko et al. ( , 2006 showed that the nucleation mode particles are already formed after 0.7 s residence time in the atmosphere (corresponding toe5 m behind the target vehicle) and ... ., 2004; Ronkko et al., 2006; Schneider et al., 2008; Westerdahl et al., 2005; Yli-Tuomi et al., 2005) , and on-road testing with the portable emission measurement system (PEMS) (Johnson et al., 2009; ...doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.014 fatcat:gr6rkrfzpnhx3n5pjpxh3clcni
Mikko Rönkkö for his invaluable advice and support regarding the methodology, and the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions. ...doi:10.1145/3287324.3287359 dblp:conf/sigcse/TaipalusP19 fatcat:ze2lmpo66jgoxdhn6pl37b4pvy
But as in Rönkkö et al.' ...doi:10.1145/1147261.1147267 dblp:conf/pdc/RobertsonML06 fatcat:m4h6oczcjzepph3uxt3igznk6m
Acknowledgements The author is grateful for excellent research assistance from Risto Rönkkö, who constructed a comprehensive set of background tables and figures, available in a detailed WIDER Working ... The author also appreciates advice, comments, and constructive criticism from Vu Xuan Nguyet Hong, Thi Thu Hoai Dang, and Tony Addison, and from Deepak Nayyar, who invited the contribution of this study ...doi:10.1093/oso/9780198844938.003.0018 fatcat:nt6u2ueounct3fg7mjtcub5tfq
Tuukan matkassa, kahdeksas osa Jylkkärin entinen siviilipalvelusmies Tuukka Rönkkö matkusti halki Aasian. Sarja päättyy. ... " " kuvatuksia Toni Peltonen email@example.com VAPAA SANA Jirka Karikoski, 28, varhaiskasvatus: "Tuota sietää tuumata. ...fatcat:3rj7cbqvh5ebhjgo7xafyxsmi4
Tuukan matkassa Sarjassa Jylkkärin entinen siviilipalvelusmies Tuukka Rönkkö matkustaa halki Aasian. TUUKKA RÖNKKÖ "YLIOPPILAAKSI TULTUANI näin unen, jossa olin laboratoriossa töissä. ... Toni Kirkossa tarvitaan asennemuutos Päätoimittaja Peltonen päivittelee pääkirjoituksessaan (Jylkkäri 11/2005) luterilaisen kirkon kadonneita 18-39vuotiaita jäseniä. ...fatcat:25jv7xj3sbcfrcu7xfu55jfnby
De Toni and F. rhomboides var. saxonica (Rabenh.) De Toni are somewhat more abundant near the sediment surface; in the topmost sample their relative abundances amount to 21%. ... On the other hand, Rönkkö et al. (1988) found only a mild reaction of benthic diatoms in small forest streams to forest clear cutting and peatbog ditching. ...fatcat:346d6nnryralvfioh3q4tt3fdq
TEKSTI: MATTI TULLA KUVAT: TUUKKA RÖNKKÖ AURINKO LASKEE perjantaina, valo siirtyy Ilokiveen. Ensimmäisen bändin, Hotguitarsin, aikana paikalla on väkeä kaksi kourallista. ... Tilaa halutaan jättää myös juhlimiselle.Järjestelytiimin puheenjohtaja Toni Peltonen ja Leena Talvisään Puolueainejärjestöstä myöntävät, että siirtyminen oli tehtävä pakon edessä: "Yksikään keskustan ravintoloista ...fatcat:cckoohftm5a7ncpz6yeqc4ce7m
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