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Biotechnology of Biopolymers
How to reference In order to correctly reference this scholarly work, feel free to copy and paste the following: Felix Loffler, Yun-Chien Cheng, Tobias Fortsch, Edgar Dorsam, Ralf Bischoff, Frank Breitling ... and Alexander Nesterov-Muller (2011) . ...doi:10.5772/16310 fatcat:psk34jd33jbtpc6rhj7uklrcwu
Competing Interests Tobias Ebker has no conflict of interests to declare. ...doi:10.1155/2016/6285620 pmid:27478833 pmcid:PMC4958483 fatcat:xmkbptskdzg6hgmyw2peeuholm
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
In this paper we present our approach for a new contactfree Human-Machine Interface (cfHMI). This cfHMI is designed for controlling applications -instruction presentation, robot control -in the so-called "Cognitive Factory Scenario", introduced in . However, the interface can be applied in other environments and areas of application as well. Due to its generic approach, this low-cost contact-free interface can be easily adapted to several independent applications, featuring individualdoi:10.1007/978-3-642-02577-8_27 fatcat:52gwpg2jkfavnimt6z6m67gjzi
more »... g individual menu-structures, etc. In addition, the modular software architecture facilitates the upgrades and improvements of the different software modules embedded in the cfHMI. 1
Thanks to Markus Wittenberg for assistance in the experiments, and to Alexander Kremper for the radial basis interpolation function. Thanks to Alexander Platzner for his technical support. ...doi:10.1186/1471-2202-8-38 pmid:17562009 pmcid:PMC1913534 fatcat:yitcutawirazjo4r7ytc76ni5i
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique which is used here for in vivo biocompatibility studies of percutaneous implants. A prerequisite for a morphometric analysis of the OCT images is the correction of optical distortions caused by the index of refraction in the tissue. We propose a fully automatic approach for 3D segmentation of percutaneous implants using Markov random fields. Refraction correction is done by using the subcutaneous implant base as a prior fordoi:10.1007/978-3-642-23626-6_56 fatcat:3vks5j6bbnhe3n2nazsxyd2lde
more »... se as a prior for model based estimation of the refractive index using a generalized Hough transform. Experiments show the competitiveness of our algorithm towards manual segmentations done by experts. This work has been partially funded by the DFG within the excellence cluster RE-BIRTH.
Oxidation of group 14 heteroborates [GeB11H11]2− and [SnB11H11]2− yields a symmetrical dimer exhibiting a Ge–Ge bond or an unsymmetrical dimer bearing an Sn–B bond.doi:10.1039/c5dt00099h pmid:25664571 fatcat:knh6o624vnc7bjyd7pv3xlqyee
High-speed rotary communication links exhibit high complexity and require challenging assembly tolerances. This article investigates the use of optical wireless communications (OWC) for on-axis rotary communication scenarios. First, OWC is compared with other state-of-the-art technologies. Different realization approaches for bidirectional, full-duplex links are discussed. For the most promising approach, a monolithic hybrid transmitter-receiver lens is designed by ray mapping methodology. Raydoi:10.3390/app10041540 fatcat:3mz7pleh7feh7j6o7pn4jpsjdq
more »... g methodology. Ray tracing simulations are used to study the alignment-depended receiver power level and to determine the effect of optical crosstalk. Over a distance of 12 . 5 m m , the lens achieves an optical power level at the receiver of - 16 . 2 dBm to - 8 . 7 dBm even for misalignments up to 3 m m .
An increasing activation energy barrier to a conical intersection was identified as the reason for higher fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields for merocyanines in polar solvents.doi:10.1039/c9sc05012d pmid:32206253 pmcid:PMC7069518 fatcat:ygspuxjsmje67n7cdbibarddne
Cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) transmit acoustic information to spiral ganglion neurons through ribbon synapses. Here we have used morphological and physiological techniques to ask whether synaptic mechanisms differ along the tonotopic axis and within IHCs in the mouse cochlea. We show that the number of ribbon synapses per IHC peaks where the cochlea is most sensitive to sound. Exocytosis, measured as membrane capacitance changes, scaled with synapse number when comparing apical anddoi:10.1038/nn.2293 pmid:19270686 fatcat:22ciufefxrfczeqaxajotd4eeu
more »... apical and midcochlear IHCs. Synapses were distributed in the subnuclear portion of IHCs. High-resolution imaging of IHC synapses provided insights into presynaptic Ca 21 channel clusters and Ca 21 signals, synaptic ribbons and postsynaptic glutamate receptor clusters and revealed subtle differences in their average properties along the tonotopic axis. However, we observed substantial variability for presynaptic Ca 21 signals, even within individual IHCs, providing a candidate presynaptic mechanism for the divergent dynamics of spiral ganglion neuron spiking. After processing by the mammalian ear's exquisite micromechanics and mechanoelectrical transduction, acoustic information is encoded at the afferent synapses of IHCs with high temporal precision 1,2 . Presynaptic active zones of IHCs contain a synaptic ribbon, a multiprotein structure that tethers synaptic vesicles 3,4 and ensures a large pool of readily releasable vesicles 5-8 . Stimulus-secretion coupling is governed by Ca V 1.3 L-type Ca 2+ channels 9,10 that tightly control the release of glutamate from nearby fusion-competent vesicles 2,8,11 onto postsynaptic AMPA receptors 12,13 on the unbranched peripheral axon of the bipolar spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) 14 . As a result, each SGN receives input from only one IHC active zone, while each IHC drives several SGNs. Whether and how the number and properties of afferent synapses of the cochlea are 'tuned' for optimal sound encoding remains an important question (refs. 15,16, for example). The frequency selectivity of SGNs is primarily determined by the location of the innervated IHC on the cochlea's tonotopic axis, providing a place code for frequency (refs. 17,18, for example). In addition, studies of small samples of synapses from distinct cochlear regions have indicated that the innervation density varies along the length of the cochlea 19-21 . Moreover, it has been shown that SGNs covering a narrow frequency range differ markedly in spontaneous and evoked firing rates, sound threshold and dynamic range (for example, refs. 22,23) and that they collectively encode a large range of sound pressures. It is generally believed, but not yet directly proven, that each IHC makes contact with such physiologically diverse SGNs. If true, the heterogeneity of SGN dynamics could be caused by pre-and postsynaptic mechanisms 7,19,24,25 . Pioneering work on the cat cochlea suggested that lowspontaneous-rate SGNs preferentially contact active zones with large or even multiple synaptic ribbons at the neural side of IHCs (toward the modiolus), whereas high spontaneous rate SGNs are driven by small, 'simple' synapses at the abneural IHC side (toward the outer hair cells) 24 . Here we have used patch-clamp, confocal imaging of IHC presynaptic Ca 2+ signals; confocal, 4Pi 26,27 and stimulated emission depletion (STED) 28 microscopy of immunolabeled synapses; and electron microscopy to characterize the distribution of afferent synapses as well as their structure and function at different tonotopic regions of the cochlea. Having investigated thousands of synapses in hundreds of IHCs, we provide a continuous representation of synapse number per IHC along the entire mouse cochlea, and we show that synapse density parallels the neuronal population audiogram. Using STED microscopy, we provide optical, nanometer-scale measurements of individual clusters of presynaptic Ca 2+ channels and postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Whereas average structural and functional synapse properties varied only slightly along the cochlea's tonotopic axis, we found considerable heterogeneity of presynaptic Ca 2+ signals among the synapses in IHCs in a given region.
Within Chlorophyceae the ITS2 secondary structure shows an unbranched helix I, except for the 'Hydrodictyon' and the 'Scenedesmus' clade having a ramified first helix. The latter two are classified within the Sphaeropleales, characterised by directly opposed basal bodies in their flagellar apparatuses (DO-group). Previous studies could not resolve the taxonomic position of the 'Sphaeroplea' clade within the Chlorophyceae without ambiguity and two pivotal questions remain open: (1) Is thedoi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-218 pmid:18655698 pmcid:PMC2519086 fatcat:2t5o55trljg6fey23vw5yurfey
more »... : (1) Is the DO-group monophyletic and (2) is a branched helix I an apomorphic feature of the DO-group? In the present study we analysed the secondary structure of three newly obtained ITS2 sequences classified within the 'Sphaeroplea' clade and resolved sphaeroplealean relationships by applying different phylogenetic approaches based on a combined sequence-structure alignment. Results: The newly obtained ITS2 sequences of Ankyra judayi, Atractomorpha porcata and Sphaeroplea annulina of the 'Sphaeroplea' clade do not show any branching in the secondary structure of their helix I. All applied phylogenetic methods highly support the 'Sphaeroplea' clade as a sister group to the 'core Sphaeropleales'. Thus, the DO-group is monophyletic. Furthermore, based on characteristics in the sequence-structure alignment one is able to distinguish distinct lineages within the green algae. Conclusion: In green algae, a branched helix I in the secondary structure of the ITS2 evolves past the 'Sphaeroplea' clade. A branched helix I is an apomorph characteristic within the monophyletic DO-group. Our results corroborate the fundamental relevance of including the secondary structure in sequence analysis and phylogenetics.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
TOSCA is a new standard facilitating platform independent description of Cloud applications. OpenTOSCA is a runtime for TOSCA-based Cloud applications. The runtime enables fully automated plan-based deployment and management of applications defined in the OASIS TOSCA packaging format CSAR. This paper outlines the core concepts of TOSCA and provides a system overview on OpenTOSCA by describing its modular and extensible architecture, as well as presenting our prototypical implementation. Wedoi:10.1007/978-3-642-45005-1_62 fatcat:q4k2nec4xreepchoawiquap6wy
more »... ementation. We demonstrate the use of OpenTOSCA by deploying and instantiating the school management and learning application Moodle.
(Alexander Hofmann), M.F. and V.P.; visualization, T.R.; supervision, A.H. (Andreas Hornung), A.H. (Alexander Hofmann), V.P. and T.R.; project administration, A.H. (Alexander Hofmann), V.P. ... (Alexander Hofmann); methodology, T.R. and V.P.; software, T.R. and V.P.; formal analysis, V.P.; data curation, J.C.O. and T.R.; writing-original draft preparation, T.R.; writing-review and editing, A.H ...doi:10.3390/pr9030530 fatcat:bn3x33fw6jdurmr2i4n5mhixve
In up to 30% of patients with ischemic stroke no definite etiology can be established. A significant proportion of cryptogenic stroke cases may be due to non-stenosing atherosclerotic plaques or low grade carotid artery stenosis not fulfilling common criteria for atherothrombotic stroke. The aim of the CAPIAS study is to determine the frequency, characteristics, clinical and radiological long-term consequences of ipsilateral complicated American Heart Association lesion type VI (AHA-LT VI)doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-201 pmid:24330333 pmcid:PMC3878777 fatcat:h3hydlpctnfnvoz6pa2f2xdw54
more »... VI (AHA-LT VI) carotid artery plaques in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Methods/Design: 300 patients (age >49 years) with unilateral DWI-positive lesions in the anterior circulation and non-or moderately stenosing (<70% NASCET) internal carotid artery plaques will be enrolled in the prospective multicenter study CAPIAS. Carotid plaque characteristics will be determined by high-resolution black-blood carotid MRI at baseline and 12 month follow up. Primary outcome is the prevalence of complicated AHA-LT VI plaques in cryptogenic stroke patients ipsilateral to the ischemic stroke compared to the contralateral side and to patients with defined stroke etiology. Secondary outcomes include the association of AHA-LT VI plaques with the recurrence rates of ischemic events up to 36 months, rates of new ischemic lesions on cerebral MRI (including clinically silent lesions) after 12 months and the influence of specific AHA-LT VI plaque features on the progression of atherosclerotic disease burden, on specific infarct patterns, biomarkers and aortic arch plaques. Discussion: CAPIAS will provide important insights into the role of non-stenosing carotid artery plaques in cryptogenic stroke. The results might have implications for our understanding of stroke mechanism, offer new diagnostic options and provide the basis for the planning of targeted interventional studies.
Journal of Aircraft
JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Vol. 49, No. 5, September—October 2012 Numerical Study of Active Flow Control on a High-Lift Configuration Tobias H6ll,* Alexander Kabat vel Job," Pablo Giacopinelli,* and Frank Thiele ...doi:10.2514/1.c031718 fatcat:dneyihqro5ex7ipv43hc7l3pze
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