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Early detection of microorganisms is essential for the management of infectious diseases. However, this is challenging, as traditional culture methods are labor-intensive and time-consuming. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-phenazine methosulfate (MTT-PMS) assay has been used to evaluate the metabolic activity in live cells and can thus be used for detecting living microorganisms. With the addition of NaOH and Tris-EDTA, the same approach can be accelerateddoi:10.3390/diagnostics12010046 pmid:35054213 pmcid:PMC8774610 fatcat:s6bmc7afx5hsngimmy5z64sme4
more »... n 15 min) and used for the quick detection of common bacterial pathogens. The assay results can be evaluated colorimetrically or semi-quantitatively. Here, the quick detection by MTT-PMS assay was further investigated. The assay had a detection limit of approximately 104 CFU/mL. In clinical evaluations, we used the MTT-PMS assay to detect clinical samples and bacteriuria (>105 CFU/mL). The negative predictive value of the MTT-PMS assay for determining bacteriuria was 79.59% but was 100% when the interference of abnormal blood was excluded. Thus, the MTT-PMS assay might be a potential "rule-out" tool for bacterial detection in clinical samples, at a cost of approximately USD 1 per test. Owing to its low cost, rapid results, and easy-to-use characteristics, the MTT-PMS assay may be a potential tool for microorganism detection.
A large unidirectional magnetoresistance (UMR) ratio of UMR/R_xx∼ 0.36% is found in W/CoFeB metallic bilayer heterostructures at room temperature. Three different regimes in terms of the current dependence of UMR ratio are identified: A spin-dependent-scattering mechanism regime at small current densities J ∼ 10^9A/m^2 (UMR ratio ∝ J), a spin-magnon-interaction mechanism regime at intermediate J ∼ 10^10A/m^2 (UMR ratio ∝ J^3), and a spin-transfer torque (STT) regime at J ∼ 10^11A/m^2 (UMR ratioarXiv:2107.07780v1 fatcat:okcschc4jfhtznssnbqvuoof2q
more »... independent of J). We verify the direct correlation between this large UMR and the transfer of spin angular momentum from the W layer to the CoFeB layer by both field-dependent and current-dependent UMR characterizations. Numerical simulations further confirm that the large STT-UMR stems from the tilting of the magnetization affected by the spin Hall effect-induced spin-transfer torques. An alternative approach to estimate damping-like spin-torque efficiencies from magnetic heterostructures is also proposed.
Since the 1990s, portable electronic products have been a prominent part of our daily lives; and many of these devices require flash memories. The floating-gate (FG) structure, invented by Sze and Kahng at Bell Labs in 1967, forms the primary technology necessary to construct flash memories 1 , Fig. 1a . In order to meet the demands of product miniaturization, the shrinking of transistors has evolved as a method to not only pack more devices into a given area, but also improve the switchingdoi:10.1016/s1369-7021(11)70302-9 fatcat:k2p7wb66nvbabkjbledjgsa6fm
more »... d. In such a situation, conventional nonvolatile memory (FG) suffers from certain physical limitations, such as an insufficient tunneling oxide thickness from the continual scaling down of the device structure s 2 . Because the floating gate (as a charge storing layer) is conductive, all charge will be lost if a leakage path appears in the tunneling oxide, resulting in a serious reliability issue for memory applications. Discrete nanocrystal memory was first proposed by IBM in 1995, and by the early 2000s researchers were already considering it to be a promising candidate for the solution of the scaling probl em 3 (Fig. 1b) . In addition, nanocrystal memory has a two bit per cell storage capability due to its discrete electron storing center. This means that more data can be stored in one memory cell, which readily increases the memory dens ity 4 . In nanocrystal memory, information is stored in the nanocrystals by injecting (removing) charges; therefore a transistor needs larger Flash nonvolatile memory has been widely applied in portable electronic products. However, traditional flash memory is expected to reach physical limits as its dimensions are scaled down; the charges stored in the floating gate can leak out more easily through a thin tunneling oxide, causing a serious reliability issue. In order to solve this problem, discrete nanocrystal memory has been proposed and is considered to be a promising candidate for the next generation of nonvolatile memories due to its high operation speed, good scalability, and superior reliability. This paper reviews the current status of research in nanocrystal memory and focuses on its materials, fabrication, structures, and treatment methods to provide an in-depth perspective of state-of-the-art nanocrystal memory.
The relativistic mean field theory with the Green's function method is taken to study the single-particle resonant states. Different from our previous work [Phys.Rev.C 90,054321(2014)], the resonant states are identified by searching for the poles of Green's function or the extremes of the density of states. This new approach is very effective for all kinds of resonant states, no matter it is broad or narrow. The dependence on the space size for the resonant energies, widths, and the densityarXiv:2004.11632v1 fatcat:hdfjxmbiubexzmdk54hlrgdnhe
more »... tributions in the coordinate space has been checked and it is found very stable. Taking ^120Sn as an example, four new broad resonant states 2g_7/2, 2g_9/2, 2h_11/2 and 1j_13/2 are observed, and also the accuracy for the width of the very narrow resonant state 1h_9/2 is highly improved to be 1× 10^-8 MeV. Besides, our results are very close to those by the complex momentum representation method and the complex scaling method.
Afatinib has anti-tumor effect in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. We found afatinib can also induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells without EGFR mutation through CIP2A pathway. Four NSCLC cell lines (H358 H441 H460 and A549) were treated with afatinib to determine their sensitivity to afatinib-induced cell death and apoptosis. The effects of CIP2A on afatinib-induced apoptosis were confirmed by overexpression and knockdown of CIP2Adoi:10.18632/oncotarget.2941 pmid:25537503 pmcid:PMC4385843 fatcat:6jb2okytlbf5bomtdxmtx5jveq
more »... in the sensitive and resistant cells, respectively. Reduction of Elk-1 binding to the CIP2A promoter and suppression of CIP2A transcription were analyzed. In vivo efficacy of afatinib against H358 and H460 xenografts tumors were also determined in nude mice. Afatinib induced significant cell death and apoptosis in H358 and H441 cells, but not in H460 or A549 cells. The apoptotic effect of afatinib in sensitive cells was associated with downregulation of CIP2A, promotion of PP2A activity and decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Afatinib suppressed CIP2A at the gene transcription level by reducing the promoter binding activity of Elk-1. Clinical samples showed that higher CIP2A expression predicted a poor prognosis and Elk-1 and CIP2A expressions were highly correlated. In conclusion, afatinib induces apoptosis in NSCLC without EGFR mutations through Elk-1/CIP2A/PP2A/AKT pathway.
Writing -review & editing: Tsai-Yu Wang, Ting-Yu Lin, Shu-Min Lin. ... Author Contributions Conceptualization: Allen Chung-Cheng Huang, Shu-Min Lin. Data curation: Allen Chung-Cheng Huang, Tim Yu-Ting Lee, Meng-Cheng Ko, Chih-Hsien Huang. ...doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0225423 pmid:31790451 pmcid:PMC6886786 fatcat:3bouk6bc5vduforaryrrwmm5je
By the request of the Minister of Health and Welfare, NHRI Biobank was assigned to establish a COVID-19 biobank in early Feb, 2020 to collect COVID-19 patients' blood samples for Taiwan researchers and industries in an emergent way. It was set up in less than 3 weeks and quickly opened for application. This biobank can provide applicants with biosamples, such as serum, DNA and RNA, and also the clinical and genomic data, so as to accelerate the COVID-19 treatment and prevention research indoi:10.1016/j.bj.2020.05.018 pmid:32563697 pmcid:PMC7258802 fatcat:wx7dd5a3abhvlmuyf46rxtlj3i
more »... n. This COID-19 biobank already received 7 applications. It has become a very important research resource for the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan, including disease mechanism, the variable human responses and epidemic preventions.
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are antihyperglycemic agents with cardioprotective properties against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the distinctive mechanisms underlying GLP-1RAs and SGLT2is in DCM are not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of GLP1RAs and/or SGLT2is on myocardial energy metabolism, cardiac function, and apoptosis signaling in DCM. Biochemistry anddoi:10.3390/ijms22031177 pmid:33503985 pmcid:PMC7865477 fatcat:j2whdp53ybgidg2lx6sjl5fwgq
more »... rdiograms were studied before and after treatment with empagliflozin (10 mg/kg/day, oral gavage), and/or liraglutide (200 μg/kg every 12 h, subcutaneously) for 4 weeks in male Wistar rats with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg intraperitoneally)-induced diabetes. Cardiac fibrosis, apoptosis, and protein expression of metabolic and inflammatory signaling molecules were evaluated by histopathology and Western blotting in ventricular cardiomyocytes of different groups. Empagliflozin and liraglutide normalized myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Upregulation of phosphorylated-acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1β, cluster of differentiation 36, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator, and downregulation of glucose transporter 4, the ratio of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α2 to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α2, and the ratio of phosphorylated protein kinase B to protein kinase B in diabetic cardiomyocytes were restored by treatment with empagliflozin or liraglutide. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cleaved caspase-1 were significantly downregulated in empagliflozin-treated and liraglutide-treated diabetic rats. Both empagliflozin-treated and liraglutide-treated diabetic rats exhibited attenuated myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis. Empagliflozin modulated fatty acid and glucose metabolism, while liraglutide regulated inflammation and apoptosis in DCM. The better effects of combined treatment with GLP-1RAs and SGLT2is may lead to a potential strategy targeting DCM.
In this study, the anti-tumor activity of ilimaquinone (IQ), a sesquiterpene quinone isolated from marine sponge Halichondria sp., in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells, was investigated. IQ suppressed the viability of the OSCC cell lines SCC4 and SCC2095 with IC50 values of 7.5 and 8.5 mM, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that IQ induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in SCC4 cells and modulated the expression of several cell growth-related gene products, including Akt,doi:10.3390/biomedicines8090296 pmid:32825464 pmcid:PMC7555415 fatcat:6ac7uv4hdff33exlxggpy3bgva
more »... 38, Mcl-1, and p53. Notably, p53 knockdown caused higher resistance to IQ's anti-tumor activity. In addition, IQ increased reactive oxygen species generation, which was partially reversed by the addition of antioxidants. Furthermore, it triggered autophagy, as evidenced by acidic organelle formation and LC3B-II and Atg5 expression in SCC4 cells. Pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or chloroquine partially decreased IQ-induced apoptosis, suggesting that IQ induced protective autophagy. In summary, IQ has potential to be used in OSCC therapy.
The introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened up the potential for personalized cell therapies and ushered in new opportunities for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, iPSC-based drug discovery and toxicity assessment. Over the past 10 years, several initiatives have been established that aim to collect and generate a large amount of human iPSCs for scientific research purposes. In this review, we compare the construction and operation strategy of some iPSC banks asdoi:10.1186/s12929-019-0578-x pmid:31660969 pmcid:PMC6819403 fatcat:hmnsxaedvvg45ib5u4pjmlu5ce
more »... well as their ongoing development. We also introduce the technical challenges and offer future perspectives pertaining to the establishment and management of iPSC banks.
Label hierarchies widely exist in many vision-related problems, ranging from explicit label hierarchies existed in image classification to latent label hierarchies existed in semantic segmentation. Nevertheless, state-of-the-art methods often deploy cross-entropy loss that implicitly assumes class labels to be exclusive and thus independence from each other. Motivated by the fact that classes from the same parental category usually share certain similarity, we design a new training diagramarXiv:1911.07257v1 fatcat:slb5yavfpbeihnuwxxb6rg2ybq
more »... d Hierarchical Complement Objective Training (HCOT) that leverages the information from label hierarchy. HCOT maximizes the probability of the ground truth class, and at the same time, neutralizes the probabilities of rest of the classes in a hierarchical fashion, making the model take advantage of the label hierarchy explicitly. The proposed HCOT is evaluated on both image classification and semantic segmentation tasks. Experimental results confirm that HCOT outperforms state-of-the-art models in CIFAR-100, ImageNet-2012, and PASCAL-Context. The study further demonstrates that HCOT can be applied on tasks with latent label hierarchies, which is a common characteristic in many machine learning tasks.
Post-weaning diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common disease of piglets and causes great economic loss for the swine industry. Over the past few decades, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antibiotics has caused serious problems because of the growing emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Various studies have indicated that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have potential to serve as an alternative to antibiotics owing to rapid killing action and highlydoi:10.3390/ijms22083926 pmid:33920239 fatcat:gs6w22a4bfa33ho2kn6lenjp24
more »... selective toxicity. Our previous studies have shown that AMP GW-Q4 and its derivatives possess effective antibacterial activities against the Gram-negative bacteria. Hence, in the current study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of GW-Q4 and its derivatives against MDR ETEC and their minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) values were determined to be around 2~32 μg/mL. Among them, AMP Q4-15a-1 with the second lowest MIC (4 μg/mL) and the highest minimal hemolysis concentration (MHC, 256 μg/mL), thus showing the greatest selectivity (MHC/MIC = 64) was selected for further investigations. Moreover, Q4-15a-1 showed dose-dependent bactericidal activity against MDR ETEC in time–kill curve assays. According to the cellular localization and membrane integrity analyses using confocal microscopy, Q4-15a-1 can rapidly interact with the bacterial surface, disrupt the membrane and enter cytosol in less than 30 min. Minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of Q4-15a-1 is 4× MIC (16 μg/mL), indicating that Q4-15a-1 is effective against MDR ETEC biofilm. Besides, we established an MDR ETEC infection model with intestinal porcine epithelial cell-1 (IPEC-1). In this infection model, 32 μg/mL Q4-15a-1 can completely inhibit ETEC adhesion onto IPEC-1. Overall, these results suggested that Q4-15a-1 may be a promising antibacterial candidate for treatment of weaned piglets infected by MDR ETEC.
Fructose is a main dietary sugar involved in the excess sugar intake-mediated progression of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic intake of fructose has been the focus on the possible contributor to the metabolic diseases and cardiac inflammation. Recently, the small intestine was identified to be a major organ in fructose metabolism. The overconsumption of fructose induces dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, which, in turn, increases intestinal permeability and activates hostdoi:10.3390/biomedicines9070728 fatcat:nslx3c6hovgvfenzwg5cofqrky
more »... nflammation. Endotoxins and metabolites of the gut microbiota, such as lipopolysaccharide, trimethylamine N-oxide, and short-chain fatty acids, also influence the host inflammation and cardiac biofunctions. Thus, high-fructose diets cause heart–gut axis disorders that promote cardiac arrhythmia. Understanding how gut microbiota dysbiosis-mediated inflammation influences the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmia may provide mechanisms for cardiac arrhythmogenesis. This narrative review updates our current understanding of the roles of excessive intake of fructose on the heart-gut axis and proposes potential strategies for inflammation-associated cardiac vascular diseases.
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