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Does paedomorphosis contribute to prairie vole monogamy?

Timothy Bushyhead, J Thomas Curtis
2015 Shou lei xue bao = Acta theriologica sinica  
We examined skull morphology in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), two closely related species with fundamentally different mating systems, to test the hypothesis that paedomorphosis contributes to the evolution of monogamous mating systems. Using several skull measurements, we found that the overall length:width ratio of meadow vole skulls was greater than that of prairie voles suggesting that meadow vole have longer narrower skulls. We then examined
more » ... h aspects of skull morphology differed between the species and found that the ratio difference was attributable primarily to longer snout length in meadow voles. Finally, we compared adult morphology in both species to that of pups and found the prairie vole, a monogamous species, displays a more juvenile-like skull morphology than does the meadow vole, a promiscuous species. These results suggest that monogamous vole species retain more juvenile-like morphology than do promiscuous species, and thus possibly retain juvenile-like behaviors that may contribute to a monogamous mating system.
pmid:26594100 pmcid:PMC4649942 fatcat:rrn3iwgww5fpbbpecx37pkf6vy

Next-generation sequencing of cancer genomes: back to the future

Matthew J Walter, Timothy A Graubert, John F DiPersio, Elaine R Mardis, Richard K Wilson, Timothy J Ley
2009 Personalized Medicine  
The use of microarrays and next-generation sequencing (NGS) has made significant contributions to the understanding of cancer development. These technologies have been used to profile gene expression patterns in cancer cells, identify genomic regulatory elements bound by cancer-relevant transcription factors, and determine the genetic and epigenetic landscape of cancer cells. Importantly, scientists and clinicians have begun to apply these findings to develop personalized medicine by which an
more » ... dividual's cancer genomic information is used to guide the selection of cancer therapy. In this article, we will review the impact that genomics technologies have had on the cancer field.
doi:10.2217/pme.09.52 pmid:20161678 pmcid:PMC2821057 fatcat:ja5ei22cyneifn4q22ee2s7uny

Granzyme A Initiates an Alternative Pathway for Granule-Mediated Apoptosis

Sujan Shresta, Timothy A Graubert, Dori A Thomas, Sofia Z Raptis, Timothy J Ley
1999 Immunity  
J. L., unpublished data).  ...  J. (1996). Cytotoxic T cells deficient in both functional fas ligand Cytotoxicity mediated by T cells and natural killer cells is greatly  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1074-7613(00)80059-x pmid:10367905 fatcat:4lm5pwoclbhsribky6dsywks4u

N-Oxides rescue Ru(v) in catalytic Griffith–Ley (TPAP) alcohol oxidations

Timothy J. Zerk, Peter W. Moore, Craig M. Williams, Paul V. Bernhardt
2016 Chemical Communications  
Electrochemistry of tetrapropylammonium perruthenate (TPAP) reveals that an unstable Ru(v) complex is reoxidised by amine N-oxides in catalytic Griffith–Ley alcohol oxidations.  ...  Ley, G.P. Whitcombe, A.D. White, J. Chem. Soc., Chem.  ... 
doi:10.1039/c6cc05440d pmid:27471846 fatcat:oxo7up3hy5hpbantm273cc7tmi

HEALTH INVESTMENT OVER THE LIFE-CYCLE

Timothy J. Halliday, Hui He, Lei Ning, Hao Zhang
2017 Macroeconomic Dynamics  
The Bellman equation is then given by V j (a j ; h j ; ) = max c j ;m j ;a j+1 ;n j fu(c j ; l j ; h j g + E 0 j ' j+1 (h j+1 )V j+1 (a j+1 ; h j+1 ; 0 )g (6) subject to c j + (1 p )m j + (1 ss med ) +  ...  (h j+1 ) u j+1 +(1 j+1 ) @u=@c j+1 g 0 (m j+1 ) (1 h j+1 ) 9 > > = > > ; (7) where j = p ; 8j < j R and j = m ; 8j R j J.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1365100516001152 fatcat:sezspakdo5f2xluzsyygpqdx4m

Oral l-glutamine increases GABA levels in striatal tissue and extracellular fluid

Lei Wang, Timothy J. Maher, Richard J. Wurtman
2007 The FASEB Journal  
., from 1.76 :t 0.04 J.1mol/g in vehicle-treated rats to 2.00 :t 0.15 J.1mol/g in those receiving 2.0 g/kg of glutamine).  ...  ()J! ho( analyses wer'e used when appropriate. The significance level was set at P < (1.05.  ...  J=6.0, P<O.OI) and GABA levels by 11 % (F3,:!7=3.5, P<0.05) without affecting those of glutamate (F2.29=1.4, P>0.(5) (I-way AN OVA with L-glutamine dose as the factor).  ... 
doi:10.1096/fj.06-7495com pmid:17218538 fatcat:n3hik7enqfd53deuuvmvbqcnga

Elucidating the mechanism of the Ley–Griffith (TPAP) alcohol oxidation

Timothy J. Zerk, Peter W. Moore, Joshua S. Harbort, Sharon Chow, Lindsay Byrne, George A. Koutsantonis, Jeffrey R. Harmer, Manuel Martínez, Craig M. Williams, Paul V. Bernhardt
2017 Chemical Science  
The mechanism of the Ley–Griffith alcohol oxidation has been elucidated using time-resolved spectroscopic methods.  ...  Naturally abundant piperonal 1 H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl 3 )  H 9.80 (s, 1 H), 7.40 (dd, J = 7.9, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (d, J = 1.6 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.07 (s, 2H); 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 )  ...  Labelling of piperonol and its Ley-Griffith Oxidation Mass spectral data Identified the starting material to be 78% 18 O-enriched piperonol.  ... 
doi:10.1039/c7sc04260d pmid:29619191 pmcid:PMC5863698 fatcat:tvov2pnaa5hh7a2ekmnfmivdwu

Intermetallic particle heterogeneity controls shear localization in high-strength nanostructured Al alloys [article]

Tianjiao Lei, Esther C. Hessong, Jungho Shin, Daniel S. Gianola, Timothy J. Rupert
2022 arXiv   pre-print
The mechanical behavior of two nanocrystalline Al alloys, Al-Mg-Y and Al-Fe-Y, is investigated with in-situ micropillar compression testing. Both alloys were strengthened by a hierarchical microstructure including grain boundary segregation, nanometer-thick amorphous complexions, carbide nanorod precipitates with sizes of a few nanometers, and submicron-scale intermetallic particles. The maximum yield strength of the Al-Mg-Y system is measured to be 950 MPa, exceeding that of the Al-Fe-Y system
more » ... (680 MPa), primarily due to a combination of more carbide nanorods and more amorphous complexions. Both alloys exhibited yield strengths much higher than those of commercial Al alloys, and therefore have great potential for structural applications. However, some micropillar specimens were observed to plastically soften through shear banding. Post-mortem investigation revealed that intermetallic-free deformation pathways of a few micrometers in length were responsible for this failure. Further characterization showed significant grain growth within the shear band. The coarsened grains maintained the same orientation with each other, pointing to grain boundary mechanisms for plastic flow, specifically grain rotation and/or grain boundary migration. The presence of intermetallic particles makes it difficult for both matrix and intermetallic grains to rotate into the same orientation due to the different lattice parameters and slip systems. Therefore, we are able to conclude that a uniform distribution of intermetallic particles with an average spacing less than the percolation length of shear localization can effectively prevent the maturation of shear bands, offering a design strategy for high-strength nanocrystalline Al alloys with both high strength and stable plastic flow.
arXiv:2205.09820v1 fatcat:sbodqy244vgjjkdp6fwdv227cm

Hop Cleavage and Function in Granzyme B-induced Apoptosis

Andrew J. Bredemeyer, Patricia E. Carrigan, Todd A. Fehniger, David F. Smith, Timothy J. Ley
2006 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
J. Bredemeyer, M. A. Ford, J. A. Ratner, R. R. Townsend, and T. J. Ley, unpublished data.  ...  J. Ley, unpublished data. icity induced by individual granzymes, we performed the cytotoxicity assay using NK cells derived from different granzyme-deficient mouse strains (48 -50) .  ... 
doi:10.1074/jbc.m607969200 pmid:17005566 fatcat:2lbuodcdnrgo3ijy4e536zzhza

Subclones dominate at MDS progression following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant

Meagan A. Jacoby, Eric J. Duncavage, Gue Su Chang, Christopher A. Miller, Jin Shao, Kevin Elliott, Joshua Robinson, Robert S. Fulton, Catrina C. Fronick, Michelle O'Laughlin, Sharon E. Heath, Iskra Pusic (+7 others)
2018 JCI Insight  
Technical assistance was provided by the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center Tissue Procurement Core, supported by an National Cancer Institute Cancer Center grant (P30CA091842). We thank Richard K.  ...  Data were analyzed using the Barcrawler analysis pipeline (Eric J.  ... 
doi:10.1172/jci.insight.98962 pmid:29515031 pmcid:PMC5922277 fatcat:xu5wgogmrrdo7fd5ui63bddoqq

Bam-readcount – rapid generation of basepair-resolution sequence metrics [article]

Ajay Khanna, David E. Larson, Sridhar Nonavinkere Srivatsan, Matthew Mosior, Travis E. Abbott, Susanna Kiwala, Timothy J. Ley, Eric J. Duncavage, Matthew J. Walter, Jason R. Walker, Obi L. Griffith, Malachi Griffith (+1 others)
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Bam-readcount is a utility for generating low-level information about sequencing data at specific nucleotide positions. Originally designed to help filter genomic mutation calls, the metrics it outputs are useful as input for variant detection tools and for resolving ambiguity between variant callers . In addition, it has found broad applicability in diverse fields including tumor evolution, single-cell genomics, climate change ecology, and tracking community spread of SARS-CoV-2. Here we
more » ... on the release of version 1.0 of this tool, which adds CRAM support, among other improvements. It is released under a permissive MIT license and available at https://github.com/genome/bam-readcount.
arXiv:2107.12817v1 fatcat:exyeabcmkrgoxages4je5r7jxi

Inflammatory Pathways Link Socioeconomic Inequalities to White Matter Architecture

Peter J. Gianaros, Anna L. Marsland, Lei K. Sheu, Kirk I. Erickson, Timothy D. Verstynen
2012 Cerebral Cortex  
Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for aspects of ill health that may be mediated by systemic inflammatory influences on the integrity of distributed brain networks. Following this hypothesis, we tested whether socioeconomic disadvantage related to the structural integrity of white matter tracts connecting brain regions of distributed networks, and whether such a relationship would be mediated by anthropometric, behavioral, and molecular risk factors associated with systemic inflammation.
more » ... therwise healthy adults (N = 155, aged 30-50 years, 78 men) completed protocols assessing multilevel indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), anthropometric and behavioral measures of adiposity and cigarette smoking, circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and white matter integrity by diffusion tensor imaging. Mediation modeling was used to test associations between SEP indicators and measures of white matter tract integrity, as well as indirect mediating paths. Measures of tract integrity followed a socioeconomic gradient: individuals completing more schooling, earning higher incomes, and residing in advantaged neighborhoods exhibited increases in white matter fractional anisotropy and decreases in radial diffusivity, relative to disadvantaged individuals. Moreover, analysis of indirect paths showed that adiposity, cigarette smoking, and CRP partially mediated these effects. Socioeconomic inequalities may relate to diverse health disparities via inflammatory pathways impacting the structural integrity of brain networks.
doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs191 pmid:22772650 pmcid:PMC3729196 fatcat:gaxarzn3jba6bd5nduqvurlzgi

CO2 injection-induced fracturing in naturally fractured shale rocks

Lei Wang, Bowen Yao, Haojun Xie, Philip H. Winterfeld, Timothy J. Kneafsey, Xiaolong Yin, Yu-Shu Wu
2017 Energy  
Niobrara shale cubes of 20 cm from Colorado were employed to investigate gas and supercritical CO 2 injection-induced fracturing in naturally fractured caprocks of deep aquifers/depleted reservoirs and fractured shale reservoirs. Under tri-axial stresses, gas or supercritical CO 2 was injected into the center of the cubes to induce fracturing. Real-time pressure and temperature, acoustic wave, pressure decay, fracture coloring, and gas fracturing were used to characterize the fracturing process
more » ... and fracture morphology. Without pore pressure, CO 2 injection-induced fracturing occurred and completed instantly, accompanied by an evident temperature drop. Strongly bonded fractures barely affected transverse fracture propagation, whereas weakly bonded or open fractures arrested the injected fluid first and then allowed it to generate new fractures perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress. Breakdown pressures for cubes with preexisting fractures using gas and supercritical CO 2 are much lower than both poroelastic predictions and slick-water fracturing pressure, and some are even lower than the minimum horizontal stress. This is attributed to unconformable preexisting fractures and the low viscosity of CO 2 . Moreover, decreasing tri-axial stress levels and increasing stress differences tend to lower the breakdown pressure. This study is instructive for understanding and tackling geomechanical issues related to CO 2 geological storage and fracturing of shale reservoirs.
doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.08.031 fatcat:pxmejuwyrvgsppv43ach6rqnhy

The Pediatric Cancer Genome Project

James R Downing, Richard K Wilson, Jinghui Zhang, Elaine R Mardis, Ching-Hon Pui, Li Ding, Timothy J Ley, William E Evans
2012 Nature Genetics  
Pei and J. Groff for their extensive contributions to and diligence in preparing Figure 1 , and we thank X. Chen for contributions to Figure 2 . We would also like to thank M. Rusch and P.  ... 
doi:10.1038/ng.2287 pmid:22641210 pmcid:PMC3619412 fatcat:6ayfuc564rffrmqsvuhapodffe

Visualizing tumor evolution with the fishplot package for R [article]

Christopher A Miller, Joshua McMichael, Ha X Dang, Christopher A Maher, Li Ding, Timothy J Ley, Elaine R Mardis, Richard K Wilson
2016 biorxiv/medrxiv   pre-print
Massively-parallel sequencing at depth has enabled tumor heterogeneity and evolution to be characterized in unprecedented detail. Tracking these changes in clonal architecture can inform therapeutic response and resistance. Robust and intuitive data visualizations can greatly aid these interpretations, especially in cases with multiple timepoints . Current data visualization methods are typically manual and laborious, and often only approximate subclonal fractions. Results: We have developed an
more » ... R package that accurately and intuitively displays changes in clonal structure over time. It requires simple input data and produces illustrative and easy-to-interpret graphs suitable for diagnosis, presentation, and publication. Conclusions: The simplicity, power, and flexibility of this tool make it valuable for visualizing tumor evolution, and it has potential utility in both research and clinical settings. Fishplot is available at https://github.com/chrisamiller/fishplot
doi:10.1101/059055 fatcat:cyw2hbtbi5fndibh7mngxznjym
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