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Timed Signatures and Zero-Knowledge Proofs -Timestamping in the Blockchain Era

Aydin Abadi, Michele Ciampi, Aggelos Kiayias, Vassilis Zikas, University Of Edinburgh, University Of Edinburgh
We propose timed versions of primitives commonly used for authenticating information, such as digital signatures, non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, and signatures of knowledge and show how those can  ...  In this work, we put forth the first formal treatment of timestamping cryptographic primitives in the UC framework with respect to a global clock -we refer to the corresponding primitives as timed to indicate  ...  Timed Zero-Knowledge PoK (TPoK) and Signature of Knowledge (TSoK) TPoK.  ... 
doi:10.7488/era/179 fatcat:s25k3fwftvdr7pvsujdokyywae

Privacy-Protection Scheme of a Credit-Investigation System Based on Blockchain

Ke Yuan, Yingjie Yan, Tong Xiao, Wenchao Zhang, Sufang Zhou, Chunfu Jia
2021 Entropy  
This scheme is based on blockchain technology to solve the problem of islanding of credit-investigation data and is based on zero-knowledge-proof technology, which works by submitting a proof to the smart  ...  An efficiency analysis showed that, compared with similar identity-authentication schemes, the proof key of this scheme is smaller, and the verification time is shorter.  ...  We mainly analyzed the number of constraints, and the time consumed for compilation in the zero-knowledge-proof phase, key generation, proof generation, and authentication, as shown in Table 3 .  ... 
doi:10.3390/e23121657 pmid:34945963 pmcid:PMC8700419 fatcat:ygfcitgy5zhv3p7wpohewkf7k4

Towards Large-Scale and Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing in COVID-19 pandemic: A Blockchain Perspective

Wenzhe Lv, Sheng Wu, Chunxiao Jiang, Yuanhao Cui, Xuesong Qiu, Yan Zhang
2020 IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering  
Specifically, 1) a privacy-preserving SRC protocol for activity-tracking and corresponding generalized block structure is developed, by connecting an interactive zero-knowledge proof protocol and the key  ...  We implemented and evaluated the proposed blockchain protocol in the real-world using the Bluetooth 5.0.  ...  , and zero-knowledge proof based data ownership authorization.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tnse.2020.3030925 pmid:35582326 pmcid:PMC8905609 fatcat:oagboccewvct7amrb2opax4nom

A Data Sharing Scheme for GDPR-Compliance Based on Consortium Blockchain

Yangheran Piao, Kai Ye, Xiaohui Cui
2021 Future Internet  
The zero-knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments of Knowledge (zk-SNARK) algorithm is adopted for protecting data and ensure that the user's private data can satisfy the individual requirements of  ...  It has superiority in efficiency and privacy protection compared with other schemes.  ...  proof VK c The key used to verify the zero-knowledge proof h The hash value output by the circuit R The result output by the circuit T The timestamp used for circuit input r The random number used for  ... 
doi:10.3390/fi13080217 fatcat:ptxkz3e7dvclnlwczcy4jiurau

Assuring Anonymity and Privacy in Electronic Voting with Distributed Technologies Based on Blockchain

Vehbi Neziri, Isak Shabani, Ramadan Dervishi, Blerim Rexha
2022 Applied Sciences  
Our paper analyzes current solutions in Blockchain and proposes a new approach through the combination of two different Blockchains to achieve privacy and anonymity.  ...  The encrypted vote is salted with a nonce, hashed, and finally digitally signed with the voter's private key, and by mixing the timestamp of votes and shuffling the order of cast votes, the chances of  ...  Zcash is a decentralized payment scheme [25] that aims to provide anonymity, and unlike Bitcoin, proof-of-work in Zcash relies on an optimized form of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-SNARK.  ... 
doi:10.3390/app12115477 fatcat:csw4jyu6gfgqjekjqhcl6jqphe

Preparation for Post-Quantum era: a survey about blockchain schemes from a post-quantum perspective [article]

Andrada-Teodora Ciulei, Marian-Codrin Cretu, Emil Simion
2022 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
At the same time, the increased progress of quantum computers and quantum-based algorithms threatens the security of the classical cryptographic algorithms, in consequence, it represents a risk for the  ...  We provide an analysis of the most important cryptocurrencies according to their ranking by market capitalization (MC) in the context of quantum threats, and we end up with a review of post-quantum blockchain  ...  which participate indirectly in commitments construction and zero-knowledge proof [198] , [184] , [205] , [156] .  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/CiuleiCS22 fatcat:dw3z6d6nnfc7lll55dwejilg5a

How to make a digital currency on a blockchain stable

Kenji Saito, Mitsuru Iwamura
2019 Future generations computer systems  
The reason why those blockchain currencies based on proof of work are unstable may be found in their designs that the supplies of currencies do not respond to their positive and negative demand shocks,  ...  Bitcoin and other similar digital currencies on blockchains are not ideal means for payment, because their prices tend to go up in the long term (thus people are incentivized to hoard those currencies)  ...  To make this happen, the system needs to refer to real time, which had been considered difficult for blockchains where timestamps in blocks can be untrue.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.future.2019.05.019 fatcat:qauqyw4oebh4ledeqzwhnjhryy

Using Blockchain to Ensure the Integrity of Digital Forensic Evidence in an IoT Environment

Muhammad Akhtar, Tao Feng
2022 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies  
So we propose an intelligent and effective solution based on Blockchain and Hashing algorithms. We will store the data collected from IoT devices into Blockchain.  ...  Digital forensics is the study of data detection, acquisition, processing, analysis, and reporting. Encouraging the use of digital forensics in law enforcement investigations.  ...  In this work, [36] examine puncturable signatures and examine their use in the proof-of-stake Blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.4108/eai.3-6-2022.174089 fatcat:ipz2nbuikze3xhva6zrnzsxelm

Privacy-preserving solutions for Blockchain: review and challenges

Jorge Bernal Bernabe, Jose L. Canovas, Jose L. Hernandez-Ramos, Rafael Torres Moreno, Antonio Skarmeta
2019 IEEE Access  
The survey covers privacy techniques in public and permissionless blockchains, e.g.  ...  In this sense, this paper performs a systematic review of the current state of the art on privacy-preserving research solutions and mechanisms in blockchain, as well as the main associated privacy challenges  ...  Secure multi-party computation (SMPC), Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKP), Commitment schemes, zkSNARK, Ring Signatures and Homomorphic hiding.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2950872 fatcat:kf2rl7onmrbvnozjudspxrcatu

Security Aspects of Blockchain Technology Intended for Industrial Applications

Sheikh Mohammad Idrees, Mariusz Nowostawski, Roshan Jameel, Ashish Kumar Mourya
2021 Electronics  
Blockchain is based on distributed and secure decentralized protocols in which there is no single authority, and no single point of control; the data blocks are generated, added, and validated by the nodes  ...  Blockchain technology plays a significant role in the industrial development.  ...  Non Interactive Zero-Knowledge Proof System Non Interactive Zero Knowledge (NIZK) is a powerful technology for cryptography that preserves the privacy of the system using the concept of zero-knowledge  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics10080951 fatcat:mgh655mjdfcyxpcg5rdxyornsq

Privacy preservation in permissionless blockchain: A survey

Li Peng, Wei Feng, Zheng Yan, Yafeng Li, Xiaokang Zhou, Shohei Shimizu
2020 Digital Communications and Networks  
Therefore, in this paper, we analyze the specific characteristics of permissionless blockchain, summarize the potential privacy threats, and investigate the unique privacy requirements of blockchain.  ...  Currently, permissionless blockchain has shown a good application prospect in many fields, from the initial cryptocurrency to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networking (VANET), which  ...  Acknowledgements The work is supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 61672410 and 61802293, the Academy of Finland under Grants 308087, 314203 and 335262, the  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.dcan.2020.05.008 fatcat:e3fpgsqvljawtmfhapw2be3cqy

A Survey on Blockchain Technology: Evolution, Architecture and Security

Muhammad Nasir Mumtaz Bhutta, Amir A. Khwaja, Adnan Nadeem, Hafiz Farooq Ahmad, Muhammad Khurram Khan, Moataz Hanif, Houbing Song, Majed Alshamari, Yue Cao
2021 IEEE Access  
In the near future, Blockchain technology is determined to transform the way we live, interact, and perform businesses.  ...  We also present a comparative analysis of frameworks, classification of consensus algorithms, and analysis of security risks & cryptographic primitives that have been used in the Blockchain so far.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR) at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia for financial support under grant no. 186218.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3072849 fatcat:veqgq5cyx5hgdhkw5zgi5yqyki

Blockchain Technologies for the Internet of Things: Research Issues and Challenges

Mohamed Amine Ferrag, Makhlouf Derdour, Mithun Mukherjee, Abdelouahid Derhab, Leandros Maglaras, Helge Janicke
2018 IEEE Internet of Things Journal  
In addition, we provide a taxonomy and a side-by-side comparison of the state-of-the-art methods towards secure and privacy-preserving blockchain technologies with respect to the blockchain model, specific  ...  Based on the current survey, we highlight open research challenges and discuss possible future research directions in the blockchain technologies for IoT.  ...  In [41] , the Time-Stamp and the Proof-of-Work mechanism is used.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jiot.2018.2882794 fatcat:xt2oh3dmozgrjg3n42xsdgm7f4

Blockchain Based Secured Multipurpose Identity (SMID) Management System for Smart Cities

Abrarul Hassan Rahat, Mamunur Rashid Rumon, Tassnim Jaman Joti, Humayra Tasnin, Tania Akter, Arif Shakil, Md. Iqbal Hossain
2022 2022 IEEE 12th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC)  
A thesis submitted to the Department of Computer Science and Engineering in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Sc. in Computer Science And Engineering  ...  By using zero-knowledge-proof, we can effectively proof the information without exposing it.  ...  Zero-knowledge-proof ensures that entities can trust one another by permitting them to authenticate any set of data without unveiling it.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ccwc54503.2022.9720808 fatcat:aei6ogijh5afngoog527tjknhm

Attribute‐Based Worker Selection Scheme by Using Blockchain in Decentralized Crowdsourcing Scenario

Yang Qiliang, Zhang Mingrui, Zhou Yanwei, Yu Yong
2021 Chinese journal of electronics  
Combining blockchain technology with crowdsourcing can well solve the above problems, enabling users to realize peer-to-peer transactions and collaboration based on decentralized trust in distributed systems  ...  Due to the complexity of crowdsourcing network, there will be malicious users in the network. The requirement for anonymity protects both legitimate and malicious users.  ...  zero-knowledge proof.  ... 
doi:10.1049/cje.2021.01.007 fatcat:ulg5cc4varanbpgpt7aswzgfti
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